• 제목, 요약, 키워드: ginseng

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Overexpression of PgSQS1 Increases Ginsenoside Production and Negatively Affects Ginseng Growth Rate in Panax ginseng

  • Shim, Ju-Sun;Lee, Ok-Ran;Kim, Yu-Jin;Lee, Jung-Hye;Kim, Ju-Han;Jung, Dae-Young;In, Jun-Gyo;Lee, Beom-Soo;Yang, Deok-Chun
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.98-103
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    • 2010
  • The medicinal plant Panax ginseng (P. ginseng) contains various phytosterols and bioactive triterpene saponins (ginsenosides). Squalene synthase catalyzes the first committed step in ginsenoside biosynthesis. Transgenic plants of P. ginseng were generated by introducing the squalene synthase gene derived from P. ginseng. Adventitious roots of the transgenic ginseng grew best in B5 medium, and 2 g of inoculum secured an optimal growth rate. Two phytohormones, indolebutyric acid and 1-naphtalene acetic acid, increased root growth and decreased ginsenoside production. Treatment with two selected elicitors, chitosan and jasmonic acid, and a precursor of the isoprenoid pathway, mevalonic acid, enhanced ginsenoside production and retarded ginseng growth rate.

In situ analysis of chemical components induced by steaming between fresh ginseng, steamed ginseng, and red ginseng

  • In, Gyo;Ahn, Nam-Geun;Bae, Bong-Seok;Lee, Myoung-Woo;Park, Hee-Won;Jang, Kyoung Hwa;Cho, Byung-Goo;Han, Chang Kyun;Park, Chae Kyu;Kwak, Yi-Seong
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.361-369
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    • 2017
  • Background: The chemical constituents of Panax ginseng are changed by processing methods such as steaming or sun drying. In the present study, the chemical change of Panax ginseng induced by steaming was monitored in situ. Methods: Samples were separated from the same ginseng root by incision during the steaming process, for in situ monitoring. Sampling was sequentially performed in three stages; FG (fresh ginseng) ${\rightarrow}$ SG (steamed ginseng) ${\rightarrow}$ RG (red ginseng) and 60 samples were prepared and freeze dried. The samples were then analyzed to determine 43 constituents among three stages of P. ginseng. Results: The results showed that six malonyl-ginsenoside (Rg1, Rb1, Rb3, Rc, Rd, Rb2) and 15 amino acids were decreased in concentration during the steaming process. In contrast, ginsenoside-Rh1, 20(S)-Rg2, 20(S, R)-Rg3 and Maillard reaction product such as AF (arginine-fructose), AFG (arginine-fructose-glucose), and maltol were newly generated or their concentrations were increased. Conclusion: This study elucidates the dynamic changes in the chemical components of P. ginseng when the steaming process was induced. These results are thought to be helpful for quality control and standardization of herbal drugs using P. ginseng and they also provide a scientific basis for pharmacological research of processed ginseng (Red ginseng).

The world ginseng market and the ginseng (Korea)

  • Baeg, In-Ho;So, Seung-Ho
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2013
  • Ginseng is being distributed in 35 countries around the world and there are differences by each country in the distribution volume and amount. However, since there is no accurate statistics on production and distribution amount by each country, it is very difficult to predict the world ginseng market. Ginseng trading companies and governments are in desperate need of comprehensive data that shows the world ginseng market status for sales and marketing. For that reason, this study will look into the approximate size of the world ginseng market based on recent ginseng distribution amount by each country and production by major ginseng producing nations. In addition, the review sets an opportunity to check the status of ginseng (Korea) in the world and presents future direction by examining recent history of ginseng development in Korea, which is one of the world's largest ginseng distributers. Since ginseng is cultivated in limited areas due to its growth characteristics, ginseng distributing countries can be divided based on whether they grow it domestically or not. In general, four countries including South Korea, China, Canada, and the US are the biggest producers and their total production of fresh ginseng is approximately 79,769 tons which is more than 99% of 80,080 tons, the total ginseng production around the world. Ginseng is distributed to different countries in various forms such as fresh ginseng, dried ginseng, boiled and dried ginseng (Taekuksam), red ginseng and the related products, etc. and is consumed as food, dietary supplements, functional food, medical supplies, etc. Also, the world ginseng market including ginseng root and the processed products, is estimated to be worth $2,084 million. In particular, the size of the Korean market is $1,140 million which makes Korea the largest distributer in the world. Since the interests in alternative medicine and healthy food is increasing globally, the consumer market of ginseng with many features and the processed products are expected to expand continuously.

Molecular Identification of Korean Mountain Ginseng Using an Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS)

  • In, Jun-Gyo;Kim, Min-Kyeoung;Lee, Ok-Ran;Kim, Yu-Jin;Lee, Beom-Soo;Kim, Se-Young;Kwon, Woo-Seang;Yang, Deok-Chun
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.41-46
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    • 2010
  • Expensive herbs such as ginseng are always a possible target for fraudulent labeling. New mountain ginseng strains have occasionally been found deep within mountain areas and commercially traded at exorbitant prices. However, until now, no scientific basis has existed to distinguish such ginseng from commonly cultivated ginseng species other than by virtue of being found within deep mountain areas. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the internal transcribed spacer has been shown to be an appropriate method for the identification of the most popular species (Panax ginseng) in the Panax ginseng genus. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has been identified between three newly found mountain ginseng (KGD4, KGD5, and KW1) and already established Panax species. Specific PCR primers were designed from this SNP site within the sequence data and used to detect the mountain ginseng strains via multiplex PCR. The established multiplex-PCR method for the simultaneous detection of newly found mountain ginseng strains, Korean ginseng, and foreign ginseng in a single reaction was determined to be effective. This study is the first report of scientific discrimination of "mountain ginsengs" and describes an effective method of identification for fraud prevention and for uncovering the possible presence of other, cheaper ginseng species on the market.

Phytochemical Characteristics of Coffee Bean Treated by Coating of Ginseng Extract

  • Choi, Sang-Yoon;Hong, Hee-Do;Bae, Hye-Min;Choi, Chang-Sun;Kim, Kyung-Tack
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.436-441
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    • 2011
  • The principal objective of this study was to assess the instrumental and sensory characteristics of ginseng coffee with different ratios of the ingredients: type of coffee bean (Colombia, Brazil, and Indonesia), type of ginseng extract (white ginseng, red ginseng, and America ginseng) and concentration of ginseng extract (3, 6, and 9 w/v %). The sensory optimal condition of white ginseng coffee, red ginseng coffee and America ginseng coffee were as follows: 3% Indonesian coffee bean coated with 3% white ginseng extract, Colombian coffee bean coated with 6% red ginseng extract and Colombian coffee bean coated with 3% American ginseng extract, respectively. In particular, the Colombian coffee bean coated with 6% red ginseng extract had significantly higher scores than other samples in terms of flavor, taste, and overall preference. Additionally, the contents of total ginsenoside and total sugar and total phenolic compounds were also highest in the Colombian coffee bean coated with 6% red ginseng extract.