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Genetic Persistency of First Lactation Milk Yield Estimated Using Random Regression Model for Indian Murrah Buffaloes

  • Geetha, E.;Chakravarty, A.K.;Vinaya Kumar, K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.12
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    • pp.1696-1701
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    • 2006
  • A random regression model was applied for the first time for the analysis of test day records and to study the genetic persistency of first lactation milk yield of Indian Murrah buffaloes. Wilmink's Function was chosen to describe the shape of lactation curves. Heritabilities of test day milk yield varied from 0.33 to 0.58 in different test days. The highest heritability was found in the initial test day ($5^{th}$ day) milk yield. Genetic correlations among test day milk yields were higher in the initial test day milk yield and decreased when the test day interval was increased. The magnitude of genetic correlations between test day and 305 day milk yield varied from 0.25 to 0.99. The genetic persistencies of first lactation milk yield were estimated based on daily breeding values using two methods. $P_1$ is the genetic persistency estimated as a summation of the deviation of estimated daily breeding value on days to attain peak yield from each day after days to attain peak yield to different lactation days. $P_2$ is the genetic persistency estimated as the additional genetic yield (gained or lost) from days to attain peak yield to estimated breeding value on different lactation days relative to an average buffalo having the same yield on days to attain peak yield. The mean genetic persistency on 90, 120, 180, 240, 278 and 305 days in milk was estimated as -4.23, -21.67, -101.67, -229.57, -330.06 and -388.64, respectively by $P_1$, whereas by $P_2$ on same days in milk were estimated as -3.96 (-0.32 kg), -23.94 (-0.87 kg), -112.81 (-1.96 kg), -245.83 (-2.81 kg), -350.04 (-3.28 kg) and -407.58 (-3.40 kg) respectively. Higher magnitude of rank correlations indicated that the ranking of buffaloes based on their genetic persistency in both methods were similar for evaluation of genetic persistency of buffaloes. Based on the estimated range of genetic persistency three types of genetic persistency were identified. Genetic correlations among genetic persistency in different days in milk and between genetic persistencies on the same day in milk were very high. The genetic correlations between genetic persistency for different days in milk and estimated breeding value for 305 DIM was increased from 90 DIM to 180 DIM, and highest around 240 DIM which indicates a minimum of 240 days as an optimum first lactation length might be required for genetic evaluation of Indian Murrah buffaloes.

Genetic Diversity and Genetic Structure of Acer pseudosieboldianum Populations in South Korea Based on AFLP Markers (AFLP 마커를 이용한 당단풍나무 집단의 유전다양성과 유전구조)

  • Ahn, Jiyoung;Hong, Kyung-Nak;Baek, Seung-Hoon;Lee, Min-Woo;Lim, Hyo-In;Lee, Jei-Wan
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.105 no.4
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    • pp.414-421
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    • 2016
  • Fourteen Acer pseudosieboldianum populations in South Korea were used to estimate genetic diversity, genetic differentiation and genetic relationships using seven AFLP primer combinations. The average of effective alleles ($A_e$), the proportion of polymorphic loci (%P) and Shannon's diversity index (I) was 1.4, 82.2% and 0.358, respectively. The expected heterozygosity ($H_e$) under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was 0.231 and the expected heterozygosity (Hj) from Bayesian inference was 0.253. The level of genetic diversity was moderate compared to those of Genus Acer and lower than those of other species having similar ecological niche and life history. The inbreeding coefficient within populations ($F_{IS}$) from Bayesian method was 0.712 and it could be influenced by selfing or biparental inbreeding to induce homozygote excess. The level of genetic differentiation was 0.107 from AMOVA (${\Phi}_{ST}$) and 0.110 from Bayesian method (${\Phi}^{II}$). The genetic differentiation was lower than those of other species having similar ecological niche and life history. Ulleungdo population had the lowest level of genetic diversity and was genetically the most distinct population from others in the study. We consider that founder effect and genetic drift might be occurred to reduce genetic diversity and then the geographical isolation might interrupt gene flow to aggravate it.

Evaluation of Genetic Effects of Demographic Bottleneck in Muzzafarnagri Sheep from India Using Microsatellite Markers

  • Arora, R.;Bhatia, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2009
  • Genetic variability is an important component in the ability of populations to adapt in the face of environmental change. Severe human impacts reduced Muzzafarnagri sheep of India from 500,000 in 1972 to 10,989 in 1973-74. Here we report for the first time the effect of this population decline on levels of genetic variability at 13 FAO recommended ovine microsatellite loci and contrast levels of variability to that in a breed from the same geographical region, which differed in numbers, by an order of magnitude (Marwari sheep). Of the 13 loci, 100% were polymorphic in both breeds. A high degree of genetic variation was observed within populations in terms of both allele diversity (number of alleles per locus, >4) and gene diversity (expected heterozygosity, >0.5), which implied that there is still a substantial amount of genetic diversity at the nuclear loci in a declining population. Nevertheless, overall low number of alleles per locus and relatively less abundance of low frequency alleles in Muzzafarnagri sheep suggested that genetic variability has been comparatively reduced in this population. Bottleneck analysis indicated that a genetic bottleneck did not occur during the most recent decline. In addition, we found that the differentiation among populations was moderate ($F_{ST}$= 11.8%). This study on assessment of genetic effects of the population declines in ovines is a step towards identification of genetically impoverished or healthy populations, which could prove to be a useful tool to facilitate conservation planning in this important species of small ruminants.

The First Korean Cancer Genetic Counseling Program for Nurses (국내 종양유전상담 간호사를 위한 단기 교육프로그램 개발)

  • Choi, Kyung-Sook;Anderson, Gwen;Jun, Myung-Hee
    • The Journal of Korean Academic Society of Nursing Education
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.104-114
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    • 2006
  • Genetic knowledge for oncology nurses is important in Korea because oncologists are incorporating genetic counseling and genetic testing into their practice. The purpose of this paper is to describe our method of developing the first academic cancer genetic risk assessment and counseling course for Korean nurses. A one-week (non-credit) cancer genetics counseling program was constructed for master's level Korean oncology nurses. The course emphasized basic genetic concepts and principles the genetics of cancer; hereditary cancer syndromes; family history assessments; pedigree construction; risk calculation; surveillance recommendations and treatment options ethical, legal, social, and psychological issues inherent in genetic testing. The goals of this program are to: 1) provide a comprehensive knowledge base for nurses who are currently expanding their scope of practice into the genetic counseling role 2) introduce this knowledge to nurses who want to use it in their practice; and 3) provide cancer genetic knowledge and resources to Korean nursing faculty who plan to incorporate this knowledge into existing master's courses. This academically-based course is recognized as valuable by nurses, nursing faculty, and physicians. With this new knowledge nurses can begin toexpand their role in delivering comprehensive cancer care services.

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Current Issues and Tasks of Genetic Cancer Nursing in Korea (유전체학 시대의 한국 종양 유전 간호의 과제)

  • Jun, Myunghee;Choi, Kyung Sook;Shin, Gyeyoung
    • Asian Oncology Nursing
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.267-273
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: The purpose of this review article is to introduce how the Korean Society of Genetic Nursing (KSGN) has evolved and tried to translate genomic knowledge to nursing practice, and then to suggest the future role of genetic nurses in Korea. Methods: A literature review was performed and the current status of genetic counselling in Korea was explored. Then the educational and clinical experiences of the authors were incorporated. Finally, the main activities of Korean nursing for genetics were identified. Results: Two types of genetic counsellor certification have been issued in Korea: one is issued by the Korean Society of Genetic Medicine, another by the Korean Society of Breast Cancer since June 2011. A few Korean nursing researchers have continuously performed research related to genetic nursing and undertook several research projects funded by the government since 2003. In February 2011, KSGN was established and is now trying to establish further international networks. Conclusion: Nursing genetic experts should be trained to integrate all specialties for genetic counselling, so they can provide holistic genetic services including ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI).

Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Comus controversa Hemsley Using RAPD (RAPD에 의한 층층나무의 유전적 다양성과 집단구조)

  • Moon, Sung-Gi;Huh, Man-Kyu
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.175-179
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    • 2008
  • Cornus controversa is a long-lived woody species mostly distributed in East Asia. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to investigate the genetic diversity and population structure of Korean populations of this species. A high level of genetic variation was found in seven populations of C. controversa. The mean genetic diversity (H) was 0.222 across populations, varying from 0.200 to 0.238. Eighty of the 93 loci (86.0%) showed detectable polymorphism in at least one population. Total genetic diversity values ($H_T$) varied between 0.192 and 0.231, giving an average overall polymorphic loci of 0.212. The interlocus variation of genetic diversity within populations ($H_S$) was high (0.167). Mean of genetic diversity in C. controversa was higher than average values for species with similar life history traits. The sexual reproduction, perennial habitat, and longevity are proposed as possible factors contributing to high genetic diversity. On a per locus basis, the proportion of total genetic variation due to differences among populations ($G_{ST}$) ranged from 0.169 to 0.278 with a mean of 0.216, indicating that about 21.6% of the total genetic variation was among populations. An indirect estimate of the number of migrants per generation (Nm=1.893) indicated that gene flow was extensive among Korean populations of C. controversa.

Molecular Characterization of Selected Local and Exotic Cattle Using RAPD Marker

  • Khatun, M. Mahfuza;Hossain, Khondoker Moazzem;Rahman, S.M. Mahbubur
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.751-757
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    • 2012
  • In order to develop specific genetic markers and determine the genetic diversity of Bangladeshi native cattle (Pabna, Red Chittagong) and exotic breeds (Sahiwal), randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was performed using 12 primers. Genomic DNA was extracted from 20 cattle (local and exotic) blood samples and extracted DNA was observed by gel electrophoresis. Among the random primers three were matched and found to be polymorphic. Genetic relations between cattle's were determined by RAPD polymorphisms from a total of 66.67%. Statistical analysis of the data, estimating the genetic distances between cattle and sketching the cluster trees were estimated by using MEGA 5.05 software. Comparatively highest genetic distance (0.834) was found between RCC-82 and SL-623. The lowest genetic distance (0.031) was observed between M-1222 and M-5730. The genetic diversity of Red Chittagong and Sahiwal cattle was relatively higher for a prescribed breed. Adequate diversity in performance and adaptability can be exploited from the study results for actual improvement accruing to conservation and development of indigenous cattle resources.

Hereditary Dilated Cardiomyopathy: Recent Advances in Genetic Diagnostics

  • Park, Hyun-Young
    • Korean Circulation Journal
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    • v.47 no.3
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    • pp.291-298
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    • 2017
  • Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is the most common cause of heart failure in young adults and up to 50% of idiopathic DCM is thought to be caused by genetic mutations in candidate genes. Although a genetic diagnosis can confirm a clinical diagnosis of hereditary DCM, genetic testing has not been easily accessible due to genetic heterogeneity and complexity. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have recently been introduced, and genetic testing for multiple genes is currently available and more than 40 different genes have been associated with DCM. In Korea, the government has supported genetic diagnosis for patients with idiopathic DCM. When a targeted gene panel with NGS technology was used, the detection rate was about 40%. MYBPC3, LMNA, and MYH7 were the most frequently identified genes, and the pattern of causative genes was different from previous reports. In the analysis, a significant number of subjects (42.0%) had rare or novel unspecified variants in DCM candidate genes, which should be assessed as potential causative mutations. Developing a more comprehensive test panel with additional DCM genes and whole exome sequencing will improve the detection rate, and allow genetic testing to be an option for patients with idiopathic DCM. However, all genetic variations are not pathogenic mutations, and the majority of reported mutations in DCM are unique to a single family, which makes genetic data interpretation more difficult. Therefore, clinical features and familial history integration are needed to improve clinical decision making.

A Genetic Algorithm-based Scheduling Method for Job Shop Scheduling Problem (유전알고리즘에 기반한 Job Shop 일정계획 기법)

  • 박병주;최형림;김현수
    • Korean Management Science Review
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.51-64
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    • 2003
  • The JSSP (Job Shop Scheduling Problem) Is one of the most general and difficult of all traditional scheduling problems. The goal of this research is to develop an efficient scheduling method based on genetic algorithm to address JSSP. we design scheduling method based on SGA (Single Genetic Algorithm) and PGA (Parallel Genetic Algorithm). In the scheduling method, the representation, which encodes the job number, is made to be always feasible, initial population is generated through integrating representation and G&T algorithm, the new genetic operators and selection method are designed to better transmit the temporal relationships in the chromosome, and island model PGA are proposed. The scheduling method based on genetic algorithm are tested on five standard benchmark JSSPs. The results were compared with other proposed approaches. Compared to traditional genetic algorithm, the proposed approach yields significant improvement at a solution. The superior results indicate the successful Incorporation of generating method of initial population into the genetic operators.