• Title, Summary, Keyword: genetic

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Evaluation of Genetic Variation and Phylogenetic Relationship among North Indian Cattle Breeds

  • Sharma, Rekha;Pandey, A.K.;Singh, Y.;Prakash, B.;Mishra, B.P.;Kathiravan, P.;Singh, P.K.;Singh, G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.13-19
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    • 2009
  • In the present study, genetic analyses of diversity and differentiation were performed on four breeds of Indian zebu cattle (Bos indicus). In total, 181 animals belonging to Ponwar, Kherigarh, Gangatiri and Kenkatha breeds were genotyped for 20 cattle specific microsatellite markers. Mean number of alleles observed per locus (MNA) varied between 5.75 (Kenkatha) to 6.05 (Kherigarh). The observed and expected heterozygosity for the breeds varied from 0.48 (Gangatiri) to 0.58 (Kherigarh) and 0.65 (Kenkatha) to 0.70 (Kherigarh), respectively. $F_{IS}$ estimates of all the breeds indicated significant deficit of heterozygotes being 28.8%, 25.9%, 17.7% and 17.7% for Gangatiri, Ponwar, Kherigarh and Kenkatha, respectively. The $F_{ST}$ estimates demonstrated that 10.6% was the average genetic differentiation among the breeds. Nei's genetic distance DA and Cavalli- Sforza and Edwards Chord distance ($D_C$) and the phylogenetic tree constructed from these reflected the close genetic relationship of Gangatiri and Kenkatha, whereas Ponwar appears to be more distant.

Population Structure and Genetic Bottleneck Analysis of Ankleshwar Poultry Breed by Microsatellite Markers

  • Pandey, A.K.;Kumar, Dinesh;Sharma, Rekha;Sharma, Uma;Vijh, R.K.;Ahlawat, S.P.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.7
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    • pp.915-921
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    • 2005
  • Genetic variation at 25 microsatellite loci, population structure, and genetic bottleneck hypothesis were examined for Ankleshwar poultry population found in Gujrat, India. The estimates of genetic variability such as effective number of alleles and gene diversities revealed substantial genetic variation frequently displayed by microsatellite markers. The average polymorphism across the studied loci and the expected gene diversity in the population were 6.44 and 0.670${\pm}$0.144, respectively. The population was observed to be significantly differentiated into different groups, and showed fairly high level of inbreeding (f = 0.240${\pm}$0.052) and global heterozygote deficit. The bottleneck analysis indicated the absence of genetic bottleneck in the past. The study revealed that the Ankleshwar poultry breed needs appropriate genetic management for its conservation and improvement. The information generated in this study may further be utilized for studying differentiation and relationships among different Indian poultry breeds.

Assessment of Genetic Diversity, Relationships and Structure among Korean Native Cattle Breeds Using Microsatellite Markers

  • Suh, Sangwon;Kim, Young-Sin;Cho, Chang-Yeon;Byun, Mi-Jeong;Choi, Seong-Bok;Ko, Yeoung-Gyu;Lee, Chang Woo;Jung, Kyoung-Sub;Bae, Kyoung Hun;Kim, Jae-Hwan
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.11
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    • pp.1548-1553
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    • 2014
  • Four Korean native cattle (KNC) breeds-Hanwoo, Chikso, Heugu, and Jeju black-are entered in the Domestic Animal Diversity Information System of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationships and population structure of these KNC breeds (n = 120) and exotic breeds (Holstein and Charolais, n = 56). Thirty microsatellite loci recommended by the International Society for Animal Genetics/FAO were genotyped. These genotypes were used to determine the allele frequencies, allelic richness, heterozygosity and polymorphism information content per locus and breed. Genetic diversity was lower in Heugu and Jeju black breeds. Phylogenetic analysis, Factorial Correspondence Analysis and genetic clustering grouped each breed in its own cluster, which supported the genetic uniqueness of the KNC breeds. These results will be useful for conservation and management of KNC breeds as animal genetic resources.

Estimation of Genetic Parameters for Direct and Maternal Effects on Litter Size and Teat Numbers in Korean Seedstock Swine Population

  • Song, Guy-Bong;Lee, Jun-Ho;Lee, Deuk-Hwan
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.52 no.3
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    • pp.187-190
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    • 2010
  • The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for total number of born (TNB), number of born alive (NBA) and teat numbers (TN) of Landrace and Yorkshire breeds in Korean swine population using multiple trait animal model procedures. Total numbers of 4,653 records for teat numbers and 8,907 records for TNB and NBA collected from 2004 to 2008 on imported breeding pigs and their litter size records were used in this study. To find the appropriate model for estimation of genetic parameters (heritabilities and genetic correlations), five statistical models (two models for reproductive traits, two models for teat numbers, one model for combining these traits) considering only direct additive genetic effects, including maternal effects were used and Akaike information criteria (AIC) of each two models for reproductive traits and teat trait were compared. The means and standard deviations of TNB, NBA, and TN were $11.52{\pm}3.34$, $10.55{\pm}2.96$ and $14.30{\pm}0.83$, respectively. Estimated heritabilities for TNB and NBA traits using the model which considered only additive genetic effect were low (0.06 and 0.05, respectively). However, estimated heritabilities considering maternal genetic effects were a little bit higher than that of the model considering only additive genetic effect (0.09 for TNB and NBA, respectively). Estimated heritability for TN using the model which considered only additive genetic effect was 0.40. However, estimated heritability of direct genetic effects from a model considering maternal genetic effect was high (0.60). All results of AIC statistics, the models considering maternal effect was more appropriate than the models considering only additive genetic effect. Genetic correlations of direct additive genetic effect between litter size (TNB, NBA) and teat numbers were low (-0.18 and -0.14, respectively). However, genetic correlations of maternal effect between litter size (TNB, NBA) and teat numbers were a little bit higher than those of direct additive genetic effect (0.08 and 0.16, respectively).

Genetic Structure and Differentiation of Three Indian Goat Breeds

  • Dixit, S.P.;Verma, N.K.;Aggarwal, R.A.K.;Kumar, Sandeep;Chander, Ramesh;Vyas, M.K.;Singh, K.P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.9
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    • pp.1234-1240
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    • 2009
  • Gene flow, genetic structure and differentiation of Kutchi, Mehsana and Sirohi breeds of goat from North-Western India were evaluated based on 25 microsatellite markers so as to support breed conservation and improvement decisions. The microsatellite genotyping was carried out using an automated DNA sequencer. The gene diversity across the studied loci for the Kutchi breed varied from 0.57 (ILST 065) to 0.93 (OarFCB 304, OMHC 1, ILSTS 058) with an overall mean of 0.79${\pm}$0.02. The corresponding values for Mehsana and Sirohi breeds were 0.16 (ILST 008) to 0.93 (OMHC 1, ILSTS 058) with an average of 0.76${\pm}$0.04, and 0.50 (ILSTS 029) to 0.94 (ILSTS 058) with an average of 0.78${\pm}$0.02, respectively. The Mehsana breed had lowest gene diversity among the 3 breeds studied. All the populations showed an overall significant heterozygote deficit ($F_{is}$). The Fis values were 0.26, 0.14 and 0.36 for Kutchi, Mehsana and Sirohi goat breeds, respectively. Kutchi and Mehsana were more differentiated (16%) followed by Mehsana and Sirohi (13%).The measures of standard genetic distance between pairs of breeds indicated that the lowest genetic distance was between Kutchi and Sirohi breeds (0.73) and the largest genetic distance was between Mehsana and Kutchi (1.0) followed by Sirohi and Mehsana (0.75) breeds. Mehsana and Kutchi are distinct breeds and this was revealed by the estimated genetic distance between them. All measures of genetic variation revealed substantial genetic variation in each of the populations studied, thereby showing good scope for their further improvement.