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8q24 rs4242382 Polymorphism is a Risk Factor for Prostate Cancer among Multi-Ethnic Populations: Evidence from Clinical Detection in China and a Meta-analysis

  • Zhao, Cheng-Xiao;Liu, Ming;Xu, Yong;Yang, Kuo;Wei, Dong;Shi, Xiao-Hong;Yang, Fan;Zhang, Yao-Guang;Wang, Xin;Liang, Si-Ying;Zhao, Fan;Zhang, Yu-Rong;Wang, Na-Na;Chen, Xin;Sun, Liang;Zhu, Xiao-Quan;Yuan, Hui-Ping;Zhu, Ling;Yang, Yi-Ge;Tang, Lei;Jiao, Hai-Yan;Huo, Zheng-Hao;Wang, Jian-Ye;Yang, Ze
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.19
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    • pp.8311-8317
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    • 2014
  • Background: Evidence supporting an association between the 8q24 rs4242382-A polymorphism and prostate cancer (PCa) risk has been reported in North American and Europe populations, though data from Asian populations remain limited. We therefore investigated this association by clinical detection in China, and meta-analysis in Asian, Caucasian and African-American populations. Materials and Methods: Blood samples and clinical information were collected from ethnically Chinese men from Northern China with histologically-confirmed PCa (n=335) and from age-matched normal controls (n=347). The 8q24 (rs4242382) gene polymorphism was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-high-resolution melting analysis. We initially analyzed the associations between the risk allele and PCa and clinical covariates. A meta-analysis was then performed using genotyping data from a total of 1,793 PCa cases and 1,864 controls from our study and previously published studies in American and European populations, to determine the association between PCa and risk genotype. Results: The incidence of the risk allele was higher in PCa cases than controls (0.222 vs 0.140, $P=7.3{\times}10^{-5}$), suggesting that the 8q24 rs4242382-A polymorphism was associated with PCa risk in Chinese men. The genotypes in subjects were in accordance with a dominant genetic model (ORadj=2.03, 95%CI: 1.42-2.91, $Padj=1.1{\times}10^{-4}$). Presence of the risk allele rs4242382-A at 8q24 was also associated with clinical covariates including age at diagnosis ${\geq}65$ years, prostate specific antigen >10 ng/ml, Gleason score <8, tumor stage and aggressive PCa, compared with the non-risk genotype ($P=4.6{\times}10^{-5}-3.0{\times}10^{-2}$). Meta-analysis confirmed the association between 8q24 rs4242382-A polymorphism and PCa risk (OR=1.62, 95%CI: 1.39-1.88, $P=1.0{\times}10^{-5}$) across Asian, Caucasian and African American populations. Conclusions: The replicated data suggest that the 8q24 rs4242382-A variation might be associated with increased PCa susceptibility in Asian, Caucasian and African American populations. These results imply that this polymorphism may be a useful risk biomarker for PCa in multi-ethnic populations.

Variation of Lignan Content for Sesame Seed Across Origin and Growing Environments (참깨 원산지 및 재배지역에 따른 리그난 함량 변이)

  • Kim, Sung-Up;Oh, Ki-Won;Lee, Myoung-Hee;Lee, Byoung-Kyu;Pae, Suk-Bok;Hwang, Chung-Dong;Kim, Myung-Sik;Baek, In-Youl;Lee, Jeong-Dong
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.59 no.2
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    • pp.151-161
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    • 2014
  • Sesame lignan, including sesamin and sesamolin has been reported to have various content according to accessions and environmental factors. The objective of this study were to analyze the lignan variation of 143 sesame accessions from core collection in Korea and to test the effects of growing years and locations on lignan and lipid content of Korea sesame elite lines. The results showed that the core sesame germplasm in Korea has broad variation of lignan content from 2.33 to 12.17 mg/g with an average 8.18 mg/g. Among tested sesame accessions, the IT184615 had the highest lignan content of as 12.17 mg/g. So this accession will be a good genetic resource for developing a high lignan sesame variety. The sesamin and sesamolin content for sesame accessions across origin had significant difference. The average lignan content of accessions collected from Russia (10.0 mg/g) and Nepal (9.08 mg/g) were relatively higher than other countries. The sesamin and sesamolin content for sesame accessions across seed coat color had significant difference. The average lignan content of sesame with white, brown and black seed coat color was 8.61, 7.51, and 5.49 mg/g, respectively. The variation of lignan and lipid content was significantly different across elite lines, locations and growing years. Therefore, it is important to find sesame accessions having high lignan content with environmental stability.

The Analysis on the Relationship between Firms' Exposures to SNS and Stock Prices in Korea (기업의 SNS 노출과 주식 수익률간의 관계 분석)

  • Kim, Taehwan;Jung, Woo-Jin;Lee, Sang-Yong Tom
    • Asia pacific journal of information systems
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.233-253
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    • 2014
  • Can the stock market really be predicted? Stock market prediction has attracted much attention from many fields including business, economics, statistics, and mathematics. Early research on stock market prediction was based on random walk theory (RWT) and the efficient market hypothesis (EMH). According to the EMH, stock market are largely driven by new information rather than present and past prices. Since it is unpredictable, stock market will follow a random walk. Even though these theories, Schumaker [2010] asserted that people keep trying to predict the stock market by using artificial intelligence, statistical estimates, and mathematical models. Mathematical approaches include Percolation Methods, Log-Periodic Oscillations and Wavelet Transforms to model future prices. Examples of artificial intelligence approaches that deals with optimization and machine learning are Genetic Algorithms, Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Neural Networks. Statistical approaches typically predicts the future by using past stock market data. Recently, financial engineers have started to predict the stock prices movement pattern by using the SNS data. SNS is the place where peoples opinions and ideas are freely flow and affect others' beliefs on certain things. Through word-of-mouth in SNS, people share product usage experiences, subjective feelings, and commonly accompanying sentiment or mood with others. An increasing number of empirical analyses of sentiment and mood are based on textual collections of public user generated data on the web. The Opinion mining is one domain of the data mining fields extracting public opinions exposed in SNS by utilizing data mining. There have been many studies on the issues of opinion mining from Web sources such as product reviews, forum posts and blogs. In relation to this literatures, we are trying to understand the effects of SNS exposures of firms on stock prices in Korea. Similarly to Bollen et al. [2011], we empirically analyze the impact of SNS exposures on stock return rates. We use Social Metrics by Daum Soft, an SNS big data analysis company in Korea. Social Metrics provides trends and public opinions in Twitter and blogs by using natural language process and analysis tools. It collects the sentences circulated in the Twitter in real time, and breaks down these sentences into the word units and then extracts keywords. In this study, we classify firms' exposures in SNS into two groups: positive and negative. To test the correlation and causation relationship between SNS exposures and stock price returns, we first collect 252 firms' stock prices and KRX100 index in the Korea Stock Exchange (KRX) from May 25, 2012 to September 1, 2012. We also gather the public attitudes (positive, negative) about these firms from Social Metrics over the same period of time. We conduct regression analysis between stock prices and the number of SNS exposures. Having checked the correlation between the two variables, we perform Granger causality test to see the causation direction between the two variables. The research result is that the number of total SNS exposures is positively related with stock market returns. The number of positive mentions of has also positive relationship with stock market returns. Contrarily, the number of negative mentions has negative relationship with stock market returns, but this relationship is statistically not significant. This means that the impact of positive mentions is statistically bigger than the impact of negative mentions. We also investigate whether the impacts are moderated by industry type and firm's size. We find that the SNS exposures impacts are bigger for IT firms than for non-IT firms, and bigger for small sized firms than for large sized firms. The results of Granger causality test shows change of stock price return is caused by SNS exposures, while the causation of the other way round is not significant. Therefore the correlation relationship between SNS exposures and stock prices has uni-direction causality. The more a firm is exposed in SNS, the more is the stock price likely to increase, while stock price changes may not cause more SNS mentions.

Antiobesity Effect of Citrus Peel Extract Fermented with Aspergillus oryzae (Aspergillus oryzae로 생물전환한 감귤박의 항비만 효과)

  • Jeon, Hyun Joo;Yu, Sun Nyoung;Kim, Sang Hun;Park, Seul Ki;Choi, Hyeun Deok;Kim, Kwang Yeon;Lee, Sun Yi;Chun, Sung Sik;Ahn, Soon Cheo
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.24 no.8
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    • pp.827-836
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    • 2014
  • There is a rising trend in obesity due to various factors, including changes in eating habits, lack of exercise, and genetic and psychological factors. Citrus peel has been reported to prevent obesity via antioxidative, antihypertensive, and LDL cholesterol-lowering effects. This study investigated the effects of citrus peel extract fermented with or without Aspergillus oryzae in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. The animals were divided into four groups: a high-fat diet group (HFD), a normal fat diet (NFD) group, a citrus peel extract (CP) group, and a citrus peel extract fermented with A. oryzae (CPA) group. The citrus peel extract improved lipid metabolism and weight loss in the high-fat diet-induced obese mouse model. As expected, the body weight was higher in the HFD group compared with the NFD, CP, and CPA groups. However, the concentrations of total cholesterol (TG) and triglyceride (TC) in the serum and liver of the CP and CPA groups were lower than in the HFD group. There were no significant differences in the HDL cholesterol concentration among the groups. Taken together, our results suggest that extract of citrus peel biotransformed with A. oryzae had more antiobesity activity than citrus peel not transformed by A. oryzae through the fermentation of metabolites.

Exonic SNP (rs7144, 3’-UTR) in CD46 Molecule and Complement Regulatory Protein (CD46) Gene Associated with Excess Syndrome to Categorize Korean Bronchial Asthma Patients (한국인 기관지 천식 허증(虛證), 실증(實證) 환자와 CD46 유전자 다형성과의 관계)

  • Lee, Mei;Baek, Hyun-jung;Park, Eui-keun;Kim, Kwan-il;Lee, Beom-joon;Kim, Su-kang;Chung, Joo-ho;Kim, Jin-ju;Kim, Mi-a;Jung, Hee-jae;Jung, Sung-ki
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.547-561
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    • 2015
  • Objectives In this study, we divided Korean asthma patients into excess syndrome or deficiency syndrome groups according to clinical phenotype. Genetic analysis was conducted to investigate the association of exonic SNPs in the CD46 gene polymorphism with the clinical phenotype based on the differentiation syndrome of the bronchial asthma patients.Methods There were 95 healthy patients (control group) and 53 asthma patients. (The deficiency syndrome group included 24 and the excess syndrome group 29). We searched the exonic areas of the CD46 gene in the NCBI website SNPs with <0.01 minor allele frequency (MAF) and <0.01 heterozygosity. We finally selected two SNPs: rs138843816, Ser13Phe and rs7144, 3’-UTR. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was calculated using SNPStats.Results There were significant differences in the codominant 1 model and the dominant model between the healthy group and the asthma group. There were significant differences between deficiency syndrome group and the excess syndrome group in the genotype frequencies and in the codominant 1 model, the dominant model, and the log-additive model. The allele frequency of rs7144C showed a significant difference between the deficiency syndrome group and the excess syndrome group. Two-SNP haplotype analysis showed a significant difference in frequency in the deficiency syndrome group and in the excess syndrome group. There were significant differences between the healthy group and the excess syndrome group in the codominant 1 model, the dominant model, and the log-additive model. The frequency of the rs7144 C allele exhibited a significant difference in the demonstration. SNP haplotype analysis between the healthy group and the excess syndrome group showed a significant difference in the frequency of the CT haplotype and the CC haplotype.Conclusions The results indicate that two CD46 SNPs (rs138843816, Ser13Phe and rs7144, 3′–UTR) might be associated with the symptomatic excess syndrome in Korean asthma patients.

Polygenic Association of ACE and ACTN3 Polymorphisms with Korean Power Performance (ACE와 ACTN3의 다중유전형질과 근력운동 경기력간의 관계)

  • Kim, Chul-Hyun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.398-406
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    • 2012
  • This study aimed to examine whether the polygenic profile of ACE ID and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms is associated with muscle power performance in Korean athletes. For this study, 106 top-class power athletes (top-class group), 158 elite power athletes (elite-class group), and 676 healthy adults (control) aged 18-39 yrs were recruited and their genotypes were analyzed. The top-class group showed higher frequencies of the II genotype and I allele in ACE, as well as higher frequencies of the RR genotype and R allele in ACTN3 (top-class vs. control: 41.4% vs. 32.1% for II genotype, 67.1% vs. 57.7% for I allele, p<0.05; 42.3% vs. 29.0% for RR genotype, 65.3% vs. 54.8% for I allele, p<0.05). In the polygenic profile, the top-class group had significantly higher frequencies of combined-II/ID+RR/RX genotype than the control group (top-class vs. control: 82.9% vs. 66.7% for II/ID+RR/RX, p<0.05), and there was even a sharp increase in total genotype score (TGS) in this group compared to the elite-class and control groups ($66{\pm}0.9$ vs. $58{\pm}1.9$ vs. $56{\pm}2.3$, p<0.05). The combined-II/ID+RR/RX genotype showed the possibility of succussion in the top-class muscle power performance with an odds ratio of 2.3 (CI:1.4-4.1, p<0.05). These results suggested that ACE and ACTN3 need to interact with each other to affect muscle-power performance in an additive form. Furthermore, the polygenic profile of ACE and ACTN3 can predict muscle performance with high success in a homogeneous dominant combined genotype (II/ID+RR/RX). A further study could identify and combine other genes into ACE and ACTN3 for muscle strength.

Estimation of Linkage Disequilibrium and Effective Population Size using Whole Genome Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Hanwoo (한우에서 전장의 유전체 정보를 활용한 연관불평형 및 유효집단크기 추정에 관한 연구)

  • Cho, Chung-Il;Lee, Joon-Ho;Lee, Deuk-Hwan
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.366-372
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to estimate the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and effective population size using whole genomic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) genotyped by DNA chip in Hanwoo. Using the blood samples of 35 young bulls born from 2005 to 2008 and their progenies (N=253) in a Hanwoo nucleus population collected from Hanwoo Improvement Center, 51,582 SNPs were genotyped using Bovine SNP50 chips. A total of 40,851 SNPs were used in this study after elimination of SNPs with a missing genotyping rate of over 10 percent and monomorphic SNPs (10,730 SNPs). The total autosomal genome length, measured as the sum of the longest syntenic pairs of SNPs by chromosome, was 2,541.6 Mb (Mega base pairs). The average distances of all adjacent pairs by each BTA ranged from 0.55 to 0.74 cM. Decay of LD showed an exponential trend with physical distance. The means of LD ($r^2$) among syntenic SNP pairs were 0.136 at a range of 0-0.1 Mb in physical distance and 0.06 at a range of 0.1-0.2 Mb. When these results were used for Luo's formula, about 2,000 phenotypic records were found to be required to achieve power > 0.9 to detect 5% QTL in the population of Hanwoo. As a result of estimating effective population size by generation in Hanwoo, the estimated effective population size for the current status was 84 heads and the estimate of effective population size for 50 generations of ancestors was 1,150 heads. The average decreasing rates of effective population size by generation were 9.0% at about five generations and 17.3% at the current generation. The main cause of the rapid decrease in effective population size was considered to be the intensive use of a few prominent sires since the application of artificial insemination technology in Korea. To increase and/or sustain the effective population size, the selection of various proven bulls and mating systems that consider genetic diversity are needed.

Association of Six Susceptibility Loci with Prostate Cancer in Northern Chinese Men

  • Zhang, Yu-Rong;Xu, Yong;Yang, Kuo;Liu, Ming;Wei, Dong;Zhang, Yao-Guang;Shi, Xiao-Hong;Wang, Jian-Ye;Yang, Fan;Wang, Xin;Liang, Si-Ying;Zhao, Cheng-Xiao;Wang, Fei;Chen, Xin;Sun, Liang;Zhu, Xiao-Quan;Zhu, Ling;Yang, Yi-Ge;Tang, Lei;Jiao, Hai-Yan;Huo, Zheng-Hao;Yang, Ze
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.12
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    • pp.6273-6276
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    • 2012
  • Background/Aim: Six prostate cancer (PCa) susceptibility loci were identified in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in populations of European decent. However, the associations of these 6 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with PCa has remained tobe clarified in men in Northern China. This study aimed to explore the loci associated with PCa risk in a Northern Chinese population. Methods: Blood samples and clinical information of 289 PCa patients and 288 controls from Beijing and Tianjin were collected. All risk SNPs were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-high resolution melting curve technology and gene sequencing. Associations between PCa and clinical covariates (age at diagnosis, prostate-specific antigen [PSA], Gleason score, tumor stage, and level of aggressiveness) and frequencies of alleles and genotypes of these SNPs were analyzed using genetic statistics. Results: Among the candidate SNPs, 11p15 (rs7127900, A) was associated with PCa risk (P = 0.02, odds ratio [OR] = 1.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09-2.46). Genotypes showed differences between cases and controls on 11p15 (rs7127900, A), 11q13 (rs7931342, T), and HNF1B (rs4430796, A) (P = 0.03, P = 0.01, and P = 0.04, respectively). The genotype TG on 11q13 (rs7931342, T) was positively associated with an increased Gleason score (P = 0.04, OR = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.02-4.55). Patients carrying TG on 17q24 (rs1859962, G) were negatively associated with an increased body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.03, OR = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.21-0.92) while those with AG on HNF1B (rs4430796, A) were more likely to have PSA increase (P = 0.002). Conclusion: Our study suggests that 11p15 (rs7127900, A) could be a susceptibility locus associated with PCa in Northern Chinese. Genotype TG on 11q13 (rs7931342, T) could be related to an increased Gleason score, AG on HNF1B (rs4430796, A) could be associated with PSA increase, and TG on 17q24 (rs1859962, G) could be negatively associated with an increased BMI in Chinese men with PCa.

Validity Test for Molecular Markers Associated with Resistance to Phytophthora Root Rot in Chili Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) (고추의 역병 저항성과 연관된 분자표지의 효용성 검정)

  • Lee, Won-Phil;Lee, Jun-Dae;Han, Jung-Heon;Kang, Byoung-Cheorl;Yoon, Jae-Bok
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.64-72
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    • 2012
  • Phytophthora root rot has been causing a serious yield loss in pepper production. Since 2004, the year in which commercial cultivars resistant to the disease were firstly commercialized, it has been necessary to introduce the resistance into domestic pepper cultivars for dried red pepper. Therefore, developing molecular markers linked to the resistance is required for an accurate selection of resistant plants and increasing breeding efficiency. Until now, several markers associated with the major dominant gene resistant to Phytophthora root rot have been reported but they have some serious limitations for their usage. In this study, we aimed to develop molecular markers linked to the major dominant gene that can be used for almost of all genetic resources resistant to Phytophthora root rot. Two segregating $F_2$ populations derived from a 'Subicho' ${\times}$ 'CM334' combination and a commercial cultivar 'Dokyacheongcheong' were used to develop molecular markers associated with the resistance. After screening 1,024 AFLP primer combinations with bulked segregant analysis, three AFLP (AFLP1, AFLP2, and AFLP3) markers were identified and converted into three CAPS markers (M1-CAPS, M2-CAPS, and M3-CAPS), respectively. Among them, M3-CAPS marker was further studied in ten resistants, fourteen susceptibles, five hybrids and 53 commercial cultivars. As a result, M3-CAPS marker was more fitted to identify Phytophthora resistance than previously reported P5-SNAP and Phyto5.2-SCAR markers. The result indicated that the M3-CAPS marker will be useful for resistance breeding to Phytophthora root rot in chili pepper.

A study on the smile of Korean Youth compared with twenty years ago (20년전과 비교한 한국청년의 미소 변화에 관한 연구)

  • Beom, Seung-Gyun;Jung, Ji-Hye;Kim, Tae-Young;Lee, Kyung-Eun;Dong, Jin-Keun
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.50 no.3
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    • pp.162-168
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: Teeth are generally exposed when people smiling. Moreover, the exposed teeth and soft tissue when smiling becomes an important guideline for esthetically prosthetic restoration. This research is to compare and find out differences of Korean young men's smile living in presence and twenty years ago. Materials and methods: Subjects, 100 young men (50 male and 50 female), were required about several aspects; normally developed physical condition, no psychological or genetic disorders, a fine face with no loss of teeth, no experience in orthodontic or prosthetic treatment, relatively normal occlusion, aged between 20-29. The photos of the subject at rest position and front face when fully smiled were taken three times. 100 photos (50 male and 50 female) were chosen at random from the 240 university students' smile photos taken by Yoon and his colleagues in 1991. By Hulsey's method of measuring smile, several factors; the change of upper lip curvature, the change of the relation between the upper lip and teeth, parallelism between Mx. incisor and lower lip, contact relation between Mx. incisor and lower lip and teeth displayed in a smile, were measured and analyzed. Meanwhile, ten dentists assessed aesthetic evaluation about men and women's smile for twice and recorded and compared smile score. The -test (P<.05) was used to compare the measured value. The difference of smile score was analyzed by t-test (P<.05). Results: The smile score calculated in 2011 (60.22) was higher than that of 1991 (52.80). Among five measurement categories, the noticeable difference was distinguished from two factors; the change of upper lip curvature and contact relation between Mx. incisor and lower lip. Conclusion: The Korean young men's smile has been considerably improved for twenty years. And it is found that the change of upper lip curvature plays an important role, that is, the smile formed with an ascended labial commissure has been increased significantly.