• Title, Summary, Keyword: generalized estimation equation

### Generalized kernel estimating equation for panel estimation of small area unemployment rates (소지역 실업률의 패널추정을 위한 일반화커널추정방정식)

• Shim, Jooyong;Kim, Youngwon;Hwang, Changha
• Journal of the Korean Data and Information Science Society
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• v.24 no.6
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• pp.1199-1210
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• 2013
• The high unemployment rate is one of the major problems in most countries nowadays. Hence, the demand for small area labor statistics has rapidly increased over the past few years. However, since sample surveys for producing official statistics are mainly designed for large areas, it is difficult to produce reliable statistics at the small area level due to small sample sizes. Most of existing studies about the small area estimation are related with the estimation of parameters based on cross-sectional data. By the way, since many official statistics are repeatedly collected at a regular interval of time, for instance, monthly, quarterly, or yearly, we need an alternative model which can handle this type of panel data. In this paper, we derive the generalized kernel estimating equation which can model time-dependency among response variables and handle repeated measurement or panel data. We compare the proposed estimating equation with the generalized linear model and the generalized estimating equation through simulation, and apply it to estimating the unemployment rates of 25 areas in Gyeongsangnam-do and Ulsan for 2005.

### ON THE STABILITY OF RECIPROCAL-NEGATIVE FERMAT'S EQUATION IN QUASI-β-NORMED SPACES

• Kang, Dongseung;Kim, Hoewoon B.
• The Pure and Applied Mathematics
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• v.26 no.2
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• pp.85-97
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• 2019
• In this paper we introduce the reciprocal-negative Fermat's equation induced by the famous equation in the Fermat's Last Theorem, establish the general solution in the simplest cases and the differential solution to the equation, and investigate, then, the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability in a $quasi-{\beta}-normed$ space with both the direct estimation method and the fixed point approach.

### Estimation of characteristic parameters of refrigerants by group contribution method (집단 기여법에 의한 냉매의 특성인자 예측)

• Kim, Y.I.
• Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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• v.11 no.1
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• pp.125-132
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• 1999
• Studies are being done to replace conventional refrigerants with alternatives that have low or no ozone depletion and greenhouse warming Potentials, yet possess appropriate pro perties for a refrigeration cycle. To achieve this goal, a consistent set of thermodynamic properties of the working fluid is required. A common problem with the possible alternative refrigerants is that sufficient experimental data do not exist, thus making it difficult to develp complete equations of state that can predict properties in all regions including the vapor-liquid equilibrium. One solution is the use of the generalized equation of state correlations that can predict thermodynamic properties with a minimum number of characteristic parameters. Characteristic parameters required for the generalized equation of state are, in general, critical temperature, critical pressure, critical volume and normal boiling temperature. In this study, estimation of these characteristic parameters of refrigerants by group contribution method is developed.

### Small Area Estimation via Generalized Estimating Equations and the Panel Analysis of Unemployment Rates (일반화추정방정식을 활용한 소지역 추정과 실업률패널분석)

• Yeo, In-Kwon;Son, Kyoung-Jin;Kim, Young-Won
• The Korean Journal of Applied Statistics
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• v.21 no.4
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• pp.665-674
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• 2008
• Most of existing studies about the small area estimation deal with the estimation of parameters based on cross-sectional data. However, since many official statistics are repeatedly collected at a regular interval of time, for instance, monthly, quarterly, or yearly, we need an alternative model which can handle characteristics of these kinds of data. In this paper, we investigate the generalized estimating equation which can model time-dependency among response variables and is useful to analyze repeated measurement or longitudinal data. We compare with the generalized linear model and the generalized estimating equation through the estimation of unemployment rates of 25 areas in Gyeongsangnam-do and Ulsan. The data consist of the status of employment and some covariates from January to December 2005.

### A Generalized Calorie Estimation Algorithm Using 3-Axis Accelerometer

• Choi, Jee-Hyun;Lee, Jeong-Whan;Shin, Kun-Soo
• Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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• v.27 no.6
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• pp.301-309
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• 2006
• The main purpose of this study is to derive a regression equation that predicts the individual differences in activity energy expenditure (AEE) using accelerometer during different types of activity. Two subject groups were recruited separately in time: One is a homogeneous group of 94 healthy young adults with age ranged from $20\sim35$ yrs. The other subject group has a broad spectrum of physical characteristics in terms of age and fat ratio. 226 adolescents and adults of age ranged from $12\sim57$ yrs and fat ratio from $4.1\sim39.7%$ were in the second group. The wireless 3-axis accelerometers were developed and carefully fixed at the waist belt level. Simultaneously the total calorie expenditure was measured by gas analyzer. Each subject performed walking and running at speeds of 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, 6.5, 7.5, and 8.5 km/hr. A generalized sensor-independent regression equation for AEE was derived. The regression equation was developed fur walking and running. The regression coefficients were predicted as functions of physical factors-age, gender, height, and weight with multivariable regression analysis. The generalized calorie estimation equation predicts AEE with correlation coefficient of 0.96 and the average accuracy of the accumulated calorie was $89.6{\pm}7.9%$.

### Resonant Frequency Estimation of Reradiation Interference at MF from Power Transmission Lines Based on Generalized Resonance Theory

• Bo, Tang;Bin, Chen;Zhibin, Zhao;Zheng, Xiao;Shuang, Wang
• Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology
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• v.10 no.3
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• pp.1144-1153
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• 2015
• The resonant mechanism of reradiation interference (RRI) over 1.7MHz from power transmission lines cannot be obtained from IEEE standards, which are based on researches of field intensity. Hence, the resonance is ignored in National Standards of protecting distance between UHV power lines and radio stations in China, which would result in an excessive redundancy of protecting distance. Therefore, based on the generalized resonance theory, we proposed the idea of applying model-based parameter estimation (MBPE) to estimate the generalized resonance frequency of electrically large scattering objects. We also deduced equation expressions of the generalized resonance frequency and its quality factor Q in a lossy open electromagnetic system, i.e. an antenna-transmission line system in this paper. Taking the frequency band studied by IEEE and the frequency band over 1.7 MHz as object, we established three models of the RRI from transmission lines, namely the simplified line model, the tower line model considering cross arms and the line-surface mixed model. With the models, we calculated the scattering field of sampling points with equal intervals using method of moments, and then inferred expressions of Padé rational function. After calculating the zero-pole points of the Padé rational function, we eventually got the estimation of the RRI’s generalized resonant frequency. Our case studies indicate that the proposed estimation method is effective for predicting the generalized resonant frequency of RRI in medium frequency (MF, 0.3~3 MHz) band over 1.7 MHz, which expands the frequency band studied by IEEE.

### Transition in Living Arrangement and Life Satisfaction in Old Age (노년기 거주형태 변화와 삶의 만족도)

• Baik, Ok Mi
• The Journal of the Convergence on Culture Technology
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• v.4 no.4
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• pp.301-308
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• 2018
• This study examined the relationship between transition in living arrangement and life satisfaction outcomes among older adults in Korea. This study utilized the secondary data of 2 waves(2005-2011) of a Korean Retirement and Income Study from the National Pension Research Institute. This study categorized living arrangement transition over time into 16 categories and used generalized the estimation equation(GEE) modeling to examine the relationship between living arrangement transition group membership and life satisfaction. The results showed that transition in living arrangement in old age was partly and significantly associated with life satisfaction in later life. In particular, the best living arrangement type in older adults in terms of life satisfaction was the coresidence with spouse compared with residence alone or residence with their children. The group of residence with their children was not related to higer satisfaction. More research is needed to explore the mechanism behind older people's trajectory in transition in living arrangement.

### Bootstrap Estimation for GEE Models (일반화추정방정식(GEE)에 대한 부스트랩의 적용)

• Park, Chong-Sun;Jeon, Yong-Moon
• The Korean Journal of Applied Statistics
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• v.24 no.1
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• pp.207-216
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• 2011
• Bootstrap is a resampling technique to find an estimate of parameters or to evaluate the estimate. This technique has been used in estimating parameters in linear model(LM) and generalized linear model(GLM). In this paper, we explore the possibility of applying Bootstrapping Residuals, Pairs, and an Estimating Equation that are most widely used in LM and GLM to the generalized estimating equation(GEE) algorithm for modelling repeatedly measured regression data sets. We compared three bootstrapping methods with coefficient and standard error estimates of GEE models from one simulated and one real data set. Overall, the estimates obtained from bootstrap methods are quite comparable, except that estimates from bootstrapping pairs are somewhat different from others. We conjecture that the strange behavior of estimates from bootstrapping pairs comes from the inconsistency of those estimates. However, we need a more thorough simulation study to generalize it since those results are coming from only two small data sets.

### Time-domain Approaches for Input Disturbance Observer

• Kim, Kyung-Soo
• 제어로봇시스템학회:학술대회논문집
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• pp.22-25
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• 2005
• In the paper, algorithms for disturbance observers are newly presented in the time-domain. Attention is paid to observing a ramp disturbance by introducing an integral term to the output equation of a constant disturbance observer. In order to reduce the sensitivity to the measurement noise, the disturbance observer is combined with the state observer. It will be shown that the estimation dynamics can be arbitrarily chosen by assigning the eigenvalues of a characteristic equation. Also, we provide the analysis of observer behaviors subject to non-ramp-style disturbances. Finally, we propose the generalized disturbance observer that accurately estimates disturbances of higher order in time series expansion.

### Semiparametric support vector machine for accelerated failure time model

• Hwang, Chang-Ha;Shim, Joo-Yong
• Journal of the Korean Data and Information Science Society
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• v.21 no.4
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• pp.765-775
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• 2010
• For the accelerated failure time (AFT) model a lot of effort has been devoted to develop effective estimation methods. AFT model assumes a linear relationship between the logarithm of event time and covariates. In this paper we propose a semiparametric support vector machine to consider situations where the functional form of the effect of one or more covariates is unknown. The proposed estimating equation can be computed by a quadratic programming and a linear equation. We study the effect of several covariates on a censored response variable with an unknown probability distribution. We also provide a generalized approximate cross-validation method for choosing the hyper-parameters which affect the performance of the proposed approach. The proposed method is evaluated through simulations using the artificial example.