This study was designed to investigate whether recruitment of physicians and dentists has been restricted to a social network, such as familial or kinship groups. The data was collected through a self-administered questionnaire survey distributed to a sampling of general physicians, specialists (internists, surgeons, other specialists), and dentists in August 1990. The major findings are as follows : 1) Total number of respondents was 405 ; of these, general physicians made up 48.9%, internists 10.4%, surgeons 15.8%, other specialists 4.9%, and dentists 20.0%. 2) 38.5% of the respondents had physicians or dentists in their immediate family or were related in some way to one. Those from urban areas, whose parents were highly educated, and whose father was a professional had more physicians or dentists in their family or kinship. 3) Parents of 7.1% of the respondents, brothers or sisters of 10.1%, grand parents of 1.7%, uncles or aunts of 7.9%, and cousins of 22.0% were physicians or dentists. 4) The majority of physicians or dentists in familial or kinship network specialized n surge, 32.3%, followed by internal medicine ; current worksites were noted as clinics by 30.8%, followed by general hospital, university hospital, and so on. The respondent's ma discipline tended to follow familial or kinship example. Consequently, it was concluded that physicians and dentists have been recruited within restricted familial or kinship network.
General practitioners, internists, pediatricians, and family physicians are classified as so-called primary care physicians in the United States. We carried out this study for the purpose of answering the following question; "Who are the primary care physicians in Korea\ulcorner" We analyzed the 663, 154 claims which were drawn from the health insurance processing file made during the period of one month, April 1992 on the basis of systemic random sampling technique. The 663, 154 cases were matched with the doctor's file registered at the National Federation Medical Insurance by using the indivisual physician code number and analyzed according to the kind of specialty. If we follow the Geyman's definition of primary care physician in the United States, this study shows that they can take care of 43.2% of the total private clinic's claims in Korea. Provided that general practitioners and family physicians are considered the same way as in the United Kingdom, they could with only 8.3% of the total claims in Korea. The most frequent diseases are those which rank first to 46th in the total private clinic's claims. The proportion of the most frequent diseases was highest for pediatricians(90.4%) and followed by internists(81.4%), otolaryngologists(78.7%) and family physicians(76.5%). The proportion of the most frequent diseases in the most common 46 diseases was highest for radiologists(80.4%) and the next was as follows : general practitioners(78.3%), family physicians(67.4%), and internists(67.4%). We classified the most common 20 diseases of each specialty into 17 categories of ICD-9 and compared it with those of general practitioners. The specialists who had managed a similar disease pattern to those of general practitioners were identified as anesthesiologists, family physicians, general surgeons, and internists. Some specialists practicing at private clinics managed the diseases which were not quite appropriate for their specialties. After we evaluated each specialty by the most common diseases, the most frequent diseases, and the most frequent 20 diseases of each specialty in terms of the 17 categories of ICD-9, a tentative assumption is made that the primary physicians in the Republic of Korea are general practitioners, anesthesiologists, family physicians, internists, and general surgeons. This study has concluded that the categories of the primary care physicians are so diverse that their roles and distributions are distorted accordingly. Vigorous health policy efforts in correcting the malcomposition need to be made for the better provision of primary health care in Korea. in Korea.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the determinants of intent to leave among hospital physicians. A causal model of intent to leave among hospital physicians was constructed based on the exchange theory. The sample of this study consisted of 185 physicians from 8 general hospitals located in Seoul, Taegu, Kyunggi-province, and Kyungsangnam-province in Korea. Data were collected with self-administered questionnaires and analyzed using LISREL. The results of this study indicate that the following variables, listed in order of size, have significant negative effects on intent to leave among hospital physicians; job satisfaction, organizational commitment, task variety, promotional chances, task significance, and pay. Sex (female=0, male=1) was found to have significant positive effects on the intent to leave among hospital physicians. The results imply that hospital administrators should make an effort to improve job satisfaction and organizational commitment which are the key determinants of intent to leave among hospital physicians.
Kim, Seok-Beom Gib;Kwun, Koing-Bo;Kang, Pock-Soo;Kim, Ki-Hong
Quality Improvement in Health Care
A mailed survey with structured questionnaire was conducted to study the demand of private physicians who were operating their own clinics in the community to be a attending physician at the general hospital. The responding proportion was 21.6 percent of the 960 private physicians. A total of 207 responders; 65.2 percent wanted to be a attending physician. In particular, the physicians who were male, young, surgeon and teaching hospital careered after specialist were more highly motivated. The major activities what they wanted as a attending physician were medical care for the admission patients. They responded that the hospital charges for the medical services and the responsibility of malpractice issues should be fairly shared by attending physician and hospital according to their contributions. There is growing consensus that the need of attending physician at the general hospital will become wide spread, but little organizational preparation to assure the quality of medical care of attending physicians including training of resident physicians and students. In addition, the effective reimbursement system should be develop to compensate appropriately according to the medical achievement of the attending physicians.
Kim, Min Sun;Lee, Jihye;Sim, Jin-Ah;Kwon, Jung Hye;Kang, Eun Joo;Kim, Yu Jung;Lee, Junglim;Song, Eun-Kee;Kang, Jung Hun;Nam, Eun Mi;Kim, Si-Young;Yun, Hwan-Jung;Jung, Kyung Hae;Park, June Dong;Yun, Young Ho
Journal of Korean Medical Science
Background: It is difficult to decide whether to inform the child of the incurable illness. We investigated attitudes of the general population and physicians toward prognosis disclosure to children and associated factors in Korea. Methods: Physicians working in one of 13 university hospitals or the National Cancer Center and members of the general public responded to the questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of the age appropriate for informing children about the prognosis and the reason why children should not be informed. This survey was conducted as part of research to identify perceptions of physicians and general public on the end-of-life care in Korea. Results: A total of 928 physicians and 1,241 members of the general public in Korea completed the questionnaire. Whereas 92.7% of physicians said that children should be informed of their incurable illness, only 50.7% of the general population agreed. Physicians were also more likely to think that younger children should know about their poor prognosis compared with the general population. Physicians who opposed incurable illness disclosure suggested that children might not understand the situation, whereas the general public was primarily concerned that disclosure would exacerbate the disease. Physicians who were women or religious were more likely to want to inform children of their poor prognosis. In the general population, gender, education, comorbidity, and caregiver experience were related to attitude toward poor prognosis disclosure to children. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that physicians and the general public in Korea differ in their perceptions about informing children of poor prognosis.
The major concern for this research is to discuss and to offer some solutions to bring the effectiveness of existing notifiable diseases reporting system over the physicians' attitudes of reporting, the actual condition of performance and the reasons of inertia in notifiable diseases reporting through examining the physicians of medical institutions in nationwide such as pediatrics, internal medicine and family medicine. The actual conditions of notifiable communicable diseases(NCD) reporting was surveyed by mail objectifying an internal medicine, pediatrics and family medicine in nationwide on the basis of stratified random sampling method divided into the classification of medical institutions and areas. As a result of survey. the rate of respondents showed 145 persons from physicians, 105 persons from hospitals. 120 persons from general hospitals, and 51 persons from tertiary hospitals. The total number of respondents were 421 and was rated 59.0 %. The analysis of collected survey went through a descriptive analysis primarily to grasp physicians' attitudes on the notifiable communicable diseases reporting, and then upon the dependent variables. Following are major findings obtained form the data analysis. 1. The results of a descriptive analysis on physicians' attitudes towards reporting NCD were as follows: First, the respondents who didn't know that yellow fever is reporting NCD were 11.0% of clinic, 10.5% of hospital. 5.0% of general hospital. 11.8% of tertiary hospital. and in case of hepatitis B, were 26.9% of clinic, 35.2% of hospital. 35.0% of general hospital. 23.5% of tertiary hospital. Second, The rate of physicians' knowledge on penalties of not reporting the NCD by their medical institution were 35.2% of clinic, 45.7% of hospital. 36.7% of general hospital. 62.7% of tertiary hospital. Third, among the no-reporting physicians in whole, the major reason of not reporting NCD were uncertainty of diagnosis(78.9%), no need to report(46.4%), no adequate actions from PHC(29.1%), no knowledge of the cases being notifiable ones in the order of their frequencies(30.4%), meddling from PHC(29.1%), concerning of patient's privacy(26.3%). 2. To analyze the characteristics related to the physicians' behaviors to report NCD, univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were applied to the variables related to physician, 4 medical facility, PHC, and reporting system. The result were as follows: First, the result of the univariate analysis on physicians' attitude to report NCD and characteristics related to reporting in odds ratio was in the case of hospital. 3.4 times higher positive responses on physicians' attitude to report NCD came up as compared to the clinic. Second, the result of the univariate analysis on physicians' action of reporting NCD and characteristics related to reporting by the classification of medical institutions showed that the odds ratio of hospital was 2.3 times, the odds ratio of general hospital was 2.0 times, the odds ratio of tertiary was 6.8 times significantly higher than clinic. And the medical institution with significantly higher positive attitudes rate by multiple logistic regression analysis was hospital that rated 2.5 times significantly higher than clinic. Also in the PHC related characteristics of reporting, the rate of action in reporting NCD was significantly higher in medical institution that were endowed with the good condition of reporting. In multiple logistic regression analysis, the medical institution that has a good conditions of reporting showed a significantly higher positive rate on the action of reporting than the others.
Recent changes in the health care environment have directed increasing attention to the number and specialty mix of practicing physicians. A major concern identified in Korean health care system is the serious oversupply of specialists and a relative lack of primary care physicians. Currently only 21% of Korean physicians are primary care physicians(general practitioners and family physicians), and less than 10% of recent medical school graduates are choosing to enter primary care. More primary care physicians are needed to deal with major problems in the current health care system, such as cost and access. The infrastructure that relies on primary care physicians is needed to deliver cost-effective and efficient care. To achieve a better balance of primary care to non-primary care physicians. more medical students need to choose careers in one of the primary care specialties(family medicine. internal medicine and pediatrics). This paper suggests the necessity of reforming the Korean graduate medical education system, that is, establishing the path of training primary care physicians in internal medicine and pediatrics residency training programs.
Background : Hypertension is one of the most important risk factors of the cerebrovascular accident and coronary artery disease which are the major causes of mortality in Korea. In Korea, the quality of care provided by office-based physicians has not been evaluated formally. The purpose of this study is to assess the quality of hypertension management of office-based physicians. Method : Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to the office-based physicians with the speciality of internal medicine, general surgery, family medicine, and general practitioners. Among 2,045 physicians, 981 doctors(48.0%) replied the questionnaires. Contents of questionnaires were based on the recommendation from the JNC-V report(the Fifth Report of the Joint National Committee on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure), and included the criteria of diagnosis, treatment, follow-up interval, and other characteristics of physicians(age, sex, type of speciality, and location of practice). Results : Eighty four percent of the office-based physicians made diagnosis of hypertension with less than 3 times of blood pressure measurements. The performance rate of required examination for hypertensives was very low in most items. Rate of fundoscopic examination is the lowest one among them(5.9%). The performance rate of laboratory examination was also low in most items. Internists tended to order more frequent laboratory examinations than any other type of physicians. Only 11.4% of the physicians did appropriate treatments for the mild hypertension case. The antihypertensives selected by the physicians as a first line drug were in the order of beta blocker(26.4%), calcium channel blocker(23.4%), diuretics(23.1%), ACE inhibitors(14.3%). The visit interval for established hypertensives was very short. Proportion of physicians with follow-up interval longer than 4 weeks was only 4.3%. Conclusions : The overall quality of hypertension management of office-based physicians in Korea is very problematic in many aspects. So further investigations to find out the reasons of low quality arid quality of care should be initiated.
Seo, Min Young;Kim, Dong-Kyu;Jee, Hye Mi;Ahn, Young Min;Kim, Yong Min;Hong, Sang Duk;Work Group for Allergic Rhinitis of the Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology (KAAACI)
Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology
Objectives. The aim of this study was to compare the prescription patterns according to characteristics of physicians using a survey distributed amongst physicians in Korea. Methods. We surveyed the prescription patterns for allergic rhinitis (AR) of the members of the Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology (KAAACI) and the Korean Association of Otorhinolaryngologists (KAO). Questionnaire contained 4 categories with 28 queries. 448 physicians including 98 internal medicine (IM), 113 pediatrics (PED), and 237 otorhinolaryngology (ENT) were responded. Results. Although the Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) guidelines are most frequently used in all specialties, seasonal or perennial AR is the most frequent classification system. For the definitive diagnosis of AR, ENT physicians reported using multiple allergen simultaneous test (MAST)/radio allergy sorbent test (RAST) more than others (IM, 10.9%; PED, 20.6%; ENT, 44.2%; P<0.001). In treatment, most physicians reported that antihistamine medication is the initial treatment for AR. PED physicians prescribed fewer intranasal steroid to combinations with an antihistamine than other specialists (IM, 65.3%; PED, 42.5%; ENT, 63.3%), but preferred leukotriene antagonists (IM, 4.1%; PED, 23.0%; ENT, 3.9%; P=0.041). Overall, 53% (235/448) of the physicians performed allergen immunotherapy (AIT), and IM administers the most AIT (IM, 71.6%; PED, 42.0%; ENT, 39.5%; P=0.019). Furthermore, university and general hospital physicians prescribed more AIT than doctors at other hospital types (university hospital, 76.4%; general hospital, 64.3%; local hospital, 21.4%; private clinic, 20.2%; P<0.001). Conclusion. The prescription patterns for AR were different according to the physicians' characteristics and general rate of prescribing AIT is just about 53% in Korea. Thus, the development of complementary Korean-specific guidelines is needed and proper clinical instruction of AIT would be necessary.
Lee Mi Jin;Park Hae Kwan;Park Kyu Nam;Choi Seung Pil;Lee Won Jae;Kim Se Kyung
Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology
Purpose: In recent review of physician suicides] the relative risk of physicians is higher than the general population. The majority of physician suicide were by poisoning. The purpose of this study was to analyse the medical personnels with suicide by poisoning compared with the general population. Methods: We reviewed medical records of 15 medical related personnels with suicide by poisoning who visited the emergency medical centers of St. Mary's and Kangnam St. Mary's hospitals from March 1998 to Aug 2004. For the comparison with general population in analysis] the collected data was acquired from medical records of 677 intoxicated patients in St. Mary's Hospital during the same period. Results: Fifteen suicides of physicians (n=7), nurses (n=4), medical students (n=2), pharmacist (n=1) and medical assistant technician (n=1) was evaluated with regard to the method of poisoning. Preferred methods were ingestion of medications orally ($54\%$) and by infusion/injection ($46\%$). The results were compared with the general population group (n=677: oral ingestion of medications $98\%$, inhalation $1.6\%$). Intoxications by infusion/injection predominated more clearly in physicians than in the total collective. Conclusion: Comparing with the general population, the tendency to a method of suicidal poisoning being typical of the profession rises among physicians and related occupations with the degree of specialization, caused by increasing knowledge, easier access to appropriate drugs and methods.
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