• Title, Summary, Keyword: gene fusion

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Role of the Promoter Region of a Chicken H3 Histone Gene in Its Cell Cycle Dependent Expression

  • Son, Seung-Yeol
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.345-349
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    • 1999
  • We fused the promoter region of an H3.2 chicken histone gene, whose expression is dependent on the cell cycle, to the 5' coding region of an H3.3 chicken histone gene, which is expressed constitutively at a low level throughout the cell cycle. This fusion gene showed a cell cycle-regulated pattern of expression, but in a different manner. The mRNA level of the fusion gene increase during the S phase of the cell cycle by about 3.7-fold at 6 h and 2.7-fold at 12 h after the serum stimulation. The mRNA level of the intact H3.2 gene, however, increased by an average of 3.6-fold at 6 h and 8.7-fold at 12 h. This different expression pattern might be due to the differences in their 3' end region that is responsible for mRNA stability. The 3' end of the H3.2 mRNA contains a stem-loop structure, instead of a poly(A) tail present in the H3.3 mRNA. We also constructed a similar fusion gene using a H3.3 histone gene whose introns had been eliminated to rule out the possibility of involvement of the introns in cell cycle-regulated expression. The expression of this fusion gene was almost identical to the fusion gene made previously. These results indicate that the promoter region of the H3.2 gene is only partially responsible for its expression during the S phase of the cell cycle.

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Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen Levels before Initial Treatment are Associated with EGFR Mutations and EML4-ALK Fusion Gene in Lung Adenocarcinoma Patients

  • Wang, Wen-Tao;Li, Yin;Ma, Jie;Chen, Xiao-Bing;Qin, Jian-Jun
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.9
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    • pp.3927-3932
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    • 2014
  • Background: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and echinoderm microtubule associated protein like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK) define specific molecular subsets of lung adenocarcinomas with distinct clinical features. Our purpose was to analyze clinical features and prognostic value of EGFR gene mutations and the EML4-ALK fusion gene in lung adenocarcinoma. Patients and Methods: EGFR gene mutations and the EML4-ALK fusion gene were detected in 92 lung adenocarcinoma patients in China. Tumor marker levels before first treatment were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Results: EGFR mutations were found in 40.2% (37/92) of lung adenocarcinoma patients, being identified at high frequencies in never-smokers (48.3% vs. 26.5% in smokers; P=0.040) and in patients with abnormal serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels before the initial treatment (58.3% vs. 28.6%, P=0.004). Multivariate analysis revealed that a higher serum CEA level before the initial treatment was independently associated with EGFR gene mutations (95%CI: 1.476~11.343, P=0.007). We also identified 8 patients who harbored the EML4-ALK fusion gene (8.7%, 8/92). In concordance with previous reports, younger age was a clinical feature for these (P=0.008). Seven of the positive cases were never smokers, and no coexistence with EGFR mutation was discovered. In addition, the frequency of the EML4-ALK fusion gene among patients with a serum CEA concentration below 5ng/ml seemed to be higher than patients with a concentration over 5ng/ml (P=0.021). No significant difference was observed for time to progression and overall survival between EML4-ALK-positive group and EML4-ALK-negative group or between patients with and without an EGFR mutation. Conclusions: The serum CEA level before the initial treatment may be helpful in screening population for EGFR mutations or EML4-ALK fusion gene presence in lung adenocarcinoma patients.

Fusion Between TMPRSS2 and ETS Family Members (ERG, ETV1, ETV4) in Prostate Cancers from Northern China

  • Wang, Jian-Jiang;Liu, Yue-Xin;Wang, Wei;Yan, Wei;Zheng, Yu-Peng;Qiao, Lu-Dong;Liu, Dan;Chen, Shan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.10
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    • pp.4935-4938
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    • 2012
  • In this study we evaluated the frequency of fusion between TMPRSS2 and ETS family members (ERG, ETV1, ETV4) in prostate cancers in patients from northern China in order to explore differences in fusion rates among regions in northern and southern China, other parts of Asia, Europe, and North America. We examined 100 prostate cancer patients, diagnosed by means of prostate biopsy; fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to detect the expression of TMPRSS2, ERG, ETV1 and ETV4 in cancer tissue. Differences in gene fusion rates among different ethnics groups were also analyzed. Of the 100 prostate cancer patients, 55 (55%) had the fusion gene. Among the patients with the fusion gene, 46 (83.6%) patients had the TMPRSS2:ERG fusion product, 8 (14.8%) patients had TMPRSS2:ETV1 fusion, 1 (1.6%) patient had TMPRSS2:ETV4.

The Gene Encoding γ-Glutamyl Transpeptidase II in the Fission Yeast Is Regulated by Oxidative and Metabolic Stress

  • Kang, Hyun-Jung;Kim, Byung-Chul;Park, Eun-Hee;Ahn, Ki-Sup;Lim, Chang-Jin
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.38 no.5
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    • pp.609-618
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    • 2005
  • $\gamma$-Glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT, EC 2.3.2.2.) catalyzes the transfer of the $\gamma$-glutamyl moiety from $\gamma$-glutamyl containing ompounds, notably glutathione (GSH), to acceptor amino acids and peptides. A second gene (GGTII) encoding GGT was previously isolated and characterized from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In the present work, the GGTII-lacZ fusion gene was constructed and used to study the transcriptional regulation of the S. pombe GGTII gene. The synthesis of $\beta$-galactosidase from the GGTII-lacZ fusion gene was significantly enhanced by NO-generating SNP and hydrogen peroxide in the wild type yeast cells. The GGTII mRNA level was increased in the wild-type S. pombe cells treated with SNP. However, the induction by SNP was abolished in the Pap1-negative S. pombe cells, implying that the induction by SNP of GGTII is mediated by Pap1. Fermentable carbon sources, such as glucose (at low concentrations), lactose and sucrose, as a sole carbon source, enhanced the synthesis of $\beta$-galactosidase from the GGTII-lacZ fusion gene in wild type KP1 cells but not in Pap1-negative cells. Glycerol, a non-fermentable carbon source, was also able to induce the synthesis of $\beta$-galactosidase from the fusion gene, but other non-fermentable carbon sources such as acetate and ethanol were not. Transcriptional induction of the GGTII gene by fermentable carbon sources was also confirmed by increased GGTII mRNA levels in the yeast cells grown with them. Nitrogen starvation was also able to induce the synthesis of $\beta$-galactosidase from the GGTII-lacZ fusion gene in a Pap1-dependent manner. On the basis of the results, it is concluded that the S. pombe GGTII gene is regulated by oxidative and metabolic stress.

Establishment of Transgenic Drosophila Bearing Metallothionein-lacZ Fusion Gene and Its Practical Use

  • Kim, Young-Shin;Park, Hyun-Sook;Yoo, Mi-Ae
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.269-275
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    • 1998
  • The reporter plasmid pMT-lacZ containing the metallothionein (MT) promoter region (-320∼+58 with respect to the transcription initiation site) fused to the lacZ gene in a P-element vector was constructed. Transgenic Drosophila bearing the MT-lacZ fusion gene were established by P-element mediated transformation. Expression of the MT-lacZ fusion gene in transformants was examined during development. By treatment with low concentration of cadmium (>1O uM) or paraquat (>50 uM), increased expression of B-galactosidase was shown in fat body, brain lobe, and ganglion transgenic larval tissues. The results show that transformants bearing the MT-lacZ fusion gene are useful for further studies on the mechanism of regulation of MT gene expression and for monitoring toxic metals.

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Identification of a Novel Fusion Gene (HLA-E and HLA-B) by RNA-seq Analysis in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  • Jiang, Yu-Zhang;Li, Qian-Hui;Zhao, Jian-Qiang;Lv, Jun-Ji
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.2309-2312
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    • 2014
  • Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the most common histologic subtype of esophageal cancer and is characterized by a poor prognosis. Determining gene changes in ESCCs should improve understanding of putative risk factors and provide potential targets for therapy. We sequenced about 55 million pair-end reads from a pair of adjacent normal and ESCC samples to identify the gene expression level and gene fusion. Sanger sequencing was used to verify the result. About 17 thousand genes were expressed in the tissues, of which approximately 2400 demonstrated significant differences between tumor and adjacent non tumor tissue. GO and KEGG pathway analysis revealed that many of these genes were associated with cellular adherence and movement, simulation responses and immune responses. Notably we identified and validated one fusion gene, HLA-E and HLA-B, located 1 MB apart. We also identified thousands of remarkably expressed transcripts. In conclusion, a novel fusion gene HLA-E and HLA-B was identified in ESCC via whole transcriptome sequencing, which would be a biomarker for ESCC diagnosis and target for therapy, shedding new light for better understanding of ESCC tumorigenesis.

Improving Soluble Expression of β-Galactosidase in Escherichia coli by Fusion with Thioredoxin

  • Nam, E.S.;Jung, H.J.;Ahn, J.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.12
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    • pp.1751-1757
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    • 2004
  • Recombinant heterologous proteins can be produced as insoluble aggregates partially or perfectly inactive in Escherichia coli. One of the strateges to improve the solubility of recombinant proteins is fusion with a partner that is excellent in producing soluble fusion proteins. To improve the production of soluble $\beta$-galactosidase, the gene of Thermus thermophilus KNOUC112 $\beta$-galactosidase (KNOUC112 $\beta$-gal) was fused with thioredoxin gene, and optimization of its expression in E. coli TOP10 was performed. KNOUC112 $\beta$-gal in pET-5b was isolated out, fused with thioredoxin gene in pThioHis C, and transformed to E. coli TOP10. The $\beta$-galactosidase fused with thioredoxin was produced in E. coli TOP10 as dimer and trimer. The productivity of fusion $\beta$ -galactosidase expressed via pThioHis C at 37$^{\circ}C$ was about 5 times higher than that of unfused $\beta$-galactosidase expressed via pET-5b at 37$^{\circ}C$. Inclusion body of $\beta$-galactosidase was formed highly, regardless of the induction by IPTG when KNOUC112 $\beta$ -gal was expressed via pET-5b at 37$^{\circ}C$. Fusion $\beta$ -galactosidase expressed at 37$^{\circ}C$ via pThioHis C without the induction by IPTG was soluble, but the induction by IPTG promoted the formation of inclusion body. Lowering the incubation temperature for the expression of fusion gene under 25$^{\circ}C$ prevented the formation of inclusion body, optimally at 25$^{\circ}C$. 0.07 mM of IPTG was sufficient for the soluble expression of fusion gene at 25$^{\circ}C$. The soluble production of Thermus thermophilus KNOUC112 $\beta$-galactosidase could be increased about 10 times by fusion with thioredoxin, and optimization of incubation temperature and IPTG concentration for induction.

FUSION OF THE PLAG1 AND CTNNB1 GENES IN PLEOMORPHIC ADENOMA OF THE SALIVARY GLANDS (타액선 다형성 선종에서의 PLAG1과 CTNNB1 유전자 융합)

  • Kim, Jae-Jin;Kim, Eun-Seok;Ko, Seung-O;Kim, Hyo-Bun;Cho, Nam-Pyo
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.206-211
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    • 2003
  • The pleomorphic adenoma is the most common neoplasm involving both the major and minor salivary glands. It is a benign, slowgrowing tumor, but local recurrences can occur. The pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1), which is a novel zinc finger gene, is frequently activated by reciprocal chromosomal translocations involving 8q12 in a subset of salivary gland pleomorphic adenomas. This experimental study was preformed to observe the translocation patterns between PLAG1 gene and the three translocation partner genes. We also have analyzed the presence of PLAG1 transcripts by RT-PCR. CTNNB1/PLAG1 gene fusion was observed in three of nine pleomorphic adnomas. However, LIFR/PLAG1 and SII/PLAG1 gene fusions were not detectable. All of three gene fusions was not detectable in one Warthin's tumor and three inflammatory salivary gland tissues. PLAG1 transcripts were expressed in all inflammatory salivary gland tissues and tumors except for three pleomorphic adenomas. Of particular one pleomorphic adenoma showing CTNNB1/PLAG1 gene fusion did not express PLAG1 transcipt. Our data indicate that gene fusion involving PLAG1 is a frequent event in pleomorphic adenoma, but correlation between gene fusion involving PLAG1 and PLAG1 transcription is not definite.

Expession of the Recombinant Klebsiella aerognes UreF Protein as a MalE Fusion

  • Kim, Keun-Young;Yang, Chae-Ha;Lee, Mann-Hyung
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.274-278
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    • 1999
  • Expression of the active urease of the enterobacterium, Klebsiella aerogens, requires the presence of the accessory genes (ureD, ureE, ureF, and ureG) in addition to the three structural genes (ureA, ureB, and ureC). These accessory genes are involved in functional assembly of the nickel-metallocenter for the enzyme. Characterization of ureF gene has been hindered, however, since the UreF protein is produced in only minute amount compared to other urease gene products. In order to overexpress the ureF gene, a recombinant pMAL-UreF plasmid was constructed from which the UreF was produced as a fusion with maltose-binding protein. The MBP-UreF fusion protein was purified by using an amylose-affinity column chromatography followed by an anion exchange column chromatography. Polyclonal antibodies raised against the fusion protein were purified and shown to specifically recognize both MBP and UreF peptides. The UreF protein was shown to be unstable when separated from MBP by digestion with factor Xa.

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Design and Cloning of the Gene for a Novel Insulin Analogue, $(B^{30}$-Homoserine) Human Insulin

  • Nam, Doo-H.;Ko, Jeong-Heon;Lee, Seung-Yup
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.271-275
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    • 1993
  • In order to prepare a novel human insulin analogue suhbstituted with homoserine at B$^{30}$ / position, (B$^{30}$ /-homoserine) human insulin, a synthetic gene was designed by linking directly a gene for B chain with that for A chain. This gene was constructed by enzymatic joining of 10 different synthetic oligonucleotides, and then inserted at the polylinker region of pUC19 plasmid. To achieve a high level of gene expression, the gene fusion technique region of pUC19 plasmid. To achieve a high level of gene expression, the gene fusion technique was employed using amino terminal regions of lacZ gene up to Clal or hpal, and either of them has been located under tac promoter. The chemical induction of these fused genes by isopropyl-.betha.-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) gave a satisfactory level of expression in Escherichia coli harboring the ocnstructed plasmids. It was observed that the fused gene product as a single chain insulin precusor was produced more than 30% of total cell protein of E. coli as a form of inclusion body.

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