• Title, Summary, Keyword: gender-poverty gap

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A Decomposition of Gender Differences on the Poverty among the Urban Working Households in Korea (우리나라 도시근로자 가구의 남녀 가구주 간 빈곤 격차 요인 분해)

  • Yi, Eun-Hye;Lee, Sang-Eun
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.61 no.4
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    • pp.333-354
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    • 2009
  • This study decomposes the gender differences on poverty to explain the causes of the poverty gap between male- and female-headed households. In order to do this, we start from examining the extent of the poverty gap between maleand female-headed families and then conduct decomposition of poverty differences by gender using the Oaxaca method. This paper uses the (Urban) Family Budget Survey data from 1982 to 2008 and measures poverty using 50% of the median income poverty line. Major findings of this study are as follows: First, in 2008, the coefficient effect explains 70% or more of the total gender-poverty gap. Second, the trend of gender-poverty gap in the period of 1982~2008 shows that the poverty gap by gender increased in the 1980s', decreased in the 1990s', and a re-increased in 2000s'. Third, comparing the decomposition results in 1982, 1989, 1999, 2008, we found that the share of characteristic effect of the total gender poverty gap has been increased gradually over time. It means the characteristics of the female-headed households have become worse than those of the male-headed households in urban working families. At the same time, the still large coefficient effect suggests that the problems such as the discrimination against matriarchs or the lack of social support for them still play important roles among urban working families in Korea.

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Women and Poverty in Korea: the Feminization of Poverty? (한국의 빈곤의 여성화에 대한 실증 분석)

  • Seok, Jae-Eun
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.56 no.2
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    • pp.167-194
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    • 2004
  • This paper examine the gender-poverty gap and the feminization of poverty in Korea with using data from the National Survey Household Income & Expenditure(1996, 2000) and the Urban Survey Household Income & Expenditure(1996-2002) by Korea National Statistical Office. The poverty rate in 2000 was 16.9 percent for female-head families and 7.9 percent for male-head families, which means that female-head families were 2.6 times more likely to be poor than male-head families. With examining impact of economic crisis in 1998 on gender-poverty gap, it show that both the poverty rate of female-head and male-head increase radically in peak of economic crisis, while, in the stage of recovering economy, the poverty rate of male-head families recovered mostly the level before economic crisis, but that of female-head families recover only the 2/3 level before and the 1/3 remain still under poverty. Thus gender-poverty gap appeared bigger during passing through economic crisis. With analyzing on influence factors of poverty, it appear that poverty is influenced by gender itself as well as education level, working condition which is reflected substantially characteristics of gender. Such an analysis results mean that the considering gender dimension is necessary to resolve poverty fundamentally because gender is a point intersection among family, labour market, and social security. Therefore it appears certain that to develop and adopt of women-friendly social policy is effective approach, which could resolve poverty and social problems related to social rights.

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Production Regimes, Family Policy and Gender Wage Gap (생산레짐과 일가정양립정책이 성별 임금격차에 미치는 영향연구)

  • Kang, Ji Young
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare Studies
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.145-169
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    • 2017
  • Female plays an important role in new welfare policies as emerging new social risks including care needs resulted from increasing female employment participation and changes in family structures. Whereas the effects of work and life reconciliation policies on female employment are well established, less is known for the role of production regime as an important institution on gender wage gap. This study examines the questions in what way and to what extent production regimes and work and family reconciliation policies influence gender wage gap in advanced capitalism countries using the Luxembourg Income Study (LIS). The coordinated market economies (CMEs), presented as higher firm-specific skills, are associated with lower income rank for female workers than male workers, hence larger degree of gender wage gap. Longer parental leave weeks and higher childcare expenditures are associated with less degree of gender wage gap. This research highlights the importance of production regimes in understanding gender wage gap and potential interaction between production regimes and work and life reconciliation policies on gender wage gap.

Social Risks of Self-Employed Women in Korea and the Legacy of East Asian Welfare Model Policy Logic (한국 여성 자영업자의 사회적 위험과 동아시아복지국가 정책 논리의 유산)

  • Ahn, Jong-soon
    • 한국사회정책
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.63-87
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    • 2017
  • Self-employed women are highly vulnerable to social risks like unemployment and poverty as job instability has increased in recent decades. Despite this, the Korean public policy focus has been on employees, not the self-employed. This may be closely linked to the legacy of the East Asian welfare model policy logic. Therefore, this study explores social risk levels by gender and employment status and examines the relation between social risks of self-employed women and the East Asian welfare model policy logic, through comparing-means analysis and ordered logit regression analysis using the 9th wave data of the Korea Welfare Panel Study Korea. The study yields evidence of divisions in social risk levels according to gender and employment status: that is, a gender difference, and a substantial gap between self-employed workers and regular employees. Furthermore, the findings of the study indicate that self-employed women — especially in small businesses — are more vulnerable to social risks than are self-employed men. This strongly supports the conclusion that the higher social risks of self-employed women in Korea are closely linked to the legacy of East Asian welfare model policy logic, which focuses on social protection for core workers and largely neglects women.