• Title, Summary, Keyword: gender differences

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Research on Gender Differences of Mathematics Achievement from the Views of Gender Socialization

  • Zhang, Xiaoui
    • Research in Mathematical Education
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.299-308
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    • 2010
  • The gender differences of mathematics achievement exists in many counties in the world. Some Chinese scholars think that the differences also exist in China. The researchers explain the gender differences of mathematics learning mainly from the individual psychology and education. This paper, firstly, introduces an investigation of the gender differences of mathematics achievement in grade 1-9 in three areas (Hefei urban area, Cuozhen area, and Chenji area) of Hefei in China. The investigation found that the gender differences of mathematics achievement exist but are different in these areas. Then, the results are explained from the theory of the gender socialization.

Analysis of Gender Differences in Physician's Desk Reference (Physician's Desk Reference에 나타난 성별차이 분석)

  • Heo, Jung-Sun;Kim, Kyung-Hee;Yoon, In-Kyung;Kim, Hyun-Ju;Kim, You-Jin;Choi, Jong-Min;Lee, Byeong-Gu;Lee, Hwa-Jeong;Gwak, Hye-Sun
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.22-29
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: This study aims to investigate how gender-based differences are actually reflected on drug approval. Methods: Data on gender-based differences of drugs were analyzed by searching PDR (Physician's Desk Reference) with the keyword, "GENDER". Results: There were descriptions related to gender in product directions of 361 drugs in 2009 PDR, out of which 63 items actually showed gender-related differences. Drug categories showing comparatively high gender-based differences were nervous system, cardiovascular system, and alimentary tract and metabolism. Pharmacokinetic differences between genders were observed most frequently; compared to men, 32 drugs showed higher absorption while 18 drugs revealed lower clearance in women. There were 2 drugs which gender should be considered before prescribing, and 5 drugs which showed different severity of adverse effects according to gender. Conclusions: It is necessary to establish domestic policies for drug approval and use which reflects gender-based differences through sufficient researches.

A Meta-analysis of the Gender Differences and Variables Related to Overt and Relational Aggression in Children and Adolescents (아동과 청소년의 외현적, 관계적 공격성의 성별 차이 및 관련변인에 대한 메타분석)

  • Seo, Mi-Jung
    • Korean Journal of Child Studies
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.143-162
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    • 2011
  • This study presents a meta-anlalytic review of 119 studies, published between 1990 and 2009, of gender differences and variables associated with overt and relational aggression during childhood and adolescence. Gender differences in overt aggression were found to be significantly higher in boys than girls, but significant gender differences in relational aggression were not found. Gender differences of only overt aggression are moderated by age and the reporter type. In general, both overt and relational aggression are more strongly related to maladjustment than adjustment. In addition to this, overt and relational aggression has both common and differential associations with relative levels of maladjustment and adjustment. The moderation of these effect sizes of both overt and relational aggression by age and the reporter type was found.

Gender Differences in Geometry of the TIMSS 8th Grade Mathematics Based on a Cognitive Diagnostic Modeling Approach (인지진단모형을 적용한 TIMSS 8학년 수학 기하 영역의 성차 분석)

  • Yi, Hyun Sook;Ko, Ho Kyoung
    • School Mathematics
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.387-407
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    • 2014
  • Gender differences have been given major attention in mathematics education in the context of pursuing gender equity in instructional and learning environment. It had been traditional belief that male students would outperform female students in mathematics, especially in the areas as geometry. This belief has been given doubts by cumulated empirical evidences that gender differences are gradually diminishing or even reversing its direction as time goes on. In this study, gender differences in geometry were explored using TIMSS 8th grade mathematics data administered in TIMSS 2003, 2007, and 2011, based on a cognitive diagnostic modeling(CDM) approach. Among various CDM models, the Fusion model was employed. The Fusion model has advantages over other CDM models in that it provides more detailed information about gender differences at the attribute level as well as item level and more mathematically tractable. The findings of this study show that Attribute 3(Three-dimensional Geometric Shapes) revealed statistically significant gender differences favoring male students in TIMSS 2003 and 2007, but did not show significant differences in TIMSS 2011, which provides an additional empirical evidence supporting the recent observation that gender gap is narrowing. In addition to the general trends in gender differences in geometry, this study also provided affluent information such as gender differences in attribute mastery profiles and gender differences in relative contributions of each attribute in solving a particular item. Based on the findings of the CDM approach exploring gender differences, instructional implications in geometry education are discussed.

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Gender Differences in Conversational Styles of Students (대화방식에서의 성차이: 대학생을 중심으로)

  • Kim Sung Hee
    • Journal of Korean Home Management Association
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.219-232
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the gender differences in conversational styles of students. This research based on Quantitative survey and qualitative observation. The quantitative data were collected by questionnaire from 708 respondents who were college students and resided in Sunchon. Statistical methods for the data analysis were frequencies, t-test. The cases of observation were 21. As a result, gender differences were founded in lots of conversational styles. Women showed more tendencies than men In communi-cations to listen, to make relationships, to take care of others, to express intimacy and to make private conversation. Men tended to dominate others, to show off capacities and to make public conversation. This gender differences in conversational styles were related to sex role and major studies. From this results it was proposed that education on gender differences in conversational styles should be developed for students to improve their communication skills and to adapt their changing sex role.

An Analysis of Community Health by a Gender Specific Subjective Sense of Poverty -Based on the Mediating Effects of Social Networks- (성인지적 관점에서의 주관적 빈곤감에 대한 지역사회 보건학적 접근 -사회연결망의 매개효과 중심-)

  • Sohn, Tae-Yong;Chong, Hyun-Chong
    • The Korean Journal of Health Service Management
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.243-255
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    • 2014
  • We examined the minimization effects of a subjective sense of poverty by social networks for urban workers and the mediating effects. The purposes of this study are to draw up measures and provide implications in community health care by gender. The findings are as follows: First, differences in understanding a subjective sense of poverty have been generated by demographic socio-economic characteristics according to gender. Second, differences in perception of the subjective sense of poverty have been generated by types of social networks according to the gender. Third, differences in types of social networks have been generated by gender. Fourth, differences in mediating effects of the types of social networks influencing a subjective sense of poverty have been generated by gender. We provide effective methods in community health care by analyzing these examinations.

Impact of Sleep Disorder as a Risk Factor for Dementia in Men and Women

  • Jee, Hye Jin;Shin, Wonseok;Jung, Ho Joong;Kim, Baekgyu;Lee, Bo Kyung;Jung, Yi-Sook
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.58-73
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    • 2020
  • Sleep is an essential physiological process, especially for proper brain function through the formation of new pathways and processing information and cognition. Therefore, when sleep is insufficient, this can result in pathophysiologic conditions. Sleep deficiency is a risk factor for various conditions, including dementia, diabetes, and obesity. Recent studies have shown that there are differences in the prevalence of sleep disorders between genders. Insomnia, the most common type of sleep disorder, has been reported to have a higher incidence in females than in males. However, sex/gender differences in other sleep disorder subtypes are not thoroughly understood. Currently, increasing evidence suggests that gender issues should be considered important when prescribing medicine. Therefore, an investigation of the gender-dependent differences in sleep disorders is required. In this review, we first describe sex/gender differences not only in the prevalence of sleep disorders by category but in the efficacy of sleep medications. In addition, we summarize sex/gender differences in the impact of sleep disorders on incident dementia. This may help understand gender-dependent pathogenesis of sleep disorders and develop therapeutic strategies in men and women.

Study on Gifted Teachers' Perceptions of Gender Differences in Mathematics and Science Learning Ability (수학, 과학 학업성취의 성차에 대한 영재교사의 인식 연구)

  • Chae, Yoo-Jung;Ryu, Ji-Young
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.31 no.8
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    • pp.1110-1120
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers' perceptions of gender differences in students' mathematics and science learning ability. The sample included 289 elementary and secondary school gifted teachers. The teachers filled out the survey, asking their perceptions of gender differences in mathematics and science learning ability, as well as of the reasons of the differences. The results were as follows: 1) 65% of the teachers responded that gender differences existed in students' mathematics and science learning ability, 2) 63% of the teachers perceived that the differences began around higher elementary or middle school ages, 3) 57% of the teachers thought that gender differences existed in the high-achieving student group. Teachers perceived the reasons of differences were 1) differences in inborn ability, 2) the different expectation, and 3) the different ways of parental cares. Since teachers' perceptions of students' ability would impact teachers' attitudes on students, implications and suggestions were included in this article to provide teachers insights that promote students' better learning.

The Study of Attitude of Korean Parents on Environmental Education for Their Elementary Children (자녀의 환경교육에 대한 초등학교 학부모의 의식 연구 - 수도권 거주 학부모를 대상으로 -)

  • Kim, Bum-Soo;Lee, Sook-Jeong
    • Hwankyungkyoyuk
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.1-13
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the attitudes of Korean parents on environmental education for their elementary children. To accomplish of this purpose, a questionnaire survey was administered to 231 (55 males, 176 females) parents from elementary school in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province, Korea. The self-reported Environmental Education Attitude Scale was revised and adopted to measure the difference among children's grade, gender, and age of parents. The SPSS 12.0 program was used to analyze the data. The major finding of this study represented that elementary parents have a great understanding about the importance of environmental education. Through the analyses, this study found several things. 1) There were significant differences among grade and age in the necessity of environmental education. However, there were no gender differences in this field. In other words, parents have strong agreement with the necessity of environmental education in childhood. 2) There were significant differences among grade in the effect of environmental education. However, there were no gender and age differences in this area. 3) There were significant differences among grade and gender in proper areas of environmental education according to academic years. However, there was no significant age difference in this questionnaire. 4) There were significant differences among grade, gender, and age group in the level of environmental education. 5) There were significant differences among grade, gender, and age in the subject for environmental education. Further implications and limitations of this study were discussed.

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Sex-Gender Differences in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

  • Kim, Young Sun;Kim, Nayoung
    • Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.544-558
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    • 2018
  • Because of the sex-gender differences that are shown in a diversity of physiological and psychological factors, it can be speculated that the clinical presentation of symptoms as well as treatment strategies in women and men with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) may differ. Studies have revealed that IBS is more common in women than men. As for the IBS subtype, IBS with constipation is significantly more prevalent among women than men. Sex hormones and gender differences may play important roles in the pathophysiology of IBS. However, its pathophysiologic mechanisms still remain largely unknown, and therapeutic implications are limited. Moreover, women IBS patients have been reported to feel more fatigue, depression, anxiety, and lower quality of life than men IBS patients. Furthermore, there has been evidence of differences in the appropriate treatment efficacy to IBS in men and women, although relatively few men are enrolled in most relevant clinical trials. A more sex-gender-oriented approach in the medical care setting could improve understanding of heterogeneous patients suffering from IBS. An individualized and multicomponent approach including sex and gender issues might help improve the treatment of IBS.