• Title, Summary, Keyword: gefitinib

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Gefitinib Alone or with Concomitant Whole Brain Radiotherapy for Patients with Brain Metastasis from Non-small-cell Lung Cancer: A Retrospective Study

  • Zeng, Yin-Duo;Zhang, Li;Liao, Hai;Liang, Ying;Xu, Fei;Liu, Jun-Ling;Dinglin, Xiao-Xiao;Chen, Li-Kun
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.909-914
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    • 2012
  • Background: Gefitinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), is used both as a single drug and concurrently with whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) the standard treatment for brain metastases (BM), and is reported to be effective in a few small studies of patients with BM from non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, no study has compared the two treatment modalities. This retrospective analysis was conducted to compare the efficacy of gefitinib alone with gefitinib plus concomitant WBRT in treatment of BM from NSCLC. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 90 patients with BM from NSCLC who received gefitinib alone (250mg/day, gefitinib group) or with concomitant WBRT (40Gy/20f/4w, gefitinib-WBRT group) between September 2005 and September 2009 at Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center. Forty-five patients were in each group. Results: The objective response rate of BM was significantly higher in gefitinib-WBRT group (64.4%) compared with gefitinib group (26.7%, P<0.001). The disease control rate of BM was 71.1% in gefitinib-WBRT group and 42.2% in gefitinib group (P=0.006). The median time to progression of BM was 10.6 months in gefitinib-WBRT group and 6.57 months in gefitinib group (P<0.001). The median overall survival(OS) of gefitinib-WBRT and gefitinib alone group was 23.40 months and 14.83 months, respectively (HR, 0.432, P=0.002). Conclusion: Gefitinib plus concomitant WBRT had higher response rate of BM and significant improvement in OS compared with gefitinib alone in treatment of BM from NSCLC.

MiR-130a Overcomes Gefitinib Resistance by Targeting Met in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Lines

  • Zhou, Yong-Ming;Liu, Juan;Sun, Wei
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.1391-1396
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    • 2014
  • Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer and the most common cause of lung cancer death. Currently, the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor gefitinib is used for its treatment; however, drug resistance is a major obstacle. Expression of Met has been associated with both primary and acquired resistance to gefitinib, but the mechanisms regulating its expression are not fully understood. Recently, miRNAs such as miR-130a have been shown to play a role in gefitinib resistance, but importance in NSCLC and relationships with Met have not been fully explored. Here we show that miR-130a is over-expressed in gefitinibsensitive NSCLC cell lines, but is low in gefitinib-resistant NSCLC cell lines. Moreover, miR-130a expression was negatively correlated with that of Met. Further analysis revealed that over-expression of miR-130a increased cell apoptosis and inhibited proliferation of NSCLC cells treated with gefitinib, whereas lowering the expression of miR-130a decreased cell apoptosis and promoted cell proliferation after treatment with gefitinib in both gefitinib-sensitive and -resistant NSCLC cell lines, suggesting that miR-130a overcomes gefitinib resistance. We also demonstrated that miR-130a binds to the 3'-UTR of Met and significantly suppresses its expression. Finally, our results showed that over-expressing Met could "rescue" the functions of miR-130a regarding cell apoptosis and proliferation after cells are treated with gefitinib. These findings indicate that the miR-130a/Met axis plays an important role in gefitinib resistance in NSCLC. Thus, the miR-130a/Met axis may be an effective therapeutic target in gefitinib-resistant lung cancer patients.

Growth inhibition in head and neck cancer cell lines by gefitinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (두경부암 세포주에서 상피성장인자수용체 타이로신 카이네이즈 억제제인 gefitinib의 성장억제에 관한 연구)

  • Song, Seung-Il;Kim, Myung-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.287-293
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    • 2009
  • Cell survival is the result of a balance between programmed cell death and cellular proliferation. Cell membrane receptors and their associated signal transducing proteins control these processes. Of the numerous receptors and signaling proteins, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is one of the most important receptors involved in signaling pathways implicated in the proliferation and survival of cancer cells. EGFR is often highly expressed in human tumors including oral squamous cell carcinomas, and there is increasing evidence that high expression of EGFR is correlated with poor clinical outcome of common human cancers. Therefore, we examined the antiproliferative activity of gefitinib, epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR TKI), in head and neck cancer cell lines. SCC-9, KB cells were cultured and growth inhibition activity of gefitinib was measured with MTT assay. To study influence of gefitinib in cell cycle, we performed cell cycle analysis with flow cytometry. Western blot was done to elucidate the expression of EGFR in cell lines and phosphorylation of EGFR and downstream kinase protein, Erk and Akt. Significant growth inhibition was observed in SCC-9 cells in contrast with KB cells. Also, flow cytometric analysis showed G1 phase arrest only in SCC-9 cells. In Western blot analysis for investigation of EGFR expression and downstream molecule phosphorylation, gefitinib suppressed phosphorylation of EGFR and downstream protein kinase Erk, Akt in SCC-9. However, in EGFR positive KB cells, weak expression of active form of Erk and Akt and no inhibitory activity of phosphorylation in Erk and Akt was observed. The antiproliferative activity of gefitinib was not correlated with EGFR expression and some possibility of phosphorylation of Erk and Akt as a predictive factor of gefitinib response was emerged. Further investigations on more reliable predictive factor indicating gefitinib response are awaited to be useful gefitinib treatment in head and neck cancer patients.

Cutaneous Adverse Reactions Induced by Gefitinib (Iressa) in Lung Cancer Patients (폐암 환자들에서 Gefitinib (Iressa)에 의한 피부 부작용)

  • Yun, Sook Jung;Lee, Jee Bum;Kim, Kyu Sik;Kim, Young Chul
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.61 no.2
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    • pp.150-156
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    • 2006
  • Background: Gefitinib (ZD 1839, Iressa) is a new anticancer agent; more specifically, it is a selective epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor that is, widely used for various solid cancers, including lung cancer. Cutaneous adverse reactions induced by gefitinib have recently been reported; however, not much on this topic has been reported in the Korean literature. Method: We studied cutaneous adverse reactions of gefitinib in 23 patients who suffered with non-small cell lung cancer at Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital from October 2004 to September 2005. Result: The patients ranged from 23-72 years old, and there were 17 patients with adenocarcinoma, 5 with squamous cell carcinoma and 1 with bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. The most common adverse reaction was acneiform eruptions in 15 patients (65.2%). This reaction appeared within 2 months after medication, and it didn't correlate with the therapeutic response and tumor type. Pruritus was the second most common reaction (39.1%), which was mild and generalized, especially around eyelid area. Xerosis (26.1%), exfoliation on palm and sole (21.7%), and paronychia (21.7%) followed. Hair breakage and intertrigo were rare adverse reactions. Conclusion: Various cutaneous adverse reactions were observed in patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma after gefitinib treatment. The skin complications could be alleviated with dermatologic consultations and treatments, skin complications could be alleviated.

Enhanced Sensitivity to Gefitinib after Radiation in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells

  • Choi, Yun-Jung;Rho, Jin-Kyung;Back, Dae-Hyun;Kim, Hye-Ryoun;Lee, Jae-Cheol;Kim, Cheol-Hyeon
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.71 no.4
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    • pp.259-265
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    • 2011
  • Background: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors, gefitinib and erlotinib, are effective therapies for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients whose tumors harbor somatic mutations in EGFR. The mutations are, however, only found in about 30% of Asian NSCLC patients and all patients ultimately develop resistance to these agents. Ionizing radiation has been shown to induce autophosphorylation of EGFR and activate its downstream signaling pathways. In the present study, we have tested whether the effect of gefitinib treatment can be enhanced after ionizing radiation. Methods: We compared the PC-9 and A549 cell line with its radiation-resistant derivatives after gefitinib treatment with cell proliferation and apoptosis assay. We also analyzed the effect of gefitinib after ionizing radiation in PC-9, A549, and NCI-H460 cells. Cell proliferation was determined by MTT assay and induction of apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry. Caspase 3 activation and PARP cleavage were evaluated by western blot analysis. Results: PC-9 cells having mutated EGFR and their radiation-resistant cells showed no significant difference in cell viability. However, radiation-resistant A549 cells were more sensitive to gefitinib than were their parental cells. This was attributable to an increased induction of apoptosis. Gefitinib-induced apoptosis increased significantly after radiation in cells with wild type EGFR including A549 and NCI-H460, but not in PC-9 cells with mutated EGFR. Caspase 3 activation and PARP cleavage accompanied these findings. Conclusion: The data suggest that gefitinib-induced apoptosis could increase after radiation in cells with wild type EGFR, but not in cells with mutated EGFR.

Acute Respiratory Failure Developed in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated With Gefitinib (비소세포 폐암환자에서 Gefitinib 투여 중 발생한 급성호흡부전)

  • Ryu, Jeong-Seon;Kim, Lucia;Kim, Chul-Hyun;Kim, Hyun-Jung;Cho, Jae-Hwa;Kwak, Seung-Min;Lee, Hong-Lyeol
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.62 no.2
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    • pp.144-148
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    • 2007
  • Gefitinib is an oral selective inhibitor that targets the tyrosine kinase of the epidermal growth factor receptor. The prevalence of interstitial lung disease is 2% in Japan and 0.3% in the USA with a mortality rate of up to one third. We describe two non-small cell lung cancer patients who developed acute respiratory failure after gefitinib, and suggest that clinicians take extreme caution when deciding to treat patients with gefitinib.

Early or Late Gefitinib, Which is Better for Survival? - Retrospective Analysis of 228 Korean Patients with Advanced or Metastatic NSCLC

  • Kim, Dong-Gun;Kim, Min-Kyoung;Bae, Sung-Hwa;Koh, Sung-Ae;Park, Sung-Woo;Kim, Hyun-Je;Kim, Myung-Jin;Jang, Hyo-Jin;Lee, Kyung-Hee;Lee, Kwan-Ho;Chung, Jin-Hong;Shin, Kyung-Chul;Ryoo, Hun-Mo;Hyun, Myung-Soo
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.31-44
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    • 2011
  • Background: The optimal timing of treatment with EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKI) in NSCLC patients has not yet been determined. Methods: We separated 228 patients with advanced /metastatic NSCLC treated with gefitinib into an early gefitinib group (patients who received gefitinib as first- or second-line treatment) and a delayed gefitinib group (patients who received gefitinib as third or fourth-line treatment) and attempted to determine whether the timing of gefitinib treatment affected clinical outcomes. Results: Median overall survival (OS), progression free survival (PFS), and median OS from first-line treatment of advanced/metastatic disease (OSt) for 111 patients in the early gefitinib group were 6.2 months, 3.3 months, and 11.6 months. However, median OS, PFS, and OSt for 84 patients in the delayed gefitinib group were 7.8 months, 2.3 months, and 22.7 months. No differences in OS and PFS were observed between the 2 groups. However, OSt was significantly longer in the delayed gefitnib group. Timing of gefitinib therapy was one of the independent predictors of OSt. Hb ${\geq}$ 10 g/dl, and having never smoked, and ECOG performance status ${\leq}1$ were independent predictors of better PFS. Conclusion:Deferral of gefitinib therapy in patientswith advanced ormetastatic NSCLC may be preferable if they are able to tolerate chemotherapy.

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Comparison of Gefitinib and Erlotinib for Patients with Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (진행성 비소세포폐암 환자에서 Gefitinib와 Erlotinib의 비교)

  • Lee, Jin Hwa;Lee, Kyoung Eun;Ryu, Yon Ju;Chun, Eun Mi;Chang, Jung Hyun
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.66 no.4
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    • pp.280-287
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    • 2009
  • Background: The epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs), became an attractive therapeutic option for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Several studies suggested that there might be some different efficacy or response predictors between gefitinib and erlotinib. We compared the efficacy and toxicity of gefitinib and erlotinib in Korean patients with advanced NSCLC and evaluated specific predictors of response for both gefitinib and erlotinib. Methods: We collected the clinical information on patients with advanced NSCLC, who were treated with gefitinib or erlotinib at the Ewha Womans University Hospital, between July 2003 and February 2009. Median survival times were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Eighty-six patients (52 gefitinib vs. 34 erlotinib) were enrolled. Patient median age was 64 years; 53 (62%) subjects were male. Out of the 86 patients treated, 83 received response evaluation. Of the 83 patients, 35 achieved a response and 12 experienced stable disease while 36 experienced progressive disease, resulting in a response rate of 42% and a disease control rate of 57%. After a median follow-up of 502 days, the median progression-free and overall survival time was 129 and 259 days, respectively. Comparing patients by treatment (gefitinib vs erlotinib), there were no significant differences in the overall response rate (44% vs. 39%, p=0.678), median survival time (301 days vs. 202 days, p=0.151), or time to progression (136 days vs. 92 days, p=0.672). Both EGFR-TKIs showed similar toxicity. In a multivariate analysis using Cox regression model, adenocarcinoma was an independent predictor of survival (p=0.006; hazard ratio [HR], 0.487; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.292-0.811). Analyses of subgroups did not show any difference in response predictors between gefitinib and erlotinib. Conclusion: Comparing gefitinib to erlotinib, there were no differences in the response rate, overall survival, progression-free survival, or toxicity. No specific predictor of response to each EGFR-TKI was identified.

The Effect of Gefitinib on Immune Response of Human Peripheral Blood Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells (인간 말초혈액 단핵구 유래 수지상세포의 면역반응에 미치는 Gefitinib의 영향)

  • Cho, Jin-Hoon;Kim, Mi-Hyun;Lee, Kwang-Ha;Kim, Ki-Uk;Jeon, Doo-Soo;Park, Hye-Kyung;Kim, Yun-Seong;Lee, Min-Ki;Park, Soon-Kew
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.69 no.6
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    • pp.456-464
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    • 2010
  • Background: Synergistic antitumor effects of the combined chemoimmunotherapy based on dendritic cells have been reported recently. The aim of this study is to search new applicability of gefitinib into the combination treatment through the confirmation of gefitinib effects on the monocyte derived dendritic cells (moDCs); most potent antigen presenting cell (APC). Methods: Immature and mature monocyte-derived dendritic cell (im, mMoDC)s were generated from peripheral blood monocyte (PBMC) in Opti-MEM culture medium supplemented with IL-4, GM-CSF and cocktail, consisting of TNF-${\alpha}$ (10 ng/mL), IL-$1{\beta}$ (10 ng/mL), IL-6 (1,000 U/mL) and $PGE_2$ ($1{\mu}/mL$). Various concentrations of gefitinib also added on day 6 to see the influence on immature and mature MoDCs. Immunophenotyping of DCs under the gefitinib was performed by using monoclonal antibodies (CD14, CD80, CD83, CD86, HLA-ABC, HLA-DR). Supernatant IL-12 production and apoptosis of DCs was evaluated. And MLR assay with $[^3H]$-thymidine uptake assay was done. Results: Expression of CD83, MHC I were decreased in mMoDCs and MHC I was decreased in imMoDCs under gefitinib. IL-12 production from mMoDCs was decreased under $10{\mu}M$ of gefitinib sinificantly. Differences of T cell proliferation capacity were not observed in each concentration of geftinib. Conclusion: In spite of decreased expressions of some dendritic cell surface molecules and IL-12 production under $10{\mu}M$ of gefitinib, significant negative influences of gefitinib in antigen presenting capacity and T cell stimulation were not observed.

Gefitinib-Related Interstitial Pneumonia (Gefitinib 투여 후 발생한 간질성 폐렴)

  • Lee, Ho Jin;Nam, Seung Bum;Jung, Jae Wook;Na, Im Il;Kim, Cheol Hyeon;Ryoo, Baek-Yeol;Choe, Du Whan;Kang, Jin Hyung;Lee, Jae Cheol
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.62 no.2
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    • pp.134-139
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    • 2007
  • Gefitinib is a novel drug used to treat advanced non-small cell lung cancer. However, drug-related interstitial pneumonia is a major life-threatening side effect, which has a worldwide prevalence of 0.3-0.4%. In Japan, the prevalence is high as 3-4% but the actual frequency in Korea has not been officially assessed. We report two cases of gefitinib-induced interstitial lung disease during the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. High-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) of one case showed nonspecific ground glass opacity and the chest x-ray of another case showed diffuse bilateral ground glass opacity. The former patient showed a rapid good response to corticosteroid treatment whereas the latter died despite receiving aggressive treatment with high dose corticosteroid and empirical antibiotics.