• Title, Summary, Keyword: gastric mucosa

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Protective Mechanism of Nitric Oxide and Mucus against Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury

  • Kim, Hye-Young;Nam, Kwang-Soo;Kim, Kyung-Hwan
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.2 no.4
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    • pp.511-519
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    • 1998
  • This study investigated the role of nitric oxide on the oxidative damage in gastric mucosa of rats which received ischemia/reperfusion and its relation to mucus. Nitric oxide synthesis modulators such as L-arginine and $N^G-nitro-L-arginine$ methyl ester, and sodium nitroprusside, a nitric oxide donor, were injected intraperitoneally to the rats 30 min prior to ischemia/reperfusion which was induced by clamping the celiac artery and the superior mesenteric artery for 30 min and reperfusion for 1 h. Lipid peroxide production, the contents of glutathione and mucus, and glutathione peroxidase activities of gastric mucosa were determined. Histological observation of gastric mucosa was performed by using hematoxylin-eosin staining and scanning electron microscopy. The result showed that ischemia/reperfusion increased lipid peroxide production and decreased the contents of glutathione and mucus as well as glutathione peroxidase activities of gastric mucosa. Ischemia/reperfusion induced gastric erosion and gross epithelial disruption of gastric mucosa. Pretreatment of L-arginine, a substrate for nitric oxide synthase, and sodium nitroprusside prevented ischemia/reperfusion-induced alterations of gastric mucosa. However, $N^G-nitro-$ L- arginine methyl ester, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, deteriorated oxidative damage induced by ischemia/reperfusion. In conclusion, nitric oxide has an antioxidant defensive role on gastric mucosa by maintaining mucus, glutathione, and glutathione peroxidase of gastric mucosa.

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Gastric Mucosal Fatty Acid Composition of Phospholipids in Gastric Cancer (위암 환자에서 위 점막 인지질 분획의 지방산 조성)

  • Shim, Eugene;Hwang, Jinah;Yang, Yoonkyoung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.302-310
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    • 2020
  • Although the age-standardized incidence of gastric cancer has decreased in Korea, it remains the second most common type of cancer. The purpose of this study was to analyze the phospholipid fatty acid compositions of gastric mucosa in gastric cancer. Cancerous mucosa and noncancerous mucosa adjacent to cancerous tissues were obtained from 29 patients who had undergone gastrectomy for gastric adenocarcinoma. Phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidylserine (PS) were separated from phospholipids by thin-layer chromatography, and fatty acids were analyzed by gas chromatography. In cancerous mucosa, saturated fatty acids of total phospholipids and stearic acid of PE and PC contents as well as total phospholipids were significantly more abundant than in noncancerous tissues. The ratios of ω6 fatty acid products to linoleic acid of PC, PE, PI, and PS contents as well as total phospholipids were significantly higher in cancerous mucosa than in noncancerous mucosa. Arachidonic acid levels of PE and PI were significantly higher, but the PC level was lower in cancerous mucosa. These results suggest that the characteristic differences in fatty acid compositions of phospholipids and their subfractions shown in gastric cancerous mucosa may be affected by changes in lipid metabolism in gastric carcinogenesis. Further studies on structural and functional changes in phospholipids related to gastric carcinogenesis will be needed.

Effects of Rhei Rhizoma on Gastric Ulcer in Sprague-Dawley Rats (대황(大黃)이 흰쥐의 위점막 손상에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Bum-Hoi
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.71-77
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    • 2011
  • Gastric ulcer has multifactorial etiology, and the development of ulcer is known to be caused by gastric acidity, pepsin secretion, gastric motility and gastric mucosal blood flow. The ulcer results from the tissue necrosis and apoptotic cell death triggered by mucosal ischemia, free radical formation and cessation of nutrient delivery. The gastric mucosa is usually exposed to a wide range of aggressive insults, and has developed efficient mechanisms to repair tissue injury. The apoptotic process of gastric mucosa is triggered by the induction of such proapoptotic gene expression, such as BAX. The Bcl-2 family of proteins plays a pivotal role in the regulation of apoptosis. The maintenance of gastric mucosa integrity depends upon the ratio between cell proliferation and cell death. Stress-inducing factors may affect Bcl-2/BAX ratio and thus the rate of apoptosis through modulation of the expression of both proteins depends upon the experimental model. In addition to the regulation of apoptosis, new vessels have to be generated in order to ensure an adequate supply of oxygen and nutrients to the healing gastric mucosa. This events are regulated by several factors. Among them, such polypeptide growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) regulates essential cell functions involved in tissue healing including cell proliferation and differentiation. The purpose of this study was carried to investigate whether Rhei Rhizoma administration might protect apoptotic cell death and promote angiogenesis in gastric mucosa. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups; normal, saline, cimetidine and Rhei Rhizoma-treated group. The saline, cimetidine and Rhei Rhizoma extracts were orally administrated to each group and gastric ulcer was induced by HCl-EtOH solution. After 1 hour, the stomachs were collected for histological observation and immunohistochemistry. In results, Rhei Rhizoma proves to promote to heal wound in gastric ulcer in conclusion and the significant changes of BAX, Bcl-2 and VEGF quantity in gastric mucosa were observed. These results suggest that Rhei Rhizoma extract may promote incision wound healing and has protective effects on gastric ulcer in rats.

Antioxidant Effects of GaMiHyangSaYukGunJaTang against Gastric Mucosal Lesions induced by Indomethacin (가미향사육군자탕(加味香砂六君子湯)의 Indomethacin 유도 위점막손상 에 미치는 항산화효과(抗酸化效果))

  • Kim, Kyung-Sun;Shin, Heung-Mook
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.165-178
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    • 1998
  • This study was carried out to investigate the protective effects of GaMiHyangSaYukGunJaTang on gastric mucosal lesions caused by indomethacin in rats.The test group was injected with indomethacin after the oral administration of GaMiHyangSaYukGunJaTang, while the control group was injected only with indomethacin. The lipid peroxidation level increased considerably in the control group, but superoxide disnurtase(SOD), catalase and glutathione(GSH) levels remarkably decreased. The following effects induced by indomethacin were observed in the stomach of the control group; mucosa hemoIThagic infarct, mucosa cell necrosis, leukocyte appearance, mucosa hemorrhagic erosion and gastric pit disawearance. In the test group, lipid peroxides level was significantly reduced compared with the control group While SOD, catalase and GSH levels considerably increased. The following effects were also observed in the stomach of the test group; mucosa hemorrhagic infarct, mucosa cell necrosis, leukocyte appearance and mucosa hemorrhagic erosion occured far less and gastric pit disappearance was not observed at all. This results suggest that GaMiHyangSaYukGunJaTang is effective in the remedy of gastric mucosal lesions as GaMiHyangSaYukGunJaTang suppresses the production of the lipid peroxides and free radicals induced by indomethacin and activates SOD, catalase and GSH.

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A Case of Gastro-Colic Fistula due to Ectopic Gastric Mucosa and its $^{99m}TcO_4$ Scan Findings (대장에 발생하여 대장-위 루를 형성한 이소성 위점막과 $^{99m}TcO_4$ 스캔 소견)

  • Park, Seok-Gun;Lee, Yeon-Hee;Im, Chang-Young;Cho, Jung-Hee
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.172-177
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    • 1998
  • We report a case of gastro-colic fistula caused by ectopic gastric mucosa developed at transverse colon. Fistula was detected by colonofiberscopy. And fistulous tract was proved by barium enema. Meckel's diverticulum scan finding was similar to that of GI bleeding; e.g. injected radioactivity was secreted into the lumen and moved along the lumen. There was no bleeding. And there was no diverticulum in the colon. Absence of diverticular pouch may explain this unusual GI bleeding-like scan finding rather than focal collection of radioactivity, which is typical of ectopic gastric mucosa found in the Meckel's diverticulum. Ectopic gastric mucosa was confirmed by colonofiberscopic biopsy. We suggest GI bleeding-like pictures should be included in differential diagnosis of $^{99m}TcO_4$ (ectopic gastric mucosa or Meckel's diverticulum) scan.

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Efficacy of Brown Seaweed Hot Water Extract Against Hcl-ethanol Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rats

  • Raghavendran Hanumantha Rao Balaji;Sathivel Arumugam;Devaki Thiruvengadam
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.449-453
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    • 2004
  • Effect of pre-treatment with hot water extract of marine brown alga Sargassum polycystum C.Ag. (100 mg/kg body wt, orally for period of 15 days) on HCI-ethanol (150 mM of HCI-etha-not mixture containing 0.15 N HCI in $70\%$ v/v ethanol given orally) induced gastric mucosal injury in rats was examined with respect to lipid peroxides, antioxidant enzyme status, acid/pepsin and glycoproteins in the gastric mucosa. The levels of lipid peroxides of gastric mucosa and volume, acidity of the gastric juice were increased with decreased levels of antioxidant enzymes and glycoproteins were observed in HCI-ethanol induced rats. The rats pre-treated with seaweed extract prior to HCI-ethanol induction reversed the depleted levels of antioxidant enzymes and reduced the elevated levels of lipid peroxides when compared with HCI-ethanol induced rats. The levels of glycoproteins and alterations in the gastric juice were also maintained at near normal levels in rats pre-treated with seaweed extract. The rats given seaweed extract alone did not show any toxicity, which was confirmed by histopathological studies. These results suggest that the seaweed extract contains some anti-ulcer agents, which may maintain the volume/acidity of gastric juice and improve the gastric mucosa antioxidant defense system against HCI-ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury in rats.

Improved Detection of Helicobacter pylori Infection and Premalignant Gastric Mucosa Using "Site Specific Biopsy": a Randomized Control Clinical Trial

  • Tongtawee, Taweesak;Dechsukhum, Chavaboon;Leeanansaksiri, Wilairat;Kaewpitoon, Soraya;Kaewpitoon, Natthawut;Loyd, Ryan A;Matrakool, Likit;Panpimanmas, Sukij
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.18
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    • pp.8487-8490
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    • 2016
  • Background: Helicobacter pylori infection and premalignant gastric mucosa can be reliably identified using conventional narrow band imaging (C-NBI) gastroscopy. The aim of our study was to compare standard biopsy with site specific biopsy for diagnosis of H. pylori infection and premalignant gastric mucosa in daily clinical practice. Materials and Methods: Of a total of 500 patients who underwent gastroscopy for investigation of dyspeptic symptoms, 250 patients underwent site specific biopsy using C-NBI (Group 1) and 250 standard biopsy (Group 2). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were assessed. The efficacy of detecting H. pylori associated gastritis and premalignant gastric mucosa according to the updated Sydney classification was also compared. Results: In group 1 the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for predicting H. pylori positivity were 95.4%, 97.3%, 98.8% and 90.0% respectively, compared to 92.9%, 88.6%, 83.2% and 76.1% in group 2. Site specific biopsy was more effective than standard biopsy in terms of both H. pylori infection status and premalignant gastric mucosa detection (P<0.01). Conclusions: Site specific biopsy using C-NBI can improve detection of H. pylori infection and premalignant gastric mucosa in daily clinical practice.

The Effects of Processed Garlic on Gastric Mucosa Injury in Rats (흰쥐 위점막 손상에 대한 가공마늘의 효과)

  • 서광희
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.223-231
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    • 1994
  • This study was designed to investigate the effects of Garlic Jug A Jii, a popular processed food for Korean was given of HCI-ethanol in rats as experimental Model. Oral administration HCI-ethanol to fasted rats produced extensive necrosis in the gastric mucosa. Pretreatment with garlic juice and 3 week stored Garlic Jang A Jii juice prevented such necrosis and the effects were dose-dependent. The effects of garlic Jang A Jii juice comparing with raw garlic juice were reduced but statiscally significant differences were not found. 5 week-stored Garlic Jang A Jii was inhibited the formation of gastric mucosal injury. Comparing with garlic Jug A Jii for 3 weeks, while garlic Jang A Jii juice and 1 : 10 diluted garlic Jang A Jii juice did not show significant shifts but the effects of 1 100 diluted garlic Jang A Jii was decreased. Oral administration of disulfide prevented the gastric mucosa injury whereas sulfhydryl blockers such as N-ethylmaleimie and indomethacin was decreased on gastric mucosa protective effect. The content of diallyl disulfide was 1.41mg% in raw garlic, 0.96mg% in garlic Jang A Jii for 3 weeks. The content of diallyl disulfide was gradually reduced according to the elapse of storage period.

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The Changes of Mucin and Endocrine cells of Mucosa of Acetic Acid-Induced Gastric Ulcer after Administration of Whadamcheongwha-tang Extract in Rat (화담청화탕이 acetic acid로 유발된 흰쥐 위궤양 점막의 내분비세포와 점액의 조직화학적 변화)

  • Kang Gyung Rae;Yuk Sang Won;Ko Hyoung Gon;Lee Kwang Gyu;Lee Chang Hyun
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.1170-1176
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    • 2002
  • We examined the effects of Whadamcheongwha-tang(WDCWT) extract on the acetic-acid induced antigastric ulcer in rats. These experiments investigated the numerical changes of gastrin and histamine secreting cells of the gastric mucosa by immunohistochemical method, and the changes of mucin of gastric mucosa by PAS-AB stain methods after the oral administration of WDCWT extract(1.0ml/day) and omeprazole(0.2mg/day) for 1, 3 and 6 weeks. The result are as follows; 1. When WDCWT extract was administrated for 1, 3, 6 weeks, in result, gastrin secreting cells in gastric mucosa were increased compared to the control group. 2. When WDCWT extract was administrated for 1, 3, 6 weeks, in result, the density of immunoreactive gastrin cells was increased compare to the control group. 3. When WDCWT extract was administrated for 1, 3, 6 weeks, in results, the changs of mucosal thickness stained by PAS/PAS-AB was increased compared to the control group. 4. When WDCWT extract was administrated for 1, 3, 6 weeks, in results, the density of PAS stain was decreased compare to control group, but density of AB stain was increased compare to control group. The results suggest that WDCWT extract inhibits a gastric acid secretion in rat gastric mucosa, and is useful in the treatment of the hyperacidity and gastric ulcer.

The Effects of Pyeongwibunsoeum Extract on Indomethacin-induced Gastric Mucosal lesions (평위분소음의 Indomethacin 유발 위점막 손상에 대한 효과)

  • 백태현
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.94-108
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    • 2003
  • Objectives : This study was carried out to investigate the anti-ulcer effects of Pyeongwibunsoeum extract and Misoprostol on indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal lesions of mice. Methods : Experimental groups were classified into non-treated group, non-administered group, Misoprostol-administered group and Pyeongwibunsoeum-extract-administered group. This study examined the morphological change, distribution of mast cells and apoptic cells, PNA reaction, COX-1, BrdU, NF-B p50, COX-2, IL-2R-, and ICAM-1of gastric mucosa. Results : 1. The hemorrhagic erosion of gastric mucosa was reduced in the Misoprostol-administered and Pyeongwibunsoeum-extract-administered groups. 2. The Misoprostol-administered group and Pyeongwibunsoeum-extract-administered group showed positive reaction on the PNA distribution. 3. The distribution of apoptic cells, activity of NF-B p50, COX-2, IL-2R-, and ICAM-1 decreased in both the Misoprostol-administered group and Pyeongwibunsoeum-extract-administered group. 4. The Misoprostol-administered and Pyeongwibunsoeum-extract-administered groups showed increase on COX-1, BrdU. Conclusions : As the results indicate, hemorrhagic erosion of gastric mucosa were reduced in both the Misoprostol-administeredand Pyeongwibunsoeum-extract-administered groups, and severe inflammatory reaction of gastric mucosa was reduced. The effects on the Pyeongwibunsoeum-extract-administered group were superior to those on the Misoprostol-administered group. Pyeongwibunsoeum extract can be widely administered for gastric ulcer disease in clinical treatments.

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