• Title, Summary, Keyword: garlic

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A Fundamental Study for Developing a Garlic Harvester (I) - Physical Properties of Live Garlic at the Harvesting Season - (마늘수확기 개발을 위한 기초 연구 (I) - 수확시기 마늘의 물성 -)

  • 노광모;장영창;박준걸
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 1999
  • In this study, the physical properties of live garlic at the harvesting season were measured and analyzed as a fundamental study for developing a garlic harvester. A universal testing machine and a machine vision system were used to obtain mechanical and morphological properties of live garlic, respectively. The moisture content of live garlic at the harvesting season was 50% higher than that of dried garlic. The root of live garlic elongated greatly with respect to the applied tensile force. The relationship between the projected area and the weight of a bulb of live garlic was linear. Such a feature would be applied to develop an effective garlic harvester or garlic quality grader. Other useful physical properties of live garlic at the harvesting season were represented in the study.

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Physicochemical Characteristics of Red Garlic During Processing (홍마늘의 숙성 단계별 이화학적 특성)

  • Kang, Min-Jung;Yoon, Hwan-Sik;Jeong, Seong-Hun;Sung, Nak-Ju;Shin, Jung-Hye
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.898-906
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    • 2011
  • Physicochemical and physiological characteristics of red garlic were investigated in each of the four steps of its processing, and were compared with those of fresh and black garlic. With the progress in processing, the lightness value of the external and internal colors of the red garlic significantly decreased. The hardness was highest in the fresh garlic and lowest in the black garlic. During processing, the red garlic tended to become hard. The crudeprotein and ash contents were highest in the red garlic (step 4), but its moisture content was the lowest. The crudelipid content of the red garlic was lower than that of the fresh garlic. The pH of the red garlic showed little difference from that of the fresh garlic, but the black garlic was significantly, acidified. The acidity and pH contradicted each other : the black garlic had the highest acidity, and the acidity of the red garlic was within the low range. The fresh garlic had the lowest in reducing-sugar content, but such content was significantly increased in the red garlic and black garlic. Six kinds of organic acid were detected in the fresh garlic, and the same contents were also quantified in the red garlic until third step. In step 4, malic acid was not detected in the red garlic. Acetic and citric acid were only in the black garlic. S-allyl cysteine content of the red garlic was $18.05{\pm}0.53$ mg/100 g, similar to that of the black garlic ($19.43{\pm}0.50$ mg/100 g).

Analysis of Biological Activity by Time of Black Garlic Ripening in Seosan Yukjok Garlic and Elephant Garlic (서산육쪽·코끼리마늘의 흑마늘 숙성 시기별 생리활성 분석)

  • Cho, Yong-Koo;Ann, Seoung-Won;Jang, Myoung-Jun;Oh, Tae-Seok;Oh, Min-Gyo;Park, Youn-Jin;Kim, Chang-ho
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.469-477
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    • 2020
  • This study analyzed the quality characteristics of black garlic made from Seosan Yukjok Garlic and elephant garlic in Seosan, Chungnam province. Of the inorganic components, Mg content was the highest in all treatment groups, and the Ca content was high in each of the 15 day treatments. The content of K was high after 10 days aging in Yukjok garlic and after 15 days in the elephant garlic. The Fe, Na, K, and Mg content was high in Yukjok black garlic after 15 days, and Na, K, Ca, and Mg were high in the elephant black garlic aged for 15 days. The crude fat content was high in both Yukjok black garlic and elephant black garlic after 15 days. Vitamin C content was highest in both types of garlic after aging for 15 days. An analysis of four kinds of organic acids showed that citric acid was the only organic acid to appear in raw garlic of Yukjok garlic and elephant garlic. Black Yukjok garlic and elephant black garlic had a greater total amino acid content than the raw garlic of either type. However, among the tested amino acids, 13 kinds of amino acids were at their highest after five days of ripening in Yukjok black garlic, while 15 kinds of amino acids were abundant in elephant garlic after the same period. Eight kinds of amino acids were high after aging for 15 days. Through this study, it was confirmed that, in the process of making black garlic, changes in the main components of the garlic occur through different routes, and these changes vary depending on the garlic species. Therefore, this study provided basic data for the processing of Seosan's Yukjok black garlic and elephant black garlic.

Comparison of Volatile Flavor Components between Fresh and Odorless Garlic (생마늘과 무취마늘의 휘발성 향기 성분의 비교)

  • Lee, Jae-Gon;Do, Jae-Ho;Sung, Hyun-Soon;Lee, Jong-Won
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.40 no.5
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    • pp.451-454
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    • 1997
  • An attempt was made in this study to analyze volatile flavor components of fresh and odorless garlic (Allium sativum L.), Essential oils in fresh garlic and odorless garlic were isolated by a simultaneous steam distillation and extraction(SDE) method using n-pentane/diethy ether as solvent. A total of 21 and 22 components were identified by GC/MS from the essential oils of fresh garlic and odorless garlic, respectively. Diallyl trisulfide, diallyl disulfide and methyl allyl disulfide were found to be major volatile flavor components in fresh garlic and odorless garlic. By the preparation of ordorless garlic, 77.5% of diallyl trisulfide, 15.0% of diallyl disulfde, 72% of methyl allyl disulfide, and 78.4% of allyl thiol components in fresh garlic were lost. Eleven compounds including 2-vinyl-4H-1,3-dithiin, eugenol and 2-methoxy-4-vinyl-phenol were identified in odorless garlic, but not m fresh garlic.

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Antioxidant effect of garlic and aged black garlic in animal model of type 2 diabetes mellitus

  • Lee, Young-Min;Gweon, Oh-Cheon;Seo, Yeong-Ju;Im, Ji-Eun;Kang, Min-Jung;Kim, Myo-Jeong;Kim, Jung-In
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.156-161
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    • 2009
  • Hyperglycemia in the diabetic state increases oxidative stress and antioxidant therapy can be strongly correlated with decreased risks for diabetic complications. The purpose of this study is to determine antioxidant effect of garlic and aged black garlic in animal model of type 2 diabetes. The antioxidant activity of garlic and aged black garlic was measured as the activity in scavenging free radicals by the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay. Three week-old db/db mice were fed AIN-93G diet or diet containing 5% freeze-dried garlic or aged black garlic for 7 weeks after 1 week of adaptation. Hepatic levels of lipid peroxides and activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured. TEAC values of garlic and aged black garlic were $13.3{\pm}0.5$ and $59.2{\pm}0.8{\mu}mol/g$ wet weight, respectively. Consumption of aged black garlic significantly decreased hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level compared with the garlic group which showed lower TBARS level than control group (p<0.05). Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) of garlic and aged black garlic group were significantly elevated compared to the control group. Catalase (CAT) activity of aged black garlic group was increased compared with the control group. These results show that aged black garlic exerts stronger antioxidant activity than garlic in vitro and in vivo, suggesting garlic and aged black garlic, to a greater extent, could be useful in preventing diabetic complications.

Development of Rotating Cone Type Garlic Clove Separator (III) - Design and Performance Evaluation of Final Protype - (회전 원추형 마늘 쪽분리기 개발에 관한 연구 (III) - 최종기 설계 및 성능평가 -)

  • Lee, J.S.;Kim, K.B.
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.84-90
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    • 2007
  • This study was conducted to design and manufacture a final prototype of garlic separator and to evaluate its performance. The performance of garlic separation was compared with manual separation. The final prototype for garlic separation consists of bucked-elevator device for automatic feed of garlic, rotating cone typed device, blower, and power transmission device. The optimal condition of outlet clearance was 19 mm and in this clearance, the proportions of fragment garlic separated in the large quality of Namdo garlic and all quality of Uiseong garlic were above 95% and above 85%, respectively. All proportion of damaged garlic was below 5% for all variety and quality. The garlic separation capacities of this developed machine were 310 kg/h for Namdo garlic and 293.6 kg/h for Uiseong garlic in the large quality. Capacities of final prototype compared with human being were $12.9{\sim}19.6$ times for Namdo and $24.2{\sim}31.7$ times Uiseong garlic, respectively.

Basic study on a garlic (Alliumsativum L.) upright planter

  • Lee, Sang Yoon;Park, Hyo Je;Kweon, Gi Young
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.341-350
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    • 2019
  • Garlic is one of the most popular seasoning bulb vegetables in Korea and is the most commonly used food ingredient. However, the cultivation areas are decreasing every year as the price drops due to imported garlic, and labor is insufficient to produce garlic by conventional methods. Cultivation requires various tasks until garlic is harvested. Seeding is one of the important and laborious tasks; thus, mechanization is necessary. When seeding garlic, the sprout should face upwards; otherwise, it may rot or produce poor quality garlic. This study investigated the extent of growth of northern- and southern-type garlic in eight different positions. The results show when the roots were not planted properly, the stems were weak, and the garlic bulbs were small. A simple garlic planter was manufactured with a crank-press mechanism to plant garlic in an upright position. Using this machine, a three-fold experiment was carried out with 100 strips of garlic. The test results showed that 99.4% of the planted garlic strips were positioned upright or close to being upright, and 0.6% failed to take root. An image processing algorithm was developed to locate the root part of the garlic, and the result showed a success rate of 81%. A future study will develop an automatic garlic upright planting system with a viewing system.

Pharmacetical Characteristics and Analysis of Garlic Extract (마늘 추출물의 약리적 특성 및 분석)

  • Sung, Ki-Chun
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.301-308
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    • 2007
  • From the experiment result on pharmacetical characteristics and analysis of Garlic extract, some conclusions were obtained as follows. From the results on extract experiment of Garlic, extraction ratio was about 6.0%, and after dried with dry oven from Garlic extract, it obtained about 50%-Garlic extract of solid state. From results on antimicrobial experiment of Garlic extract, number of staphylococcus and fungus in microbe decreased more and more according to time passage. This phenomenon showed that Garlic extract keeps antimicrobial effect. From results on antioxidation experiment of Garlic extract, DPPH scavenging activity of free radical showed that Garlic extract appears more remarkable reduction ability than reference samples. This phenomenon means that antioxidation of Garlic extract appears higher than Vitamin-C and BHA. From results on instrument analysis, inorganic components of K, Na, Ca, Si, Mg, Zn etcs from Garlic extract were detected with ICP/OES and the fatty and aromatic components of trimethyl sulfide, diallyl disulfide, diallyl trisulfide, 2-mercaptobenzothiazole etcs from Garlic extract were detected with GC/MS.

Development of a Garlic Clove Planter (I) -Survey for planting condition and physical properties of garlic dove- (마늘파종기 개발에 관한 연구 (I) -마늘의 파종실태 및 물리적 특성 조사-)

  • 박원규;최덕규;김영근
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.495-502
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    • 2001
  • Upright positioning of garlic cloves has been considered as an essential process for mechanical planting because positioning affects the quality and yield of garlic production. Due to the geometrical uniqueness and irregularity of garlic cloves in shape, the planting operation has been conducted by manual. Manual planting requires intensive labors and high production cost. The overall Boal of this research was to develop a garlic clove planter which maintains a garlic clone upright. Specific objective was investigating planting condition and physical properties of garlic clove. The results were summarized as fellows : Based on the survey results, a garlic clove planter should have a planting capacity of at least 140 cloves in a pyung (3.3m$^2$) with the row spacing of 140mm and hill spacing of 120mm for a productive cultivation.

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Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Soy Sauce with Added Levels of Black Garlic Extract (흑마늘 추출액의 첨가 농도에 따른 간장의 품질특성 및 항산화 활성)

  • Choi, Myoung Hyo;Kang, Jae Ran;Kang, Min Jung;Sim, Hye Jin;Lee, Chang Kwon;Kim, Gyoung Min;Kim, Dong Gyu;Shin, Jung Hye
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.188-196
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: In order to develop soy sauce and increase its functionality, by adding black garlic extract. Methods: We compared quality characteristics and antioxidant activity of 20 days aging black garlic soy sauce from mixed manufacturers with raw soy sauce (commercial fermented soy sauce) and different ratio of black garlic extract (65 Brix, 0.3-5.0%). Results: The salt content of the black garlic extract (0.3-5.0%) added soy sauce were 12.35-12.77%. The pH was lowered to 4.99, and acidity was increased to 2.12%, depending on the increase in black garlic extract added ratio. The crude protein and total nitrogen contents were 6.23-6.62% and 1.10-1.16%, respectively, and content of amino form nitrogen was 0.52-0.53%, without significant differences between experimental groups. Contents of reducing sugar and free sugars (fructose and glucose) tended to be higher with higher mixing ratios of black garlic extract. Total phenolic compounds and flavonoids contents were significantly increased in the 3% and 5% black garlic extract addition group. At concentrations of 62.5, 125, 250, 500, 1,000 and $2,000{\mu}g/mL$, the DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity of the polysaccharides isolated from control soy sauce and 5% black garlic extract added soy sauce showed higher correlation with their concentration. Conclusion: These results, confirmed that the soy sauce produced by adding more than 3% of black garlic extract has high antioxidant activity.