• Title, Summary, Keyword: full scale measurements

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Deformation Measurement of Roadbed in Full-scale Field Test to Determine an Optimum Trackbed of High-Speed Railway (고속철도 노반의 최적단면 결정을 위한 실대형 모형시험에서의 노반 변형 계측)

  • Jung, Young-Hoon;Kim, Hak-Sung;Byeon, Bo-Hyeon;Lee, Jin-Wook
    • Proceedings of the KSR Conference
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    • pp.2821-2829
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    • 2011
  • Since the KTX was in operation in 2004, a number of researches on increasing the train speed have been conducted. Currently, the Honam High-speed train system is designed for the operation velocity of 350km/h. The societal demand expects higher operation speed, whereas the existing construction method and design specification are questioned in the KTX operation in the velocity over 350 km/h. In this study, a full-scale model test was conducted to obtain the preliminary data that is necessary to understand deformation characteristics of the reinforced road bed and the subgrade layers. In the full-scale model test, direct arrival seismic tests, crosshole seimic test, in-situ bender element test and sensing bar test were employed to measure the stiffness and deformation of the trackbed. The systematic analysis on the different set of measurements enhances the understanding of the behavior of the trackbed.

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Comparison of several computational turbulence models with full-scale measurements of flow around a building

  • Wright, N.G.;Easom, G.J.
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.2 no.4
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    • pp.305-323
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    • 1999
  • Accurate turbulence modeling is an essential prerequisite for the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in Wind Engineering. At present the most popular turbulence model for general engineering flow problems is the ${\kappa}-{\varepsilon}$ model. Models such as this are based on the isotropic eddy viscosity concept and have well documented shortcomings (Murakami et al. 1993) for flows encountered in Wind Engineering. This paper presents an objective assessment of several available alternative models. The CFD results for the flow around a full-scale (6 m) three-dimensional surface mounted cube in an atmospheric boundary layer are compared with recently obtained data. Cube orientations normal and skewed at $45^{\circ}$ to the incident wind have been analysed at Reynolds at Reynolds number of greater than $10^6$. In addition to turbulence modeling other aspects of the CFD procedure are analysed and their effects are discussed.

Performance of Tall Buildings in Urban Zones: Lessons Learned from a Decade of Full-Scale Monitoring

  • Kijewski-Correa, T.;Kareem, A.;Guo, Y.L.;Bashor, R.;Weigand, T.
    • International Journal of High-Rise Buildings
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.179-192
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    • 2013
  • The lack of systematic validation for the design process supporting tall buildings motivated the authors' research groups and their collaborators to found the Chicago Full-Scale Monitoring Program over a decade ago. This project has allowed the sustained in-situ observation of a collection of tall buildings now spanning worldwide. This paper overviews this program and the lessons learned in the process, ranging from appropriate technologies for response measurements to the factors influencing accurate prediction of dynamic properties all the way to how these properties then influence the prediction of response using wind tunnel testing and whether this response does indeed correlate with in-situ observations. Through this paper, these wide ranging subjects are addressed in a manner that demonstrates the importance of continued promotion and expansion of full-scale monitoring efforts and the ways in which these programs can provide true value-added to building owners and managers.

The measured contribution of whipping and springing on the fatigue and extreme loading of container vessels

  • Storhaug, Gaute
    • International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.1096-1110
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    • 2014
  • Whipping/springing research started in the 50'ies. In the 60'ies inland water vessels design rules became stricter due to whipping/springing. The research during the 70-90'ies may be regarded as academic. In 2000 a large ore carrier was strengthened due to severe cracking from North Atlantic operation, and whipping/springing contributed to half of the fatigue damage. Measurement campaigns on blunt and slender vessels were initiated. A few blunt ships were designed to account for whipping/springing. Based on the measurements, the focus shifted from fatigue to extreme loading. In 2005 model tests of a 4,400 TEU container vessel included extreme whipping scenarios. In 2007 the 4400 TEU vessel MSC Napoli broke in two under similar conditions. In 2009 model tests of an 8,600 TEU container vessel container vessel included extreme whipping scenarios. In 2013 the 8,100 TEU vessel MOL COMFORT broke in two under similar conditions. Several classification societies have published voluntary guidelines, which have been used to include whipping/springing in the design of several container vessels. This paper covers results from model tests and full scale measurements used as background for the DNV Legacy guideline. Uncertainties are discussed and recommendations are given in order to obtain useful data. Whipping/springing is no longer academic.

Full-scale measurements of wind effects and modal parameter identification of Yingxian wooden tower

  • Chen, Bo;Yang, Qingshan;Wang, Ke;Wang, Linan
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.609-627
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    • 2013
  • The Yingxian wooden tower in China is currently the tallest wooden tower in the world. It was built in 1056 AD and is 65.86 m high. Field measurements of wind speed and wind-induced response of this tower are conducted. The wind characteristics, including the average wind speed, wind direction, turbulence intensity, gust factor, turbulence integral length scale and velocity spectrum are investigated. The power spectral density and the root-mean-square wind-induced acceleration are analyzed. The structural modal parameters of this tower are identified with two different methods, including the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) combined with the Random Decrement Technique (RDT) and Hilbert transform technique, and the stochastic subspace identification (SSI) method. Results show that strong wind is coming predominantly from the West-South of the tower which is in the same direction as the inclination of the structure. The Von Karman spectrum can describe the spectrum of wind speed well. Wind-induced torsional vibration obviously occurs in this tower. The natural frequencies identified by EMD, RDT and Hilbert Transform are close to those identified by SSI method, but there is obvious difference between the identified damping ratios for the first two modes.

A comparison of numerical simulations and full-scale measurements of snowdrifts around buildings

  • Thiis, Thomas K.
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.73-81
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    • 2000
  • Snowdrifts around buildings can cause serious problems when formed on undesirable places. The formation of snowdrifts is highly connected to the wind pattern around the building, and the wind pattern is again dependent on the building design. The shear stress on the surface and snowdrifting around different buildings are investigated through CFD analysis and compared to measurements. The computations of shear stress shows local minima in the same areas as snowdrifts are formed. The snowdrifting computations utilises a drift-flux model where a fluid with snow properties is allowed to drift through a fluid with air properties. An apparent dynamic viscosity of the snow/air mixture is defined and used as a threshold criterion for snowdrifting. The results from the snowdrifting computations show increased snow density where snowdrifts are expected, and are in agreement with previous large-scale snowdrift measurements. The results show that computational fluid dynamics can be a tool for planning building design in snowdrifting areas.

CFD validation and grid sensitivity studies of full scale ship self propulsion

  • Jasak, Hrvoje;Vukcevic, Vuko;Gatin, Inno;Lalovic, Igor
    • International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.33-43
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    • 2019
  • A comparison between sea trial measurements and full-scale CFD results is presented for two self-propelled ships. Two ships considered in the present study are: a general cargo carrier at Froude number $F_n=0:182$ and a car carrier at $F_n=0:254$. For the general cargo carrier, the propeller rotation rate is fixed and the achieved speed and trim are compared to sea trials, while for the car carrier, the propeller rotation rate is adjusted to achieve the 80% MCR. In addition, three grids are used for each ship in order to assess the grid refinement sensitivity. All simulations are performed using the Naval Hydro pack based on foam-extend, a community driven fork of the OpenFOAM software. The results demonstrate the possibility of using high-fidelity numerical methods to directly calculate ship scale flow characteristics, including the effects of free surface, non-linearity, turbulence and the interaction between propeller, hull and the flow field.

Friction correction for model ship resistance and propulsion tests in ice at NRC's OCRE-RC

  • Lau, Michael
    • International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.413-420
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    • 2018
  • This paper documents the result of a preliminary analysis on the influence of hull-ice friction coefficient on model resistance and power predictions and their correlation to full-scale measurements. The study is based on previous model-scale/full-scale correlations performed on the National Research Council - Ocean, Coastal, and River Engineering Research Center's (NRC/OCRE-RC) model test data. There are two objectives for the current study: (1) to validate NRC/OCRE-RC's modeling standards in regarding to its practice of specifying a CFC (Correlation Friction Coefficient) of 0.05 for all its ship models; and (2) to develop a correction methodology for its resistance and propulsion predictions when the model is prepared with an ice friction coefficient slightly deviated from the CFC of 0.05. The mean CFC of 0.056 and 0.050 for perfect correlation as computed from the resistance and power analysis, respectively, have justified NRC/OCRE-RC's selection of 0.05 for the CFC of all its models. Furthermore, a procedure for minor friction corrections is developed.

Assessment of Daylight Environment on Light Pipe System Under Different Solar Position (태양의 위치에 따른 광파이프 시스템의 실내 주광환경평가)

  • Shin, Hwa-Young;Kim, Jeong-Tai
    • Journal of the Korean Solar Energy Society
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.78-86
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    • 2008
  • The aim of this paper is to show the daylight environment of a light pipe system according to sun movement. A light pipe system has been mounted on the roof of the windowless full scale model: the solar spot has diameter of 0.65m and is 1.3m long, giving an aspect ratio of 1:2. The full scale model was installed on the rooftop of the SHINAN apartment in Yongin city that has no obstructions against sunlight. The test room is equipped with sensors for the measurements of the internal illuminance and has an area of 6m(W)$\times$6m(D)$\times$4m(H). The system has been monitored with a data-logger to evaluate the cumulative distribution of illuminance on a floor-plane from 16th, April to 29th, May, 2008 over one month and selected clear sky condition. For the daylight performance of floor area, the totally 49 measuring points has been used to determine the internal illuminance and an HP datalogger(HP34970A) records the measurements for one consecutive month. The horizontal external illuminance has been measured with two outdoor sensors. This paper presents the results of monitoring light pipe system with internal/external illuminance ratio and cumulative frequency distribution of floor-plane illuminance are discussed The results show that lightpipe is proficient device for introducing daylight into the building. However It provided different daylight indoor environment with wide or narrow Interquatile range of illuminance, internal/external illuminance ratio and cumulative frequency distribution according to solar positions under suuny sky condition. For more achieving the improvement of lightpipes also include energy savings, user visual comfort with various indicators; seasonal solar height, room and lightpipes geometries.

Estimation of the Fundamental Period for Residential Buildings with Shear-Wall System

  • Chun, Young-Soo;Chang, Kug-Kwan;Lee, Li-Hyung
    • KCI Concrete Journal
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.121-130
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    • 2000
  • This study focused on evaluating the reliability of code formulas such as those of the current Korean Building Code(KBC 1988). UBC 1997, NBCC 1995. and BSLJ 1994 for estimating the fundamental period of RC apartment buildings with shear-wall dominant systems, representative of typical residential buildings in Korea. For this purpose, full-scale measurements were carried out on fifty RC apartment buildings, and these results were compared to those obtained by code formulas and also by dynamic analysis. Although these code formulas are based on the measured periods of buildings during various earthquakes and building period varies with the amplitude of structural deflection or strain level, ambient surveys should provide an effective tool for experimentally verifying the design period to the completed building. This comparison shows that comparatively large errors are likely to occure when the code formula of KBC 1988 is used, and all the other code formulas are not sufficient to estimate the fundamental period of apartment buildings with shear-wall dominant systems. An improved formula is proposed by regression analysis on the basis of the measured period data. The proposal is for the servicebility stress level, but it can also be applied for seismic code in the regions of low seismicity similar to Korea.

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