• Title, Summary, Keyword: full scale fire test

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Fire Resistance Performance of Precast Segmental Concrete Lining for Shield Tunnel (쉴드 터널용 프리캐스트 세그먼트 콘크리트 라이닝의 내화성능)

  • Han, Byung-Chan;Harada, kazunori;Kwon, Young-Jin;Kim, Yun Yong
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.95-105
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    • 2014
  • Reinforced concrete (RC) shield tunnel lining must be designed for fireproof performance because the lining is sometimes exposed to very high temperature due to traffic accidents. Both experimental and numerical studies are carried out to evaluate fire resistance performance of precast RC tunnel lining systems. In the experimental studies, six full-scale precast RC tunnel segments are exposed to fire in order to examine the influence of various parameters on the fire resistance performance of precast RC tunnel lining. We used the temperature curve of the RABT criteria, which are severe conditions of fire temperatures. The fire test showed that the explosive spalling was not observed by substituting concrete to PP fiber reinforced concrete. A transient heat flow analysis was carried out in consideration of the material properties that change with temperature, and the results showed good agreement with the test results.

Numerical Simulation of Full-Scale Crash Impact Test for Fuel Cell of Rotorcraft (회전익항공기 연료셀 충돌충격시험 Full-Scale 수치모사)

  • Kim, Hyun-Gi;Kim, Sung Chan;Kim, Sung Jun;Kim, Soo Yeon
    • Journal of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute of Korea
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.343-349
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    • 2013
  • Crashworthy fuel cells have a great influence on improving the survivability of crews. Since 1960's, the US army has developed a detailed military specification, MIL-DTL-27422, defining the performance requirements for rotorcraft fuel cells. In the qualification tests required by MIL-DTL-27422, the crash impact test should be conducted to verify the crashworthiness of fuel cell. Success of the crash impact test means the improvement of survivability of crews by preventing post-crash fire. But, there is a big risk of failure due to huge external load in the crash impact test. Because the crash impact test itself takes a long-term preparation efforts together with costly fuel cell specimens, the failure of crash impact test can result in serious delay of a entire rotorcraft development. Thus, the numerical simulations of the crash impact test has been required at the early design stage to minimize the possibility of trial-and-error with full-scale fuel cells. Present study performs the numerical simulation using SPH(smoothed particle hydro-dynamic) method supported by a crash simulation software, LS-DYNA. Test condition of MIL-DTL-27422 is reflected on analysis and material data is acquired by specimen test of fuel cell material. As a result, the resulting equivalent stresses of fuel cell itself are calculated and vulnerable areas are also evaluated.

Experimental study on the suppression of fire fighting by using Compressed Air Foam system (압축공기포(Compressed Air Foam) 소화시스템을 이용한 구난역 열차 화재 진압에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • Park, Byoung-Jik;Shin, Hyun-Jun;Yoo, Yong-Ho;Park, Jin-Ouk;Kim, Hwi-Seong;Kim, Yang-Kyun
    • Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.423-432
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    • 2018
  • Since the Daegu subway fire accident, people's perception of safety has increased, and all materials inside the train have been changed to incombustible materials. However, there is still a lack of development of fire extinguishing systems. Train components are mostly made of steel plates, and therefore it is very difficult to extinguish the train fire by using general fire extinguishing equipment. In this regard, this paper investigated rapid and easy methods of extinguishing the train fire by using compressed air foam systems through full-scale fire tests. To extinguish the fire of train at rescue station, window breakers were used to quickly destroy the train windows, and the compressed air foam system was inserted inside the train. As a result, the train windows were destroyed in 5 seconds, and the 11.88-MW fire was put out in 30 seconds by the compressed air foam discharged from the compressed air foam system inserted inside the train. For the future work, there is a need for further experimental studies to prevent the spread of fire and protect tunnel structures with the use of compressed air foam systems.

Experimental study on applicability of compressed air foam fire water using seawater in train fire at subsea tunnel rescue station (해저터널 구난역 열차화재시 압축공기포 소화용수의 해수 적용성에 관한 실험 연구)

  • Park, Byoung-Jik;Shin, Hyun-Jun;Yoo, Yong-Ho;Park, Jin-Ouk;Kim, Hwi-Seong;Kim, Yang-Kyun
    • Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.705-715
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    • 2017
  • In this study, applicability of compressed air form (CAF) fire water was verified in a bid to use the undersea effluent as fire water. Foam collector was fabricated in accordance with KS B ISO 7203-1 (Specification for low expansion foam concentrates for top application to water-immiscible liquids) and the test was conducted using fresh water as fire water for 19 times and using seawater as fire water 15 times that totaled 34 times. Foam reduction time was 237.73 seconds on average with fresh water and 215.60 seconds with seawater, which proved the applicability of CAF fire water using seawater. Besides, window breaker was fabricated to directly extinguish the fire in train and a full-scale fire test was conducted three times. At the final 3rd test, window glass was broken in 2 seconds to make the hole for fire extinguishing and suppressed the fire in 3 seconds using CAF fire extinguisher.

Application of Water Mist System for a Power Transformer Room - Fire Extinguishment(Part 1) (변압기실 화재에 대한 미분무수 소화시스템의 적용 - 소화특성을 중심으로(Part 1))

  • Han Yong-Shik;Choi Byung-Il;Kim Myung-Bae
    • Fire Science and Engineering
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.32-36
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    • 2005
  • A water mist system was considered as a possible alternative to a gaseous suppression system that can not prevent re-ignition after fire extinguishment for a power transformer room. This study deals with the fire suppression capability of the water mist systems. High-and low-pressure water mist systems were examined to compare efficiency of both systems. The power transformer examined in this study occupied about $7\%$ of a $10m\times10m\times$ transformer room. Full-scale suppression tests were performed for six different fire scenarios: two spray fires, three pool fires and one cascade fire. The fire suppression test results demonstrated that the high-pressure system was superior to the low-pressure system, especially considering oxygen depletion and the ambient temperature distribution.

Evaluation on the Fire Resistance Performance for High-Rise Modular Walls (중·고층형 모듈러 벽체의 내화성능 평가)

  • Yang, Seung-Cho;Lee, Jae-Sung
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.15-22
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    • 2019
  • The use of modular buildings is increasing because of various advantages of modular buildings. But there are limits to apply modular buildings to medium-rise buildings because the building law provides only the specification criteria of the modular building with respect to the 1 hour fire resistance performance. This study was conducted to investigate 2 hours fire resistance performance of load bearing walls with steel studs in modular buildings by KS F 2257-1 and KS F 2257-4. After full scale tests, load bearing walls ensuring two hours fire resistance performance consist of at least 2 layers of fire resistance plaster boards of 19mm thickness or 3 layer of fire resistance plaster boards of thickness.

The study on performance evaluation of heat resistance and smoke control system using air-curtain system in tunnel (터널용 에어커튼 시스템의 내열 및 제연 성능 평가 연구)

  • Park, Byoung-Jik;Shin, Hyun-Jun;Yoo, Yong-Ho;Park, Jin-Ouk;Kim, Yang-Kyun;Kim, Hwi-Seong
    • Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.743-755
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    • 2018
  • Tunnel is a semi-closed structure similar to underground space where the smoke generated from fire fills the space fast while escaping from the space slow. Because of such characteristics, when the fire breaks out by traffic accident, the vehicles are jammed making it difficult for the people to evacuate from the scene as well as for the fire engine to gain access to the scene. For such reasons, tunnels are globally categorized into some disaster classes for differentiated facilities and operation approaches. In Korea, less than a 1 km-long tunnel accounts for 80.0% and such a short tunnel which is categorized into Class III is not required to have smoke control system. In this study, a full-scale fire test was conducted in a bid to apply air curtain system using heat-resistant sirocco fan to a less than 1 km-long tunnel. To that end, heat resistance test to verify the normal operation at $250^{\circ}C$ for 60 minutes was conducted. Consequently, despite of rapid rising-temperature and increasing-carbon dioxide inside the air curtain (direction of fire in tunnel), initial condition was found to have been sustained outside the air curtain (opposite direction of fire in tunnel).

The Flame and Distributed Temperature Restraint Properties of Fire Venetian Blind Louver in Buildings (차양식 방화루버의 화염 및 온도 전파 억제 특성)

  • Chae, Young-Suk
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.120-127
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study is to improve the fire prevention performance using the fire venetian blind louver subjected to burning by fire flame. The investigation is based on testing 2 full scale specimens, which is $3m{\times}3m$ module, $850mm{\times}1,500mm$ open, and $900mm{\times}900mm{\times}175mm$ venetian blind louver. Two louver thickness (1.5 and 2.0mm) were adopted. The specimens were exposed to fire flame temperature levels of ISO834 at the lower surface of the fire venetian blind louver specimens with exposure duration of one hour in Korea Institute of Construction Technology (KICT). It was found from the test results that the values of distributed temperature, decreased for all specimens for protecting to fire flame by venetian blind louver. The results of tests were a good fire prevention performance between in initial to 6 mins. At 60 minutes around ISO 834 fire loading, the percentages of distributed temperature in 500mm and 800mm height ranged between 11 and 10% respectively, regardless of louver thickness. This study, therefore, will improve the fire venetian blind louver for fire protection and prevention performance.

Experimental Study on the Flash Over Delay Effects according to the Prevention of Flame Spread between Composite Material Panels (복합자재의 패널 간 화염확산방지에 따른 플래시오버 지연 효과에 대한 실험적 연구)

  • Kim, Do-hyun;Cho, Nam-Wook
    • Fire Science and Engineering
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2017
  • A sandwich panel is a composite material composed of a double-sided noncombustible material and insulation core which is used in the inner, outer walls, and roof structure of a building. Despite its excellent insulation performance, light weight and excellent constructability, a flame is brought into the inside of the panel through the joint between the panels, melting the core easily and causing casualties and property damage due to the rapid spread of flame. The current Building Law provides that the combustion performance of finishing materials for buildings should be determined using a fire test on a small amount of specimen and only a product that passes the stipulated performance standard should be used. This law also provides that in the case of finishing materials used for the outer walls of buildings, only materials that secured noncombustible or quasi-noncombustible performance should be used or flame spread prevention (FSP) should be installed. The purpose of this study was to confirm the difference between the dangers of horizontal and vertical fire spread by applying FSP, which is applied to finishing materials used for the outer walls of buildings limitedly to a sandwich panel building. Therefore, the combustion behavior and effects on the sandwich panel according to the application of FSP were measured through the construction to block the spread of flame between the panels using a full scale fire according to the test method specified in ISO 13784-1 and a metallic structure. The construction of FSP on the joint between the panels delayed the spread of flame inside the panels and the flash over time was also delayed, indicating that it could become an important factor for securing the fire safety of a building constructed using complex materials.

The Effect of Resilience on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Comorbid Symptoms in Firefighters (강원지역 소방관에서 외상후 스트레스 증상 및 동반증상에 미치는 리질리언스의 영향)

  • Lee, Hong-Eui;Kang, Suk-Hoon;Ye, Byoung Seok;Choi, Jong-Hyuck
    • Anxiety and mood
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.86-92
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    • 2012
  • Objective : This study investigated the relationship between the resilience and posttraumatic stress symptoms, as well as comorbid symptoms in firefighters. Methods : We collected 764 firefighters, who worked at six fire department stations in Gangwon-do. We investigated the impact of event scale-revised (IES-R), the life events checklists (LEC), Connor-Davidson resilience scale (CD-RISC), Beck depression inventory (BDI), state trait anxiety inventory (STAI) and alcohol use disorder identification test (AUDIT). Full PTSD groups, partial PTSD groups and non-PTSD groups, which were classified by IES-R scores, were compared in the LEC, CD-RISC, BDI, STAI and AUDIT, ; multiple linear regression analyses were done for independent predictors of variables. Results : Of the 764 firefighters, there were significant differences in LEC (p<0.001), CD-RISC (p<0.001), BDI (p<0.001), and AUDIT (p=0.001) among the full PTSD groups, partial PTSD groups and non-PTSD groups. However, STAI did not show significant difference among three groups. In multiple regression analysis, CD-RISC (${\beta}=-0.168$, p<0.001), LEC (${\beta}=0.211$, p<0.001) and AUDIT (${\beta}=0.115$, p=0.001) were significant predictors for IES-R. Conclusion : The results of the present study suggested that resilience might be a protective factor in PTSD and comorbid symptoms of PTSD.