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Isolation and Characterization of Monokaryotic Strains of Lentinula edodes Showing Higher Fruiting Rate and Better Fruiting Body Production

  • Ha, Byeong-Suk;Kim, Sinil;Ro, Hyeon-Su
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.24-30
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    • 2015
  • The effects of monokaryotic strains on fruiting body formation of Lentinula edodes were examined through mating and cultivation of the mated dikaryotic mycelia in sawdust medium. To accomplish this, monokaryotic strains of L. edodes were isolated from basidiospores of the commercial dikaryotic strains, Chamaram (Cham) and Sanjo701 (SJ701). A total of 703 matings (538 self-matings and 165 outcrosses) were performed, which generated 133 self-mates and 84 outcross mates. The mating rate was 25% and 50% for self-mating and outcross, respectively. The bipolarity of the outcross indicated the multi-allelic nature of the mating type genes. The mating was only dependent on the A mating type locus, while the B locus showed no effect, implying that the B locus is multi-allelic. Next, 145 selected dikaryotic mates were cultivated in sawdust medium. The self-mated dikaryotic progenies showed 51.3% and 69.5% fruiting rates for Cham and SJ701, respectively, while the fruiting rate of the outcross mates was 63.2%. The dikaryotic mates generated by mating with one of the monokaryotic strains, including A20, B2, E1, and E3, showed good fruiting performance and tended to yield high fruiting body production, while many of the monokaryotic strains failed to form fruiting bodies. Overall, these findings suggest that certain monokaryotic strains have traits enabling better mating and fruiting.

Optimum Conditions for Artificial Fruiting Body Formation of Cordyceps cardinalis

  • Kim, Soo-Young;Shrestha, Bhushan;Sung, Gi-Ho;Han, Sang-Kuk;Sung, Jae-Mo
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.133-136
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    • 2010
  • Stromatal fruiting bodies of Cordyceps cardinalis were successfully produced in cereals. Brown rice, German millet and standard millet produced the longest-length of stromata, followed by Chinese pearl barley, Indian millet, black rice and standard barley. Oatmeal produced the shortest-length of fruiting bodies. Supplementation of pupa and larva to the grains resulted in a slightly enhanced production of fruiting bodies; pupa showing better production than larva. 50~60 g of brown rice and 10~20 g of pupa mixed with 50~60 mL of water in 1,000 mL polypropylene (PP) bottle was found to be optimum for fruiting body production. Liquid inoculation of 15~20 mL per PP bottle produced best fruiting bodies. The optimal temperature for the formation of fruiting bodies was $25^{\circ}C$, under conditions of continuous light. Few fruiting bodies were produced under the condition of complete darkness, and the fresh weight was considerable low, compared to that of light condition.

Development of Ganoderma lucidum on Soft and Hard Wood Logs and Determination of Organic Germanium and Ganoderic Acid Content of the Fruiting Body Produced (침엽수와 활엽수 골목에서 Ganoderma lucidum의 발생과 자실체의 Organic Germanium과 Ganoderic Acid 함량)

  • Sukarno, Nampiah;Aini, Al-Azhariati;Sumarna, Vivi;Rohaeti, Eti;Darusman, Latifah K.
    • Journal of Mushroom
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.157-162
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    • 2004
  • The objectives of this experiment were to study the growth and development of fruiting body of the two Ganoderma lucidum isolates on log of the soft wood Paraserianthes falcataria and the hard wood Shorea sp., and determination of organic germanium and crude ganoderic acid content of the fruiting body produced. The two Ganoderma lucidum isolates used were one Indonesian native (Indonesia isolate) and another isolate was purchased from Fungi Perfecti, USA (commercial isolate). The development and quality of the primordium and fruiting body of the mushroom, in general, were influenced by the isolates used. The types of wood, however, had no effect on the quality of the primordium and fruiting body produced. The Indonesian isolate produced better fruiting body compared to that of the commercial isolate. The development of fruiting body from primordium, however, was low for the two isolates tested. In general, only about one third of the primordium developed further into mature fruiting bodies, except for the commercial isolate grown on the soft wood medium in which more than 60% of the primordium developed into mature fruiting body. Apart from producing normal fruiting body, the commercial isolate also produced an abnormal one, which had a white mature pileus, whereas the normal one was brownish red. The organic germanium concentration of the fruiting body produced on the hard wood, in general, was higher than that of grown on the soft wood. The fruiting body from commercial isolate had higher organic germanium concentration compared to that of Indonesian isolate in both wood types. The two isolates used, however, had almost the same value of the crude ganoderic acid concentration in both types of wood tested. The Indonesian isolate had higher total yield of both organic germanium and crude ganoderic acid of the fruiting body produced compared to that of the commercial isolate.

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Effect of Preservation Periods and Subcultures on Fruiting Body Formation of Cordyceps militaris In Vitro

  • Sung, Jae-Mo;Park, Young-Jin;Lee, Je-O;Han, Sang-Kuk;Lee, Won-Ho;Choi, Sung-Keun;Shrestha, Bhushan
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.196-199
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    • 2006
  • Effects of various preservation periods and subcultures on fruiting body formation of Cordyceps militaris were investigated using EFCC C-10995 single ascospore strains. Fruiting body formation by original strains was profuse when preserved at $4^{\circ}C$ for $5{\sim}6$ months. Fruiting from subcultures was stable till second to sixth subcultures, after which it decreased sharply. The more the colony color of subcultures changed, the less the fruiting bodies formed. Liquid inoculum preparation of single ascospore strains in the same or separate broths did not affect fruiting body formation. Similarly, two strains C-10995-3 and C-10995-6 in different numbers during liquid inoculum preparation produced similar fruiting bodies.

The Fruiting Body Formation of Oudemansiella radicata in the Sawdust of Oak (Quercus variabilis) Mixed with Rice Bran

  • Shim, Jae-Ouk;Chang, Kwang-Choon;Kim, Tae-Hyun;Lee, Youn-Su;Lee, U-Youn;Lee, Tae-Soo;Lee, Min-Woong
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.30-33
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    • 2006
  • To screen additives and their mixed ratio suitable for the mycelial growth and fruiting body formation of Oudemansiella radicata in the oak sawdust, additives such as rice bran, fermented soybean powder and wheat bran were used. Generally, the mycelial growth of O. radicata has been stable on oak sawdust mixed with rice bran of $5{\sim}20%$. In case that O. radicata was cultured for about 30 days at $22{\pm}1^{\circ}C$ under the illumination (350 lux) of 12 hours and moisture condition of $90{\pm}5%$, the primordia have been formed gradually from red-brown crusts covering the surface of oak sawdust media. Based on the experimental results from 9 strains of O. radicata, fruiting bodies were produced widely on oak sawdust medium mixed with rice bran of 5 to 30%. Even though fruiting bodies of O. radicata have been produced well on oak sawdust media mixed with rice bran, fruiting bodies of O. radicata were produced intensively on oak sawdust media mixed with rice bran of 10%. Therefore, this result will provide a basic information for commercial production of fruiting body of wild O. radicata. This result is the first report associated with an artificial fruiting body formation of O. radicata in Korea.

Spore Dispersion of Tricholoma matsutake at a Pinus densiflora Stand in Korea

  • Park, Hyun;Ka, Kang-Hyeon
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.203-205
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    • 2010
  • The spore of Tricholoma matsutake is considered to be the starting point of the mushroom growth cycle, but the mechanism of mycelial development from the spore stage is not yet clarified. In this study, we tried to measure how far the spores of T. matsutake disperse from a fruiting body located at a Pinus densiflora stand in Korea. We established 16 slide glasses coated with glycerin near a fruiting body in four directions separated by four different distance intervals within a mushroom productive stand after removing all other fruiting bodies from three plots. The number of dispersed spores increased with time from the first day (475 $spores/cm^2$) to the fourth day (836 $spores/cm^2$) after the pileus opened. The number of spores dispersed downward was about 1.5 times greater than that dispersed toward the ride. The number of dispersed spores decreased exponentially as the distance from each fruiting body increased. More than 95% of the spores dropped within a meter from the fruiting body, with 75% dropping within 0.5 m. Even so, the number of spores dispersed over 5 m from the fruiting body was more than 50 million when considering the total number of spores produced by a fruiting body is about 5 billion.

Properties of Current Fruiting Bag and Preparation Water Repelling Fruiting Bag with Wax Emulsion (유통 과대지의 물성 및 Wax Emulsion 발수 과대지의 제조)

  • Kim, Kang-Jae;Park, Seong-Bae;Eom, Tae-Jin
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.23-28
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    • 2008
  • As well as crop cultivation, they could not avoid automatizing and using more environmental friendly process in cultivation of fruit. And also, the consumer ask more safe fruit which is produced with more clean method. This is why the usage of aid materials for fruit cultivation like as fruiting bags are increasing. Practical utilization of wax emulsion treated water repelling fruiting bags are developed continuously and it's properties is compared properties of nomal fruiting bags. The water repelling process was developed with wax emulsion coating. After the experiment of wax emulsion preparation from paraffin and DEA and/or OA in Lab. scale, the wax emulsion was manufactured on pilot scale. The wax emulsion coated paper was prepared in mill scale coater. The water repellency and properties of emulsion coated fruiting bags were evaluated and compared with that of current fruiting bags.

Fruiting Body Formation of Cordyceps militaris from Multi-Ascospore Isolates and Their Single Ascospore Progeny Strains

  • Shrestha, Bhushan;Han, Sang-Kuk;Sung, Jae-Mo;Sung, Gi-Ho
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.100-106
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    • 2012
  • Interest in commercial cultivation and product development of Cordyceps species has shown a recent increase. Due to its biochemical and pharmacological effects, Cordyceps militaris, commonly known as orange caterpillar fungus, is being investigated with great interest. Cultivation of C. militaris has been practiced on a large scale in order to fulfill a demand for scientific investigation and product development. Isolates of C. militaris can be easily established from both spores and tissue. For isolation of spores, ascospores released from mature stromata are trapped in sterile medium. Multi-ascospore isolates, as well as combinations of single ascospore strains, are used for production of fruiting bodies. Progeny ascospore strains can be isolated from artificial fruiting bodies, thus, the cycle of fruiting body production can be continued for a long period of time. In this study, we examined fruiting body production from multi-ascospore isolates and their progeny strains for three generations. $F_1$ progeny strains generally produced a larger number of fruiting bodies, compared with their mother multi-ascospore isolates; however, $F_2$ and $F_3$ progeny strains produced fewer fruiting bodies. Optimum preservation conditions could help to increase the vitality of the progeny strains. In order to retain the fruiting ability of the strains, further testing of various methods of preservation and different methods for isolation should be performed.

Production of Fruiting Body Using Cultures of Entomopathogenic Fungal Species (분리된 동충하초 균주를 이용한 자실체 생산)

  • Sung, Jae-Mo;Choi, Young-Sang;Lee, Hyun-Kyung;Kim, Sang-Hee;Kim, Yong-Ook;Sung, Gi-Ho
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.15-19
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    • 1999
  • One hundred and six Cordyceps cultures including five cultures of Paecilomyces tenuipes were used for production of artificial fruiting body. In the test of artificial fruiting body formation, no fruiting bodies were induced on media containing PDA and ground silkworm pupae with liquid nitrogen. The best fruiting body formation was showed on media which mixed at the ratio of 1 unsticky rice to 3.5 water. But fruiting bodies formed on media mixed at the ratio 1 unpolished rice to 2.5 water. Optimal temperature in inducing artificial fruiting body was at $20^{\circ}C$. Twenty seven isolates were selected as good cultures for production of artificial fruiting body. Maturation of fruiting bodies incubated on rice grain media was completed for about 50 to 65 days.

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Heterothallic Type of Mating System for Cordyceps cardinalis

  • Sung, Gi-Ho;Shrestha, Bhushan;Han, Sang-Kuk;Kim, Soo-Young;Sung, Jae-Mo
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.282-285
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    • 2010
  • Cordyceps cardinalis successfully produced its fruiting bodies from multi-ascospore isolates. However, subcultures of multiascospore isolates could not produce fruiting bodies after few generations. Fruiting body production also differed from sector to sector of the same isolate. Single ascospore isolates were then co-inoculated in combinations of two to observe the fruiting characteristics. Combinations of certain isolates produced perithecial stromata formation, whereas other combinations did not produce any fruiting bodies. These results show that C. cardinalis is a heterothallic fungus, requiring two isolates of opposite mating types for fruiting body production. It was also shown that single ascospore isolates are hermaphrodites.