• Title, Summary, Keyword: frequency of exceeding

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The Study on the Characteristic Sound Intensity and Frequency of Noise Exposure at Occupational Sites (산업장 소음의 강도 및 주파수 특성에 관한 조사연구)

  • Kim, Kwang Jong;Cha, Chul Whan
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.181-191
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    • 1991
  • The present study determined the overall noise level and the distribution of sound pressure level over audible frequency range of noise produced at various work sites. Work-related noise greater than 80dBA produced from 98 separate work sites at 37 manufacturing companies and machine shops were analysed for the overall sound level (dBA) and frequency distribution. In addition, to determine the possible hearing loss related to work site noise, a hearing test was also conducted on 1,374 workers in these work sites. The results of the study were as follows ; 1. Of the total 98 work sites, 57 work sites(58.2%) produced noise exceeding threshold limit value (${\geq}90dBA$) set by the Ministry 01 Labor. In terms of different manufacturing industries the proportion of work sites which exceeded 90dBA was the highest for the cut-stone products industry with 6/6 work sites and lowest for the commercial printing industry with 1/13 work sites. 2. The percentage of workers who were exposed to noise greater than 90dBA was 19.8% (1,040 workers) 01 the total 5,261 workers. In terms of different industries, cut-stone products industry had the most workers exposed to noise exceeding 90dBA with 82.8%, textile bleaching and dyeing industry was next at 30.6% followed by fabricated metal products industry with 27.9%, plastic products manufacturing industry had the lowest percentage of workers exposed to 90dBA exceeding noise with 4.5%. 3. There was a statistically significant correlation between the frequency of noise-induced hearing loss and the percentage of workers exposed to noise exceeding 90dBA (P<0.05). 4. The frequency analysis of noise produced at the 98 work sites revealed that 44 work sites (44.9%) had the maximum sound pressure level at high-frequencies greater than 2KHz. In addition, significantly higher sound pressure level was detected at the high-frequencies at 90dBA exceeding work sites as compared to below 90dBA work sites (P<0.01). 5. The differences in sound level meter's A-and C-weighted sound pressure levels were analysed by frequencies. Of the 28 work sites which showed 0-1 dB difference in the two weighted sound levels, 20 work sites (71.4%) had significantly higher sound pressure levels at high-frequencies greater than 2KHz (P<0.01). Furthermore, there was a tendency for higher sound pressure levels to occur in the high-frequency range as the differences in the two weighted sound levels decreased.

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Probability of exceeding the serviceability limit of antenna masts

  • Kammel, Christian
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.353-366
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    • 2001
  • With respect to serviceability, antenna masts should be designed so that wind-induced motion will not cause unacceptable lack of transmission for broadcasting users and wireless communication. For such antenna masts with directional radio transmission the serviceability limit state is predominantly governed by the tolerable change of the broadcasting angle of the mounted antenna assembly and therefore by the tip distortion of the mast. In this paper it will be shown that refinements of the present state of design of antenna masts are possible by using the statistics of extremes applied to extreme wind situations and by consideration of the statistical and reliability requirements given by the operator such as frequency and return period of passing the serviceability limit.

Probabilistic seismic evaluation of buckling restrained braced frames using DCFD and PSDA methods

  • Asgarian, Behrouz;Golsefidi, Edris Salehi;Shokrgozar, Hamed Rahman
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.105-123
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    • 2016
  • In this paper, using the probabilistic methods, the seismic demand of buckling restrained braced frames subjected to earthquake was evaluated. In this regards, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14-storybuildings with different buckling restrained brace configuration (including diagonal, split X, chevron V and Inverted V bracings) were designed. Because of the inherent uncertainties in the earthquake records, incremental dynamical analysis was used to evaluate seismic performance of the structures. Using the results of incremental dynamical analysis, the "capacity of a structure in terms of first mode spectral acceleration", "fragility curve" and "mean annual frequency of exceeding a limit state" was determined. "Mean annual frequency of exceeding a limit state" has been estimated for immediate occupancy (IO) and collapse prevention (CP) limit states using both Probabilistic Seismic Demand Analysis (PSDA) and solution "based on displacement" in the Demand and Capacity Factor Design (DCFD) form. Based on analysis results, the inverted chevron (${\Lambda}$) buckling restrained braced frame has the largest capacity among the considered buckling restrained braces. Moreover, it has the best performance among the considered buckling restrained braces. Also, from fragility curves, it was observed that the fragility probability has increased with the height.

Study of Broadband Piezoelectric Harvester using the Bender-Type Module (벤더형 모듈을 이용한 광대역 압전 하베스터 연구)

  • Kim, Chang Il;Kwon, Tae Hyeong;Yeo, Seo Yeong;Yun, Ji Sun;Jeong, Young Hun;Hong, Youn Woo;Cho, Jeong Ho;Paik, Jong Hoo
    • Journal of Sensor Science and Technology
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.112-117
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    • 2018
  • In this study, a bender-type piezoelectric energy harvester was fabricated and evaluated to compensate for the disadvantages of high-power generation only in the resonance frequency range of a piezoelectric harvester using a piezoelectric cantilever. The generated power was investigated according to various changes in the vibration environment. Compared with the piezoelectric cantilever module, the bender-type piezoelectric module showed a larger number of peak voltages. The primary peak voltage shifted toward the low frequency when the spring was coupled to the bender-type piezoelectric module. The harvester of the three bender-type modules had a vibration frequency exceeding 1 mW in the 34-45 Hz range and generated 3.112 mW of power at the vibration frequency of 38 Hz. The harvester of the six bender-type modules had a vibration frequency exceeding 1 mW in the 31-45 Hz range and generated 3.081 mW of power at the vibration frequency of 35 Hz.

Microstrip EHF Butler Matrix Design and Realization

  • Neron, Jean-Sebastien;Delisle, Gilles-Y.
    • ETRI Journal
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.788-797
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    • 2005
  • This paper describes the design and realization of an extra high frequency band $8{\times}8$ microstrip Butler matrix. Operation at 36 GHz is achieved with a frequency bandwidth exceeding 400 MHz. The circuit is implemented on a bi-layer microstrip structure using conventional manufacturing processes. This planar implementation of a Butler matrix is a key component of a switched beam smart antenna with printed antenna elements integrated on-board. Conception details, simulation results, and measurements are also given for the components (hybrid couplers, cross-couplers, and vertical inter-connections) used to implement the matrix.

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Estimation of Stay Cable Tension Using String Vibration Theory (현이론을 이용한 사장교 케이블 장력산정)

  • Park, Yeon-Soo;Choi, Sun-Min;Lee, Byung-Geun;Kim, Nin Jung
    • Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.17-22
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    • 2009
  • Estimate method of cable tension forces can be classified into direct method and indirect method. Direct method is not accuracy and it has many restrictions. Therefore, in generally Indirect method, vibration method using natural frequency, has been applied to estimate the tension forces. In this study, cable tensions of recently constructed cable-stayed bridge are measured using string vibration method and this result comparing with result of multiple mode method. To put it brief, the error of string vibration method is not exceeding 2% under 7th mode. Specially third and 4th mode error is not exceeding 1%. safety.

Indication of Photochemical Air Pollution in the Greater Seoul Area, 1990 to 1995 (1990~1995 서울ㆍ수도권 지역의 광화학 오염현상)

  • 김영성
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.41-49
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    • 1997
  • Status of photochemical air pollution in the Greater Seoul Area (GSA) between 1990 and 1995 was assessed in terms of frequency distributions, number of days exceeding standards, average concentration and meteorological effects. In Seoul compared with other areas in Korea, daily maximum concentration was higher but average concentration was not so high due to lower daily minimum from April to October. The top 5th percentile was high especially in summer season. Average number of days exceeding 100 ppb at monitoring stations in GSA was highest in 1994, the hottest year, but it was only 4 days a year. Mean meteorological pattern of high ozone days could be summarized as low wind speeds, high temperatures, strong solar radiation, and low precipitation. Westerlies were more frequent on high ozone days and at Pangi station located in the eastside of GSA, both number of high ozone days and average concentration were high. Effect of precursor transport on the rise of ozone concentration was, however, not consistently important on the whole in GSA.

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FLOODING PSA BY CONSIDERING THE OPERATING EXPERIENCE DATA OF KOREAN PWRs

  • Choi, Sun-Yeong;Yang, Joon-Eon
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.215-220
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    • 2007
  • The existing flooding Probabilistic Safety Analysis(PSA) was updated to reflect the Korean plant specific operating experience data into the flooding frequency to improve the PSA quality. Both the Nuclear Power Experience(NPE) database and the Korea Nuclear Pipe Failure Database(NuPIPE) databases were used in this study, and from these databases, only the Pressurized Water Reactor(PWR) data were used for the flooding frequencies of the flooding areas in the primary auxiliary building. With these databases and a Bayesian method, the flooding frequencies for the flooding areas were estimated. Subsequently, the Core Damage Frequency(CDF) for the flooding PSA of the Ulchin(UCN) unit 3 and 4 plants based on the Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant(KSNP) internal full-power PSA model was recalculated. The evaluation results showed that sixteen flooding events are potentially significant according to the screening criterion, while there were two flooding events exceeding the screening criterion of the existing UCN 3 and 4 flooding PSA. The result was compared with two kinds of cases: (1) the flooding frequency and CDF from the method of the existing flooding PSA with the PWR and Boiled Water Reactor(BWR) data of the NPE database and the Maximum Likelihood Estimate(MLE) method and (2) the flooding frequency and CDF with the NPE database(PWR and BWR data), NuPIPE database, and a Bayesian method. From the comparison, a difference in CDF results was revealed more clearly between the CDF from this study and case (2) than between case (1) and case (2). That is, the number of flooding events exceeding the screen criterion further increased when only the PWR data were used for the primary auxiliary building than when the Korean specific data were used.

Integrated Control Strategy of Multiple BESS for providing Primary Frequency Control (주파수추종서비스 제공을 위한 다수 배터리전기저장장치(BESS)의 통합제어 전략)

  • Yu, Ga Ram;Choi, Woo Yeong;Kook, Kyung Soo
    • The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers
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    • v.65 no.7
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    • pp.1169-1175
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    • 2016
  • As an Increased penetration level of renewable resources has caused concerns about primary frequency response, an increase in BESS(Battery Energy Storage System) capacity has been expected because of its fast response to the disturbances in the power system. This paper proposes the Integrated Control Strategy of multiple BESS for effectively providing the primary frequency control in the bulk power systems by coordinating the response, SOC and its recovery of BESS. The proposed strategy prevents multiple BESS from providing exceeding response and keeps the balance between SOC of multiple BESS. In addition, It would recover the SOC of BESS efficiently. The effectiveness of the proposed strategy is verified through various case studies employing Korean power system.

Drought Frequency Analysis Using Hidden Markov Chain Model and Bivariate Copula Function (Hidden Markov Chain 모형과 이변량 코플라함수를 이용한 가뭄빈도분석)

  • Chun, Si-Young;Kim, Yong-Tak;Kwon, Hyun-Han
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.48 no.12
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    • pp.969-979
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    • 2015
  • This study applied a probabilistic-based hidden Markov model (HMM) to better characterize drought patterns. In addition, a copula-based bivariate drought frequency analysis was employed to further investigate return periods of the current drought condition in year 2015. The obtained results revealed that western Kangwon area was generally more vulnerable to drought risk than eastern Kangwon area using the 40-year data. Imjin-river watershed including Cheorwon area was the most vulnerable area in terms of severe drought events. Four stations in Han-river watershed showed a joint return period exceeding 1,000 years associated with the drought duration and severity in 2014-2015. Especially, current drought status in Northern Han-river and Imjin-river watershed is most severe drought exceeding 100-year return period.