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A Study on Trends and Validities of Regulation Policy of the Tobacco Industry for the National Health Promotion - Focusing on U.S. Family Smoking Prevention And Tobacco Control Act - (국민건강증진을 위한 담배사업 규제정책의 동향과 타당성 검토 -미국, '가족 흡연 예방 및 담배규제 법'(Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act)을 중심으로-)

  • Choi, Ho-Young;Song, Ki-Min
    • The Korean Society of Law and Medicine
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.317-338
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    • 2011
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) tries to accomplish the goal of 'smoke free society', and developed countries regard the nicotine as an addictive drug. In order to better protect human health, all parties are required to adopt and implement effective legislative, executive, administrative or other measures for tobacco control in accordance with Article 4 the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). In order to achieve the objective of the FCTC and its protocols and to implement its provisions, Korea need to take an attention on the U.S. Family Smoking Prevention And Tobacco Control Act of 2009 and Final Rule. It is need to integrate and centralize of tobacco safety administration and smoking prevention for the national health promotion.

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Intersectoral Collaboration for Tobacco Policy: Focusing on WHO FCTC (흡연위험요인관리를 위한 부문간 협력: WHO FCTC를 중심으로)

  • Choi, Eun Jin
    • Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.9-16
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    • 2013
  • Objectives: The purpose of this manuscript was to review Intersectoral Collaboration policies for Tobacco Control. Methods: The author selected the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and adopted guidelines, and reviewed intersectoral and multisectoral collaboration policy recommendations. Results: There are 11 chapters and 38 articles in the Convention. In the Demand reduction policies included price and non price measures. The author selected a few non price measures for cross sectoral collaboration examples. They are protection from exposure to tobacco emission, education and communication, banning advertising, promotion and sponsorship of tobacco products, and offering treatment to tobacco use cessation. Inter sectoral and multi sectoral approaches could increase effectiveness, and better outcome of the tobacco control policy for implementation of many different articles of FCTC. Conclusions: It is important to give a specific role in structures of different government sectors and infrastructure for intersectoral collaboration. In addition, the role of civil society is very important for implementation of tobacco control policy effectively, and governments have to support the civil society for anti-smoking activities and campaigns.

Tobacco Cessation in India: How Can Oral Health Professionals Contribute?

  • Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh;Sharma, Gaurav;Nagpal, Archana;Oberoi, Avneet
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.2383-2391
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    • 2014
  • Tobacco use is described as the single most preventable cause of morbidity and mortality globally, with the World Bank predicting over 450 million tobacco-related deaths in the next fifty years. In India, the proportion of all deaths that can be attributed to tobacco use is expected to rise from 1.4% in 1990 to 13.3% in 2020 of which smoking alone will cause about 930,000 adult deaths by 2010. Many studies have shown that counseling from a health professional is an effective method of helping patients quit the tobacco habit. Tobacco cessation needs to be urgently expanded by training health professionals in providing routine clinical interventions, increasing availability and subsidies of pharmacotherapy, developing wide-reaching strategies such as quitlines, and costeffective strategies, including group interventions. The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) emphasizes the vital contribution of participation of health professional bodies, as well as training and healthcare institutions in tobacco control efforts. Dentists can play an important role in helping patients quit using tobacco. One of the key strategies to reduce tobacco-related morbidity and mortality is to encourage the involvement of health professionals in tobacco-use prevention and cessation counselling. The dental office is an ideal setting for tobacco cessation services since preventive treatment services, oral screening, and patient education have always been a large part of the dental practice.

Analysis on online marketing of tobacco product in Korea: current issues and future directions for tobacco control (온라인 담배 마케팅 분석을 통한 담배규제정책의 향후 과제 : 온라인 담배 판매 및 광고를 중심으로)

  • Yang, Yu Seon;Cha, Jung Lim;Kong, Jae Hyung;Hwang, Ji Eun;Choi, Jung Mi;Lee, Joung Eun;Oh, Yu Mi
    • Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion
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    • v.33 no.5
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    • pp.71-81
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    • 2016
  • Objectives: Tobacco marketing encourages smoking initiation of non-smokers, especially adolescents, and it hinders quit intention of those who smoke or who attempt to quit smoking. Article 13 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control(WHO FCTC) requests a comprehensive ban on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship(TAPS). Ratified the Convention in 2005, Korea has partially implemented the provisions. However, online marketing regulations are still insufficient. Methods: Based on relevant national and international regulations, this research designed monitoring mechanism for online tobacco marketing and studied 1,404 websites to identify current situation of online sales and advertisement of tobacco in Korea. Results: This study found that online trade of tobacco products are overtly conducted, while tobacco advertising with flavoring and misleading descriptors are also prevalent. Also, online tobacco marketing facilitate adolescents' access to tobacco product and that advertising and promotion activities lead to tobacco purchase without difficulties. Conclusions: Fundamental solution to prevent online tobacco advertisement and promotion is banning online sales of tobacco and conducting a regular monitoring for compliance. Korean government should consider establishing an official surveillance system for online tobacco advertisement, followed by a comprehensive ban on TAPS to fulfill its obligation as a Party to the FCTC.

Tobacco Control Policies in Vietnam: Review on MPOWER Implementation Progress and Challenges

  • Hoang, Van Minh;Tran, Thu Ngan;Vu, Quynh Mai;Nguyen, Thi Tuyet My;Le, Hong Chung;Vu, Duy Kien;Tran, Tuan Anh;Nguyen, Bao Ngoc;Vu, Van Giap;Nguyen, Manh Cuong;Pham, Duc Manh;Kim, Bao Giang
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.sup1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2016
  • In Vietnam, the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) took effect in March 2005 while MPOWER has been implemented since 2008. This paper describes the progress and challenges of implementation of the MPOWER package in Vietnam. We can report that, in term of monitoring, Vietnam is very active in the Global Tobacco Surveillance System, completing two rounds of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) and three rounds of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). To protect people from tobacco smoke, Vietnam has issued and enforced a law requiring comprehensive smoking bans at workplaces and public places since 2013. Tobacco advertising and promotion are also prohibited with the exception of points of sale displays of tobacco products. Violations come in the form of promotion girls, corporate social responsibility activities from tobacco manufacturers and packages displayed by retail vendors. Vietnam is one of the 77 countries that require pictorial health warnings to be printed on cigarette packages to warn about the danger of tobacco and the warnings have been implemented effectively. Cigarette tax is 70% of factory price which is equal to less than 45% of retail price and much lower than the recommendation of WHO. However, Vietnam is one of the very few countries that require manufacturers and importers to make "compulsory contributions" at 1-2% of the factory price of cigarettes sold in Vietnam for the establishment of a Tobacco Control Fund (TCF). The TCF is being operated well. In 2015, 67 units of 63 provinces/cities, 22 ministries and political-social organizations and 6 hospitals received funding from TCF to implement a wide range of tobacco control activities. Cessation services have been starting with a a toll-free quit-line but need to be further strengthened. In conclusion, Vietnam has constantly put efforts into the tobacco control field with high commitment from the government, scientists and activists. Though several remarkable achievements have been gained, many challenges remain. To overcome those challenges, implementation strategies that take into account the contextual factors and social determinants of tobacco use in Vietnam are needed.

The Status and Future Challenges of Tobacco Control Policy in Korea

  • Cho, Hong-Jun
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.47 no.3
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    • pp.129-135
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    • 2014
  • Tobacco use is the most important preventable risk factor for premature death. The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), the first international public health treaty, came into force in 2005. This paper reviews the present status of tobacco control policies in Korea according to the WHO FCTC recommendations. In Korea, cigarette use is high among adult males (48.2% in 2010), and cigarette prices are the lowest among the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries with no tax increases since 2004. Smoke-free policies have shown incremental progress since 1995, but smoking is still permitted in many indoor public places. More than 30% of non-smoking adults and adolescents are exposed to second-hand smoke. Public education on the harmful effects of tobacco is currently insufficient and the current policies have not been adequately evaluated. There is no comprehensive ban on tobacco advertising, promotion, or sponsorship in Korea. Cigarette packages have text health warnings on only 30% of the main packaging area, and misleading terms such as "mild" and "light" are permitted. There are nationwide smoking cessation clinics and a Quitline service, but cessation services are not covered by public insurance schemes and there are no national treatment guidelines. The sale of tobacco to minors is prohibited by law, but is poorly enforced. The socioeconomic inequality of smoking prevalence has widened, although the government considers inequality reduction to be a national goal. The tobacco control policies in Korea have faltered recently and priority should be given to the development of comprehensive tobacco control policies.

The Tobacco Industry's Abuse of Scientific Evidence and Activities to Recruit Scientists During Tobacco Litigation (담배소송 중 담배회사의 과학적 근거 오용과 과학자 포섭 활동)

  • Lee, Sungkyu
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.23-34
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    • 2016
  • South Korea's state health insurer, the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS), is in the process of a compensation suit against tobacco industry. The tobacco companies have habitually endeavored to ensure favorable outcomes in litigation by misusing scientific evidence or recruiting scientists to support its interests. This study analyzed strategies that tobacco companies have used during the NHIS litigation, which has been receiving world-wide attention. To understand the litigation strategies of tobacco companies, the present study reviewed the existing literature and carried out content analysis of petitions, preparatory documents, and supporting evidence submitted to the court by the NHIS and the tobacco companies during the suit. Tobacco companies misrepresented the World Health Organization (WHO) report's argument and misused scientific evidence, and removed the word "deadly" from the title of the citation. Tobacco companies submitted the research results of scientists who had worked as a consultant for the tobacco industry as evidence. Such litigation strategies employed by the tobacco companies internationally were applied similarly in Korean lawsuits. Results of tobacco litigation have a huge influence on tobacco control policies. For desirable outcomes of the suits, healthcare professionals need to pay a great deal of attention to the enormous volume of written opinions and supporting evidence that tobacco companies submit. They also need to face the fact that the companies engage in recruitment of scientists. Healthcare professionals should refuse to partner with tobacco industry, as recommended by Article 5.3 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

Introduction Process of the Tobacco Graphic Health Warning Law in Korea: Analysis on the National Assembly Minutes (한국에서의 담뱃갑 경고그림 도입과정 분석연구: 국회 보건복지위 회의록 분석을 중심으로)

  • Hwang, Ji-eun;Cho, Sung-il
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.279-288
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    • 2016
  • Graphic health warning on the tobacco product package is a cost-effective tobacco control policy to convey information on harmful effect of tobacco use to health, and it is known not only to motivate smokers to quit but also to deter adolescents from start smoking. In case of Korea, amendments to National Health Promotion Act requiring implementation of graphic health warning had been submitted 13 times, from 2002 to May 2015. In May 2015, the amendment had been approved by the National Assembly and it enters into force on December 23, 2016. This research analyzed the discussions from Health and Welfare Committee of the National Assembly during the implementation of the graphic health warning in order to study decision making process of legislators. Study found that there was a shift from a general opposition on implementing graphic health warning at first to a harsh conflict over relaxation of the regulation once discussing the implementation in earnest. Particularly, while the group supporting the implementation of the graphic health warning or opposing relaxation advocated the amendment with scientific and knowledge-based evidences including the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, the group opposing the adoption of the amendment itself or suggesting relaxation tended to defend their position with empathy on smokers or tobacco industries.

Tobacco Control Law Enforcement and Compliance in Odisha, India - Implications for Tobacco Control Policy and Practice

  • Panda, Bhuputra;Rout, Anita;Pati, Sanghamitra;Chauhan, Abhimanyu Singh;Tripathy, Asima;Shrivastava, Radhika;Bassi, Abhinav
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.4631-4637
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    • 2012
  • Introduction: Tobacco use is a leading cause of deaths and disabilities in India, killing about 1.2 lakh people in 2010. About 29% of adults use tobacco on a daily basis and an additional 5% use it occasionally. In Odisha, non-smoking forms are more prevalent than smoking forms. The habit has very high opportunity cost as it reduces the capacity to seek better nutrition, medical care and education. In line with the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), the Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act (COTPA) is a powerful Indian national law on tobacco control. The Government of Odisha has shown its commitment towards enforcement and compliance of COTPA provisions. In order to gauge the perceptions and practices related to tobacco control efforts and level of enforcement of COTPA in the State, this cross-sectional study was carried out in seven selected districts. Materials and methods: A semi-structured interview schedule was developed, translated into Odiya and field-tested for data collection. It mainly contained questions related to knowledge on provisions of section 4-7 of COTPA 2003, perception about smoking, chewing tobacco and practices with respect to compliance of selected provisions of the Act. 1414 samples were interviewed. Results: The highest percentage of respondents was from the government departments. 73% of the illiterates consumed tobacco as compared to 34% post graduates. 52.1% of the respondents were aware of Indian tobacco control laws, while 80.8% had knowledge about the provision of the law prohibiting smoking in public places. However, 36.6% of the respondents reported that they had 'very often' seen tobacco products being sold 'to a minor', while 31.2% had seen tobacco products being sold 'by a minor'. In addition, 24.8% had 'very often' seen tobacco products being sold within a radius of 100 yards of educational institutions.

Establishment and Functions of World Health Organization: With a Functionalism Perspective (기능주의 관점에서 본 세계보건기구의 설립과 역할)

  • Ko, Han-Soo;Kim, Chang-Yup
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.1-28
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    • 2012
  • Since its establishment in 1948, World Health Organization (WHO) has tried and facilitated international cooperation of public health under the goal of "the highest attainable health," and gained outcomes like the eradication of smallpox and polio, turning itself into the representative of international public health. However, there was discord between member nations during the cold war era, and the status of WHO experienced rise and fall after its establishment. WHO, the representative international health organization, also has not been freed from influences from international regime changes, which means that the discussion on the internal causes of WHO functionings should be expanded more. In this study, functionalism was tested as one of international relations theory that tries to explain the establishment and role of WHO. Especially, this study analyzed the problems and problem-solving process that WHO had to face by using Imber's five steps theory that arranged chronologically the theory of Mitrany. We mainly investigated the secondary source that described historic facts on the rise and fall of WHO in terms of roles and functionings during establishment of WHO, the cold war era, and international cooperation of public health. The roles of WHO were analyzed by selecting the gains of WHO in the post cold war era. The functionalism arrangement of Imber was appropriate to some extent in explaining the establishment and role of WHO. The first step was International Sanitary Conference in 1851 that made nations to recognize international cooperation of public health, and the second step was the establishment of WHO that handles public health as an international organization. Recent cases of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and International Health Regulations showed that each nation agreed with an international norm that they had to cooperate each other to tackle infectious diseases and smoking, and this implies that these were emergence of global governance. This process was the third step of Imber's theory (nations had a gain from international cooperation would agree with the expansion of authority of international organization). However, the last two steps of the theory are still not realized. The partial success of WHO was based on the functional elements that WHO deals with non-political elements, human resources centering on professionals, and democratic decision making process. This essential and non-political characteristics mean that necessity of international cooperation catalyzed by WHO would continue despite of the global governance era when global health governance get faced more challenges.