• Title, Summary, Keyword: fractional synthesis rate

Search Result 15, Processing Time 0.027 seconds

LMI-Based Synthesis of Robust Iterative Learning Controller with Current Feedback for Linear Uncertain Systems

  • Xu, Jianming;Sun, Mingxuan;Yu, Li
    • International Journal of Control, Automation, and Systems
    • /
    • v.6 no.2
    • /
    • pp.171-179
    • /
    • 2008
  • This paper addresses the synthesis of an iterative learning controller for a class of linear systems with norm-bounded parameter uncertainties. We take into account an iterative learning algorithm with current cycle feedback in order to achieve both robust convergence and robust stability. The synthesis problem of the developed iterative learning control (ILC) system is reformulated as the ${\gamma}$-suboptimal $H_{\infty}$ control problem via the linear fractional transformation (LFT). A sufficient convergence condition of the ILC system is presented in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Furthermore, the ILC system with fast convergence rate is constructed using a convex optimization technique with LMI constraints. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Influence of Refeeding with Vitamin, Mineral and Fibre on Protein Synthesis and Messenger Ribonucleic Acid Content in the Liver and Muscle of Fasted Chicks

  • Aman Yaman, M.;Kita, K.;Pinontoan, R.;Okumura, J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.11 no.5
    • /
    • pp.545-549
    • /
    • 1998
  • The influence of refeeding with either vitamin, mineral, fibre of water on protein synthesis and mRNA content in the liver and breast muscle of fasted chicks was investigated. At 15 d of age, chicks were fasted for 2 d and then refed either vitamin, mineral, fibre or water. The fractional synthesis rate (FSR) of protein was measured after 30 min of refeeding by using a large dose injection of L - 2, $6[^3H]$ phenylalanine. In the liver, FSR was reduced by fasting and tended to increase but not significantly by refeeding with vitamin or mineral. FSR was not affected by refeeding with fibre or water. There was no influence of fasting and refeeding on ribosomal capacity (the RNA : protein ratio) and ribosomal efficiency (total protein synthesised per total RNA). The absolute synthesis rate (ASR) of liver protein and hepatic mRNA content were reduced by fasting and unchanged by refeeding. In the muscle, FSR, ASR and mRNA content were significantly decreased by fasting and not recovered by refeeding with either vitamin, mineral, fibre or water. It concluded that vitamin, mineral, fibre and water have little capacity to stimulate liver and muscle protein synthesis reduced by fasting.

Measuring in vivo Rate of Bone Collagen Synthesis in Growing Rats (성장기 흰쥐의 골조직 Collagen 생성속도 측정)

  • 김유경
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
    • /
    • v.32 no.8
    • /
    • pp.1390-1393
    • /
    • 2003
  • Measuring in vivo rate of bone collagen synthesis has so far been technically difficult and often subject to quite large errors. In the present study, bone collagen synthesis rate was measured using a precursor-product method, based on the exchange of $^2$$H_2O$ into amino acids. Mass isotopomer abundance in hydroxyproline from bone collagen was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The $^2$$H_2O$ labeling protocol consisted of an initial intraperitoneal injection of 99.9% $^2$$H_2O$, to achieve approximately 2.5% body water enrichment followed by administration of 4% $^2$$H_2O$ in drinking water for 9 weeks. Body $^2$$H_2O$ enrichments were stable at 2.7 ∼ 3.0% over labeling Period. In growing rats, the fractional synthesis rate ( $k_{s}$) of bone collagen was 0.066 $\pm$ 0.049 w $k^{-1}$ . The unique features of stable $^2$$H_2O$ pools and label incorporation allowed the precursor-product approach to be used for measuring bone collagen synthesis rate..

A Study on Synthesis of Functional Composite Latex and Characteristics of Thermal Decomposition (기능성 복합 라텍스의 합성과 열분해 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Kwon, Jae-Beom;Kim, Nam-Suk;Lee, Nae-Woo;Seul, Soo-Duck
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Safety
    • /
    • v.19 no.2
    • /
    • pp.47-53
    • /
    • 2004
  • Emulsion polymerization ws carried out using Alkyl methacrylate(RMA) like MMA, EMA, BMA and Styrene Monomer(SM) for core-shell latex preparation. It was synthesized at $80^{\circ}C$ in the presence of anionic surfactant SLS(Sodium Lauryl Sulfate). FT-IR and DSC analysis are used to confirm the synthesized core-shell emulsion latexes. Moreover DSC and TGA were used to investigate the thermal characterisitcs of them. The differences of the decomposition rate and the activation energy from TGA and DSC analysis are not so big. It considers that the pendent group is not affect of the thermal characteristics and stability on core-shell latexes, which is synthesized with RMA and Styrene. For investigating combustion products, LC50 values were calculated by FED(Fractional Effective Dose)from the Pyrolyzer-Mass sepctrometer.

Synthesis Characteristics of ZnO Powder from Precursors Composed of Nitrate-Citrate Compounds (Nitrate-Citrate 혼합 전구체로부터 ZnO 입자의 합성반응 특성)

  • Yang, Si Woo;Lee, Seung Ho;Lim, Dae Ho;Yoo, Dong Jun;Kang, Yong
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
    • /
    • v.54 no.3
    • /
    • pp.299-304
    • /
    • 2016
  • Characteristics of self-propagating reaction for the preparation of ZnO powder from precursors composed of nitrate and citrate compounds were examined. The ratio of C/N was maintained in range of 0.7~0.8 to initiate the self-propagating reaction between the reducing citrate and oxidizing nitrate groups. The samples were decomposed thermally by using TGA. The sudden decomposition occurred in the range of X > 0.5 in a very short time with a very sharp decrease of mass, indicating that the self-propagating reaction would occur. Friedman, Ozawa-Flynn-Wall and Vyazovkin methods were employed to predict the activation energy, reaction order and frequency factor of the reaction rate in the rate determining step of X < 0.5 range. The activation energy increased with increasing fractional conversion in the range of 46~130 (kJ/min). The reaction order decreased in the range of 2.9~0.9, while the frequency factor increased in the range of 85~278 ($min^{-1}$), respectively, with increasing the rate of temperature increase.