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Fraction and Mobility of Heavy Metals in the abandoned closed mine near Okdong stream sediments

  • Kim, Hee-Joung;Yang, Jae;Lee, Jai-Young;Jun, Sang-Ho
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.56-63
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    • 2003
  • Fractional composition and mobility of sediments some heavy metals in Okdong stream are investigated. The fractional scheme for sediment heavy metal was made for five chemically defined heavy metal forms as adsorbed fraction, carbonate fraction, reducible fraction, organic fraction, and residual fraction (Tessier et at., 1979). The most abundant fraction of the sediment heavy metal is reducible and secondly abundant organic fraction. Adsorbed fraction is minor part of the total heavy metals. Mobilization of sediment heavy metals in stream Okdong is occur 19.8∼56.7% of total cadmium concentrate. The most abundant fraction of the sediment metal is organic fraction in Cu, Pb metals investigated. Labile fraction of sediment metals are 0.5%∼48.5% of total Zn, 2.6%∼48.1% of total Pb, 0.2∼36.9% of total Cu respectively, Most of labile fraction consists of reducible fraction for Cd, Zn, adsorbed fraction for Pb, reducible fraction for Cu, adsorbed fraction for Ni. The Mobilization of Zn and Cu is most likely to occur when oxygen depletes and that of Pb and Ni occurs when physical impact, oxygen depletion and pH reduction.

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Fraction and Mobility of Heavy Metals in the Abandoned Closed Mine Near Okdong Stream Sediments (폐광산 지역 옥동천 퇴적물내에 포함된 중금속의 존재형태 및 이동성)

  • Kim Hee-Joung;Yang Jae-E;Lee Jai-Young;Jun Sang-Ho
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.44-51
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    • 2005
  • Fractional composition and mobility of some heavy metals in sediments from Okdong stream are investigated. The fractional scheme for heavy metals in the sediment was established for five chemically defined heavy metal forms as adsorbed fraction, carbonate fraction, reducible fraction, organic fraction, and residual fraction. The most abundant fraction heavy metals in the sediments is reducible and secondly abundant is organic fraction. Adsorbed fraction is minor part of the total heavy metals. Mobilization of heavy metals in the sediments from Okdong stream occur $19.8{\sim}56.7%$ of total cadmium concentrate. The most abundant fraction of the sediment metal is organic fraction in Cu, Pb metals investigated. Labile fraction of sediment metals are $0.5{\sim}48.5%$ of total Zn, $2.6{\sim}48.1%$ of total Pb, and $0.2{\sim}36.9%$ of total Cu, respectively. Most of labile fraction consists of reducible fraction for Cd, Zn, adsorbed fraction for Pb, reducible fraction for Cu, adsorbed fraction for Ni. The Mobilization of Zn and Cu is most likely to occur when oxygen depletes and that of Pb and Ni occurs when physical impact, oxygen depletion and pH reduction.

Studies on the Cellulase produced by Myriococcum of albomyces (Myriococcum albomyces가 생산하는 Cellulase에 관한 연구)

  • Chung, Dong-Hyo
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.59-97
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    • 1971
  • As a study on the cellulase of Myriococcum albomyces the culture media for enzyme formation and properties of its crude preparation were investigated and the crude enzyme preparation was further fractionated. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Wheat bran solid culture produced stronger activities of cellulase than rice bran or defatted soy bean meal solid culture. 2. Shaking culture with wheat bran, rice bran or defatted soy bean meal produced higher cellulase activities than solid culture with the corresponding media. 3. The enzyme formation was higher at $45^{\circ}C$ than at $37^{\circ}C$ or $50^{\circ}C$ regardless of the kind of culture medium. 4. The formation of CMCase activity was more promoted by organic nitrogen source than inorganic nitrogen source. 5. The formation of cellulase activities were increased 1.5 to 3.0-fold by adding CMC, Avicel or cellulose powder as an inducer into 5% wheat bran basal medium. 6. Cellulase production using a tank culture procedure with addition of CMC or Avicel as an inducer was the highest at fifth day and thereafter decreased slightly. 7. The crude enzyme preparation showed pH optimum in 4.0 to 4.5, and pH stability in the range of 3.5 to 8.0. Optimum temperature for the activity was $65^{\circ}C$ which was higher than among other cellulases and it was stable at $60^{\circ}C$ for 120 minutes. 8. Dialyzed crude enzyme was activated by $Ca^{++}$ and $Mg^{++}$, but inhibited by $Hg^{++}$, $Cu^{++}$ and $Ag^{+}$. 9. Four different types of cellulase, i. e., fraction I, fraction II-a, fraction II-b, and fraction III were purified from the culture filtrate of Myriococcum albomyces through a sequence of ammonium sulfate fractionation, and elution chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A-25, Amberlite CG-25 type 2 and hydroxyapatite columns. 10. These four cellulase fractions were showed to be homogenous by electrophoresis and ultracentrifugation and also gave a typical ultraviolet absorption spectrum of protein. 11. Four purified fraction showed different specificity toward substrates, fraction I has a stronger activity toward Avicel, cellulose powder, and gauze than that of other cellulase fractions. Fraction II-a had a powerful activity toward cellobiose but it was almost inactive agaisnt fibrous cellulose contrary to fraction I. On the contrary, the main component fraction II-b had a fairly higher activity on CMC and Avicel. Activity of fraction II-b toward cellobiose was about one-third of that of fraction II-a and activity on Avicel was lower than that of fraction I. Fraction III had a more powerful activity in decreasing viscosity of CMC. 12. Final hydrolysis products of fibrous cellulose by each fraction were cellobiose and glucose. Whereas oligosaccharides were predominant in the early stage of hydrolysis, prolonged reaction produced more glucose than cellobiose. Fraction I and fraction II-a acted synergically on Avicel. 13. Optimum pH for the activities of cellulase fraction I, fraction II-a, fraction II-b and fraction III were found to be 5.5, 5.0, 4.0 and $4.0{\sim}4.5$, respectively. These fractions were found to be stable in the range of pH $3.0{\sim}7.5$. 14. Optimum temperature for the activities of fraction I, fraction II-a, fraction II-b, and fraction III were $50^{\circ}C$, $55^{\circ}C$, $60^{\circ}C$ and $55^{\circ}C$, respectively. No less of activity was found by heating 120 minutes at $55^{\circ}C$ and fraction II-a was more stable than the others at $60^{\circ}C$. 15. Fraction I and fraction II-b were activated by $Ca^{++}$ and $Mg^{++}$ but inhibited by $Hg^{++}$ and $Ag^{+}$.

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The Effects of 5 kinds of Injinsaryung-San fractions on Cell Viability, Cell Cycle Progression and Fas-mediated Apoptosis of HepG2 Cells (인진사령산 분획물이 간세포활성, 세포주기 및 Fas-Mediated Apoptosis에 미치는 영향)

  • 고흥;이장훈;우홍정
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.174-185
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    • 2000
  • Objectives : This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of five fractions on cell viability, cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Methods : This study employed MTT assay, Cell cycle analysis, Cpp32 protease assay, DNA fragmentation assay and Quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Results : In MTT assay, the butanol fraction of Injinsaryung-San has showed magnificent viability, while the $H_2O$ fraction and ethylacetate fraction also showed higher viability than the control group. The $H_2O$ fraction of Injinsaryung-San has showed magnificent viability, and butanol fraction and ethylacetate fraction of Injinsaryung-San with etoposide have also showed higher viability than the only etoposide group. Cell cycle analysis showed that each fraction of Injinsaryung-San had no significant effect on the cell cycle. DNA fragmentation assay showed that the butanol fraction, $H_2O$ fraction and ethylacetate fraction carried inhibitory effects on apoptosis induction. Cpp32 protease activity assay showed that the butanol fraction, $H_2O$ fraction and ethylacetate fraction decreased Cpp32 protease activity, with the butanol fraction displaying greater effects. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that the butanol fraction, $H_2O$ fraction and ethylacetate fraction suppressed Fas and Bax genes, the butanol fraction increased BcI-2 gene, however no effect on Cpp32. Conclusions : The data shows that the butanol fraction of Injinsaryung-San increases the hepatocyte viability and has the heptocelluar protective effect by the suppression of apoptosis through gene regulation.

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A Study on the Hypotensive Action of Acanthopanax Extract in Rabbit (오가피(五加皮) Extract의 혈압강하작용(血壓降下作用)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Ko, Suk-Tai;Kim, Sung-Won;Lim, Dong-Yoon
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.6-16
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    • 1978
  • We obtained 4 kinds of extract fraction from Acanthopanacis Radicis Cortex and studied on the influence to the blood pressure of rabbit. These 4 fractions were obtained as follows; Fraction I was insoluble fraction by 99% ethanol from 80% methanol extract of Acanthopanacis Radicis Cortex, fraction II, precipitated fraction by ether from 99% ethanol soluble fraction of 80% methanol extract of Acanthopanaacis Radicis Cortex, fraction III, no precipitated fraction by ether from 99% ethanol soluble fraction of above 80% methanol extract and fraction IV, water extract of Acanthopanacis Radicis Cortex. All of fractions, when administered into ear-vein of rabbit, produced fall of blood pressure. Among these 4 fractions, although fraction III was not only the most potent but had the greatest efficacy, we observed the mechanism of hypotensive action of Acanthopanacis Radicis Cortex, making use of fraction II which was thought as a comparatively pure fraction. Hypotensive action of fraction II (APF II) was not affected by vagotominization but markedly inhibited by atropine. Pretreatment of bethanidine showed a tendency to weaken the depressor action of APF II, although it was not a significant result, but diphenhydramine did not influence APF II action. Phentolamine, guanethidine and chlorisondamine inhibited significantly the hypotensive action of APF II. APF II elicited the potentiation of norepinphrine pressor action dependent on the time-factor whereas it did not influence angiotesin pressor action. It is seemed that APF II exhibited hypotensive action, causing peripheral muscarinic-effect and centrally induced sympatholytic action.

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A Study on Elementary School Students' Understanding of Fractions (초등학생의 분수이해에 관한 연구)

  • 권성룡
    • School Mathematics
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.259-273
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    • 2003
  • A fraction is one of the most important concepts that students have to learn in elementary school. But it is a challenge for students to understand fraction concept because of its conceptual complexity. The focus of fraction learning is understanding the concept. Then the problem is how we can facilitate the conceptual understanding and estimate it. In this study, Moore's concept understanding scheme(concept definition, concept image, concept usage) was adopted as an theoretical framework to investigate students' fraction understanding. The questions of this study were a) what concept image do students have\ulcorner b) How well do students solve fraction problems\ulcorner c) How do students use fraction concept to generate fraction word problem\ulcorner By analyzing the data gathered from three elementary school, several conclusion was drawn. 1) The students' concept image of fraction is restricted to part-whole sub-construct. So is students' fraction understanding. 2) Students can solve part-whole fraction problems well but others less. This also imply that students' fraction understanding is partial. 3) Half of the subject(N=98) cannot pose problems that involve fraction and fraction operation. And some succeeded applied the concept mistakenly. To understand fraction, various fraction subconstructs have to be integrated as whole one. To facilitate this integration, fraction program should focus on unit, partitioning and quantity. This may be achieved by following activities: * Building on informal knowledge of fraction * Focusing on meaning other than symbol * Various partitioning activities * Facing various representation * Emphasizing quantitative aspects of fraction * Understanding the meanings of fraction operation Through these activities, teacher must help students construct various faction concept image and apply it to meaningful situation. Especially, to help students to construct various concept image and to use fraction meaningfully to pose problems, much time should be spent to problem posing using fraction.

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Effect of Bovine Colostrum Factions on the Proliferation of Mouse Splenocytes (초유 유청 분획의 Mouse Splenocyte 증식 효과)

  • Ha Woel-Kyu;Won Do-Hee;Yang Hee-Jin;Hwang Kyung-A;Lee Soo-Won
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.250-256
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    • 2005
  • To investigate the effect of bovine colostral whey fractions on in vitro proliferation of mouse splenocytes, polypeptide fractions were separated from acid whey into 3 fractions depending on molecular weight by ultrafiltration: Fraction I, which contains the polypeptide larger than 10,000 Da, Fraction n, which contains the polypeptide ranging from 1,000 Da to 10,000 Da and Fraction III, which contains the polypeptide smaller than 1,000 Da. Fraction II showed the highest proliferative effect of mouse splenocytes among the colostral whey fractions and this proliferative activity increased in dose dependent manner. Unheated Fraction II and Fraction III showed significantly (p<0.01) higher proliferative effects than others but heated Fraction II showed the highest enhancing effect of mouse splenocyte among heated whey fractions (p<0.01). The supplementation of Fraction II and Fraction m showed greater proliferative effect of mouse splenocytes stimulated by concanavalin A (Con A) than that of whole whey or Fraction L Proliferative effect of mouse splenocytes stimulated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) was the highest when Fraction II was supplemented Proliferative effect of the colostral whey fractions on mouse splenocytes by stimulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was markedly enhanced by supplementation of Fraction II and Fraction m compared with whole whey and Fraction L It was estimated that colostral whey fraction containing IGF-I positively affected proliferation of mouse splenocyte.

Effects of the Protein Fraction of Panax ginseng on Primary Cultured Chicken Brain Cells and DRG (인삼 단백분획물이 일차배양한 계배의 뇌세포 및 DRG에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Mi-Jung;Song, Jin-Ho;Kim, Sun-Yeou;Kim, Young-Choong
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.365-373
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    • 1990
  • The effects of the protein fraction of Panax ginseng on primary cultured chicken embryonic brain cells and DRG cultured with a deficient medium were studied. The protein fraction was further fractionated into four groups according to the molecular weight; larger than 10,000 dalton(fraction A), between 5,000 and 10,000 daltons(fraction B), between 1,000 and 5,000 daltons(fraction C), between 500 and 1,000 daltons(fraction D). All four protein fractions at the concentration of $100\;{\mu}g/ml$ significantly increased the number of the brain cells which promoted the neurite outgrowth. The activity of PDHC in the brain cells was elevated significantly by the protein fraction B at the concentration of $100\;{\mu}g/ml$. It was noted that $100\;{\mu}g/ml$ protein fraction C and D significantly enhanced the synthesis of protein in the brain cells. At the concentration of $100\;{\mu}g/ml$, the protein fraction B enhanced RNA synthesis and the protein fraction A significantly enhanced DNA synthesis in the brain cells. The protein fractions B, C, and D significantly promoted the neurite outgrowth of DRG at the concentration of $100\;{\mu}g/ml$.

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An Analysis on the Contents of Textbooks about Converting between a Mixed number and an Improper fraction (대분수와 가분수의 상호 변환에 관한 교과서 내용 분석)

  • Lee, Dae Hyun
    • Education of Primary School Mathematics
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.277-289
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    • 2016
  • Fraction is one of the concepts which are difficult to elementary school students. So, many researches about fraction were performed in mathematics education research. In special, fraction has so many subordinative concepts-proper fraction, improper fraction, mixed number. We have to concentrate on the conceptual understanding in teaching of fraction. In this case, a mixed number and improper fraction are concepts which can convert respectively. And there are methods that a mixed number and improper fraction can be converted. So, it's needed to analyze the converting methods in textbooks for getting the implication of teaching in this areas. In this study, I analyzed the Korean and foreign's textbooks. I certified the methods-using addition expression, using part-whole model in the textbooks. For the conceptual understanding, I suggested to use the fusion of the various part-whole fraction models and addition expression more than the algorithm in converting between a mixed number and improper fraction. It's reason that the use of models in converting between a mixed number and improper fraction is important for the relational understanding.

Xanthine and Aldehyde Oxidase Inhibitory Activities, and Antihyperuricemic Effects of Fermented Smilax china L. Leaf Extracts and Fractions (발효 청미래덩굴잎 용매 추출물 및 분획물의 xanthine 및 aldehyde oxidase 저해활성과 항고요산혈증 효과)

  • Lee, Sang-Il;Lee, Ye-Kyung;Kim, Soon-Dong;Cheng, Jinhua;Yang, Seung Hwan;Suh, Joo-Won
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.57 no.1
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    • pp.53-59
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    • 2014
  • To evaluate the inhibitory effect of xanthine oxidase (XO) and aldehyde oxidase (AO), and antihyperuricemic effect by Aspergillus oryzae fermented Smilax china L. leaf extracts and fractions, we observed extracted yield by each solvent, the content of total polyphenol and total flavonoid (TF), the activities of XO and AO, and serum uric acid level. Extracted yield (g/kg) by 80% ethanol (EtOH) was 13.56, those of n-hexane, dichloromethane (DICM), ethylacetate (EtOAc) and n-butanol fraction (BuOH) were 1.35-3.33. Furthermore, total polyphenol content (mg/g-extract) of EtOAc fraction, BuOH fraction, DICM fraction and EtOH fraction is 478.07-501.26, 259.49-289.02, 165.03-232.27, 134.02-196.54, respectively. Those of fermented EtOAc and DICM fraction was 4.85 and 40.74% higher than that of non-fermented fraction, respectively, while the other fermented fractions were lower than those of non-fermented fractions. And total flavonoid content (mg/g-extract) of EtOAc fraction was higher than those of other fractions. Additionally, TF of fermented EtOAc and BuOH fraction is 10.56 and 60.17% higher, than that of fermented fraction, respectively, although those of the other fermented fractions was lower than that of non-fermented fractions. On the other hand, XO inhibitory activities of all fermented fractions was significantly higher than that of all non-fermented fraction, while those of fermented EtOAc (75.02%) and BuOH fraction (65.59%) was markedly higher than that of non-fermented fraction (39.42 and 5.34%), respectively. In addition, AO inhibitory activities of DICM and EtOAc fraction was 81.82 and 77.93% higher, respectively, than those of the other fractions, and those of fermented fractions as with XO were significantly higher than that of non-fermented fractions. Meanwhile, serum uric acid level (SU) of hyperuricemic control mice (HC, 6.98 mg/dL) was 1.83 folds higher than that of normal control (NC, 3.82 mg/dL). Furthermore, SU in the group treated with EtOAc fraction decreased in a dose dependent manner compared with the allopurinol control group, although those of fermented fractions were significantly lower than those of non-fermented fractions. This study suggests that fermented Smilax china L. leaf extracts may regulate the XO and AO inhibitory activities and antihyperuricemic effect due to aglycone components from glycoside form flavonoids by fermentation of A. oryzae.