• Title, Summary, Keyword: formaldehyde emission

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Evaluation of the Performance and Formaldehyde Emission Level of Particleboards Bonded with Urea-Formaldehyde Resins (요소수지로 접착된 파티클보드의 포름알데히드 방산량과 성능평가)

  • Oh, Yong-Sung
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.92-97
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    • 1998
  • Four urea-formaldehyde (UF) resins were synthesized as a particleboard (PB) binder with the four different initial formaldehyde/urea mole ratio and the final mole ratio of 1.15. The UF resins were characterized according to the standard method of resin adhesive analysis. PBs were manufactured using liquid UF resins at 5 minutes press time and 6% resin solids levels on an ovendry particle weight basis. A total of 20 PBs was fabricated for 5 panel replication per UF resin types. The panels were tested for physical strength properties per the procedure ASTM D 1037. The formaldehyde emission levels from the PBs bonded with the UF resins were tested according to 2-hour desiccator test method ASTM D 5582. There were no significant differences among UF resin types for internal bond strength of PBs. But there were significant differences among UF resin types for formaldehyde emission level of PBs. The results showed that the formaldehyde emission level was influenced by the UF resin types without reducing the adhesive performance.

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Effect of Temperature and Bake-out on Formaldehyde Emission from UF Bonded Wood Composites

  • Lee, Young-Kyu;Kim, Hyun-Joong
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.91-100
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    • 2012
  • This study analysis the effect of various temperatures (20, 35 and $50^{\circ}C$) on the formaldehyde emission from wood composites, which were particleboard (PB), medium density fiberboard (MDF), high density fiberboard (HDF) and laminated HDF (L-HDF) by Japanese desiccator method. Also, to reduce formaldehyde emission by wood composites, it has been suggested that undergo a bake-out conditions. On average, the level of formaldehyde emission increased many times with a $15^{\circ}C$ increase in temperature from 20 to $35^{\circ}C$ for PB, MDF, HDF and L-HDF, respectively. Formaldehyde emissions from wood composites could be expected to increase with increasing ambient temperature. At $35$ for 28 days bake-out treatment of boards, the free formaldehyde emission reduced 67.8% (PB), 40.1% (MDF), 37.8% (HDF), and 35.2% (L-HDF). On the other hand, after the bake-out at $50^{\circ}C$ for 28 days, the formaldehyde concentration decreased by 88.2, 66.9, 62.2 and 59.3% of the concentration before the bake-out for PB, MDF, HDF and L-HDF, respectively. An interesting of the bake-out treatment at $50^{\circ}C$ after 14 days, formaldehyde emission grade of PB & MDF down $E_2$ to $E_1$, and HDF & L-HDF down $E_1$ to $E_0$.

Reduction of Formaldehyde Emission from Particleboardsby Bio-Scavengers

  • Eom, Young-Geun;Kim, Jong-Sung;Kim, Sumin;Kim, Jin-A;Kim, Hyun-Joong
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.29-41
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    • 2006
  • This study was to investigate the effect of adding additive as tannin, rice husk and charcoal, for reducing the formaldehyde emission level, on the adhesion properties of urea-formaldehyde (UF) resin for particleboard. We controlled the hot-pressing time, temperature and pressure to determine the bonding strength and formaldehyde emission. Blends of various UF resin/additives (tannin, rice husk and charcoal) compositions were prepared. To determine and compare the effect of additives (tannin, rice husk and charcoal) content, 0, 5, 10 and 15%, by weight of UF resin, were used. $NH_4Cl$ as hardener added. To determine the level of formaldehyde emission, we used the desiccator, perforator and 20 L-small chamber method. The formaldehyde emission level decreased with increased additions of additive (except rice husk). Also, increased hot-pressing time decreased formaldehyde emission level. At a charcoal replacement ratio of only 15%, the formaldehyde emission level is under F ✩ ✩ ✩ ✩ grade (emit < $0.3mg/{\ell}$). Curing of the high tannin additive content in this adhesive system indicated that the bonding strength increased. But, in the case of rice husk and charcoal, the bonding strength was much lower due to the inorganic substance. Furthermore, rice husk was poor in bonding strength as well as formaldehyde emission than tannin and charcoal.

Evaluation of impact factors on emission rate of formaldehyde from MDF based on chamber tests (챔버실험을 통한 MDF에서의 포름알데히드 방출의 영향인자 평가)

  • Yoo, Bok-Hee;Kim, Gi-In
    • Proceeding of Spring/Autumn Annual Conference of KHA
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    • pp.204-207
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluation of impact factors, which are temperature and relative humidity on formaldehyde emission from MDF(Medium Density Fiberboard). The test was carried out at 4 specimens that were different of temperature and humidity by using small chamber system. Formaldehyde was sampled and analyzed by HPLC. The results of this study were as follows; 1) When the temperature increased from 25 to $35^{\circ}C$ at 50%, the emission rate of formaldehyde increased 1.0-1.6 times. 2) When the RH increased from 50% to 80% at $25^{\circ}C$, the emission rate of formaldehyde decreased 0.6 times. 3) The enhancement effect of temperature on Formaldehyde under RH of 50% was more significant than under RH of 80%.

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Environment-friendly Adhesives for Fancy Veneer Bonding of Engineered Flooring to Reduce Formaldehyde and TVOC Emissions

  • Kim, Sumin;Kim, Hyun-Joong;Xu, Guang Zhu;Eom, Young Geun
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.58-66
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    • 2007
  • The objective of this research was to develop environment-friendly adhesives for face fancy veneer bonding of engineered flooring. Urea-formaldehyde (UF)-tannin and melamine-formaldehyde (MF)/PVAc hybrid resin were used to replace UF resin in the formaldehyde-based resin system in order to reduce formaldehyde and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from the adhesives used between plywoods and fancy veneers. Wattle tannin powder (5 wt%) was added to UF resin and PVAc (30 wt%) to MF resin. These adhesive systems showed better bonding than commercial UF resin with a similar level of wood penetration. The initial adhesion strength was sufficient to be maintained within the optimum initial tack range. The standard formaldehyde emission test (desiccator method) and VOC analyzer were used to determine the formaldehyde and VOC emissions from engineered flooring bonded with commercial UF resin, UF-tannin and MF/PVAc hybrid resin. By desiccator method, the formaldehyde emission level of UF resin showed the highest but was reduced by replacing with UF-tannin and MF/PVAc hybrid resin. MF/PVAc hybrid satisfied the $E_1$ grade (below $1.5mg/{\ell}$). VOC emission results by VOC analyzer were similar with the formaldehyde emission results. TVOC emission was in the following order: UF > UF-tannin > MF/PVAc hybrid resin.

Comparison of Formaldehyde Emission of Wood-based Panels with Different Adhesive-hardener Combinations by Gas Chromatography and Standard Methods

  • Eom, Young Geun;Kim, Sumin;Baek, In-Chan;Kim, Hyun-Joong
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.29-39
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    • 2005
  • Formaldehyde emissions from wood-based panels bonded with pine and wattle tannin-based adhesives, urea-formaldehyde resin (UF), melamine-formaldehyde resin (MF), and co-polycondensed resin of urea-melamine-formaldehyde (UMF) were measured by the Japanese standard method using a desiccator (JIS A 1460) and the EN 120 (European Committee For Standardization, 1991) method using the perforator value. In formaldehyde emission, all particleboards made using the wattle tannin-based adhesive with three different hardeners, paraformaldehyde, hexamethylenetetramine, and tris(hydroxyl)nitromethan (TN), satisfied the requirements of grade $E_1$. But only those made using the pine tannin-based adhesive with the hexamine as hardener met the grade $E_1$ requirements. Hexamine was effective in reducing formaldehyde emission in tannin-based adhesives when used as the hardener. While the UF resin showed a desiccator value of $7.1mg/{\ell}$ and a perforator value of 12.1 mg/100 g, the MF resin exhibited a desiccator value of $0.6mg/{\ell}$ and a perforator value of 2.9 mg/100 g. According to the Japanese Industrial Standard and the European Standard, the formaldehyde emission level of the MDF panels made with UF resin in this study came under grade $E_2$. The formaldehyde emission level was dramatically reduced by the addition of MF resin. The desiccator and perforator methods produced proportionally equivalent results. Gas chromatography, a more sensitive and advanced method, was also used. The samples for gas chromatography were gathered during the experiment involving the perforator method. The formaldehyde contents measured by gas chromatography were directly proportional to the perforator values.

Effects of an Inorganic Compound Added to Amino Resin Binders for Manufacture of Plywood

  • Lee, Sang-Min;Yoon, Kyoung-Dong;Park, Jong-Young;Park, Sang-Bum
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.18-23
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    • 2009
  • Curing behavior and structural property of an inorganic compound added urea-formaldehyde(UF) and urea-melamine-formaldehyde(UMF) were studied. In addition, tensile strength and formaldehyde emission of plywoods made of those resin binders were studied. Curing temperature and structure were not changed, but tensile strengths of plywoods manufactured both with a UF resin and a UMF resin were decreased slightly as increased amount of inorganic compound. Formaldehyde emissions from plywoods were reduced as increased amount of inorganic compound. Wheat flour as an extender was helped to reduce of formaldehyde emission. From the result of this study it might be estimated that using appropriate amount of inorganic compound and proper resin system can be strengthened bond strength and reduced formaldehyde emission.

Characteristics of Formaldehyde Emission from Small Gasoline Engine and Its Reduction Technology (소형 가솔린엔진의 포름알데히드 배출특성 및 저감법에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, B.C.;Lee, N.S.
    • Journal of the Korea Society For Power System Engineering
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.20-25
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    • 1999
  • Experiments were carried out to investigate the characteristics of formaldehyde emission from the small gasoline engine and its reduction technologies. Catalytic converters used are Pt/Rh, Pd/Rh, Pd/Pt, $62cell/cm^2$ monolith type. The measurement of formaldehyde was conducted by using the method of DNPH-GC. From the experimental results, formaldehyde emission increased in a lean mixture due to incomplete combustion of the hydrocarbons. The order of catalytic activity of formaldehyde oxidation was Pt/Rh > Pd/Rh > Pd/Pt. As the distance from the exhaust manifold to the inlet of the catalyst became far, in spite of lower catalyst temperature, formaldehyde concentration decreased because of the adsorption of formaldehyde.

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Study on the Characteristics of Formaldehyde Emission from Wood-Based Panels Treated with Several Surface Finishing Materials (표면마감처리에 따른 목질보드의 포름알데히드 방산특성에 관한 연구)

  • So, Won-Tek;Lim, Jin-Ah
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.30-37
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    • 2006
  • The present study examined the formaldehyde (HCOH) emission characteristic of various wood-based panel used in interior design, and measured changes in formaldehyde emission when a number of VOC reduction methods were applied. Formaldehyde emission showed a clear tendency of increase with the rise of temperature, and the concentration of formaldehyde emitted changed according to the preprocessing condition before measuring. Formaldehyde emission from wood board after bake out treatment was lower than that of the control group. When specimens were coated with urethane, cashew, water, oil stain, they generally showed the decrease of formaldehyde emission, although varying according to finishing material, and when edge sealing was applied the decrease became significant. $TiO_2$ coating was more effective in decreasing formaldehyde under ultraviolet lamps than under ordinary lamps. When the irradiation of ultraviolet lamps gets longer, formaldehyde emission decreased.

Application of Field and Laboratory Emission Cell (FLEC) to Determine Formaldehyde and VOCs Emissions from Wood-Based Composites

  • Kim, Sumin;Kim, Jin-A;Kim, Hyun-Joong
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.24-37
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    • 2007
  • The Korean Ministry of Environment started controlling indoor air quality (IAQ) in 2004 through the introduction of a law regulating the use of pollutant emitting building materials. The use of materials with formaldehyde emission levels above $1.25 mg/m^2{\cdot}h$ (JIS A 1901, small chamber method) has been prohibited. This level is equivalent to the $E_2$ grade ($>5.0mg/{\ell}$) of the desiccator method (JIS A 1460). However, the $20{\ell}$ small chamber method requires a 7-day test time to obtain the formaldehyde and volatile organic compound (VOC) emission results from solid building interior materials. As a approach to significantly reduce the test time, the field and laboratory emission cell (FLEC) has been proposed in Europe with a total test time less than one hour. This paper assesses the reproducibility of testing formaldehyde and TVOC emissions from wood-based composites such as medium density fiberboard (MDF), laminate flooring, and engineered flooring using three methods: desiccator, perforator and FLEC. According to the desiccator and perforator standards, the formaldehyde emission level of each flooring was ${\le}E_1$ grade. The formaldehyde emission of MDF was $3.48 mg/{\ell}$ by the desiccator method and 8.57 g/100 g by the perforator method. To determine the formaldehyde emission, the peak areas of each wood-based composite were calculated from aldehyde chromatograms obtained using the FLEC method. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, butyraldehyde and benzaldehyde were detected as aldehyde compounds. The experimental results indicated that MDF emitted chloroform, benzene, trichloroethylene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m,p-xy-lene, styrene, and o-xylene. MDF emitted significantly greater amounts of VOCs than the floorings did.