• Title, Summary, Keyword: forest land conversion

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A Study on the Applicability of Decision Support System for the Permission of Forest Land-Use Conversion (산지전용허가 의사결정지원시스템의 실제 운용가능성에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Sang Hyun;Kim, Eun Jin;Nam, Joo Hee;Woo, Jong Choon
    • Journal of Forest and Environmental Science
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.45-49
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    • 2014
  • This study was tried to find out the applicability of decision support system for forest land use conversion, which developed based on algorithm for forest land-use conversion. Decision support system developed by Ministry of Safety Administration is free from the existing licensed laws omission. And it made the input requirements for each value of the final result so that you can determine whether the permit was available by the laws and regulations related to the algorithm for forest land use conversion. Also, in order to do field surveys, equal sampling interval method is used to extract samples for the operability by comparing and analyzing the actual area. As a result, 88 areas of total 100 areas are able to get permission by the decision support system for forest land use conversion, and it means if there is enough data with sufficient research, it can make the availability permits easily.

Biomass Carbon Emissions according to Conversion of Forest Land in Korea (산지전용에 따른 우리나라의 임목바이오매스 탄소배출량)

  • Kwon, Soon-Duk;Seo, Jeong-Ho;Son, Yeong-Mo;Park, Young-Kyu
    • Journal of Korea Foresty Energy
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.10-15
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    • 2005
  • This study was achieved by purpose to measure carbon emissions by conversion of forest land in Korea to correspond to UNFCCC. The conversion of forest land data extracted in forest basis statistical data during the latest 5 years from 2000 to 2004, and biomass carbon emissions used biomass extension factor by forest types and carbon conversion factor. During the latest 5 years, the forest land of the annual means about 7,200ha was conversed as other expenditure and tree volume of the annual mean about $212,000m^3$ was felled. It was calculated that total biomass carbon emissions by conversion of the forest land emits annual mean 105,000tC during the latest 5 years. Biomass carbon emissions by forest types was calculated that coniferous forest emits 54,000tC and deciduous forest emits 51,000tC. It was calculated that carbon emissions per ha by conversion of the forest land emits annual mean 14.4tC/ha during the latest 5 years. Seeing by forest types, coniferous forest emits 13.3tC/ha and deciduous forest emits 18.5tC/ha. Therefore, it was shown that deciduous forest emits more carbon per unit area than coniferous forest.

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Biomass Energy Potential of Wood Waste due to Forest Land Conversion (산림전용에 따른 폐잔목의 임산바이오에너지 잠재적 공급량 분석)

  • Kwon, Soon-Duk;Son, Yeong-Mo;Park, Young-Kyu
    • Journal of Korea Foresty Energy
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.16-21
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    • 2006
  • This study aimed to assess biomass energy resources available from waste wood due to forest land conversion. Forest land area of 7,806ha on annul average during 2001-2005 was converted to other land use and the growing stock of $266,551m^3$ was felled annually due to the conversion. Biomass energy potential of waste wood due to forest land conversion was estimated to 102,325 tons of biomass on annual average during 2001-2005 of which 57,945 tons were from coniferous forest and 44,379 tons were from broadleaved forest. Biomass energy Potential Per unit area Per year increased for the same period and was estimated to 13.0 tons of biomass on annual average.

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Forest Degradation and Spatial Distribution of Forest Land Development (산지개발의 공간분포와 산림훼손)

  • Yu, Jaeshim;Choi, Wontae;Lee, Sanghyuk;Choi, Jaeyong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.101-110
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    • 2016
  • Development activities in forest areas are analysed based on degree of slope, altitude, land cover, and prefectures in order to improve the capacity of existing regulations of 'feasibility of forest land conversion' and 'assessment of forest land characteristics' in this research. 959 land based developments between year 2007 and 2013 have been analysed. A development site includes over 50% of forest is categorized as a forest type, degree of slope is steeper than $8.5^{\circ}$ as mountain type, and a development included in the both categories as combined type. Distribution characteristics of the above three types are analysed by development categories and regions adopting Relative Mountain Development Index(RMDI). In results, 44.94% of total development activities have been carried out in Gyeongsang Do in order of urban development, industrial complex, sports facilities, and soil and stone collection quarrying. Developments less than $0.3km^2$ which are exempt from the feasibility of forest land conversion regulation consist 86 cases of forest type, 78 cases in mountain type, and 78 cases in combined type. SAI by slope range showed the highest value of 1.55 in less than $5^{\circ}$ and the lowest value of 0.69 between $20^{\circ}-25^{\circ}$. RMDI value in Gyeongsang Do where mountain ratio is 67.05% appeared 1.17, which is 5 times more than Gangwon Do where mountain area ratio is 81.30%, and 2 times more than Chungchung Do where mountain area ratio is 51.24%. Development activities in forestland in Korea showed unequal distributions and 26% of those developments were not subjected to the feasibility of forest land conversion regulation.

Analysis of Changes in Land Use and Pollution Load for the Unit Watersheds of Total Maximum Daily Loads (총량관리 단위유역의 토지이용 변화 및 오염물질 배출형태 분석)

  • Park, Jun Dae;Oh, Seung Young;Choi, Ok Youn
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.128-137
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    • 2014
  • The land use of the unit watersheds should be maintained appropriately in order to keep the load allotment stable for the management of Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs). This study classified the land area in four types and analyzed the use of each land type and its changing pattern by calculating the occupation and conversion ratios for the unit watersheds in three river basins. The forest land showed the greatest occupation ratio with 63.0%, followed by the farm land with 23%, the other area with 8.0% and the site area with 6.0% in 2003. The occupation ratio of the site and the other area increased by 0.4% and 0.2% respectively, and that of the farm and the forest land decreased by 0.4% and 0.2% respectively in 2007. The conversion ratio for the site area ranged from 1.65% to 1.97%, for the farm land from -0.47% to -0.33%, for the forest land from -0.10% to -0.04% and for the other area from 0.17% to 1.97%. It can be inferred that the decrease in the farm and the forest land contributed to the increase in the site area and that the increase in the other area was mainly made by the decrease in the forest land. It could be more effective to take into account the changes in the site area and in the forest land in the process of developing the TMDL plans.

Relationship between Land-Use Change and Soil Carbon and Nitrogen (토지(土地) 이용(利用) 형태(形態)의 변화(變化)와 토양(土壤) 내(內) 탄소(炭素)와 질소(窒素의 관계(關係))

  • Son, Yowhan;Lee, Sook Hee
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.90 no.3
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    • pp.242-248
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    • 2001
  • Changes in land-use can affect soil organic matter content and fertility. We compared total soil carbon and nitrogen concentrations, soil respiration, and nitrogen availability under three land-use types in central Korea; conversion of old rice field to natural willow-maple (Salix-Acer) forest, conversion of old field to artificial Korean pine (Pines koraiensis) forest, and indigenous oak (Quercus spp.) forest. After 20 years of fallow the area of rice field conversion to forest had higher soil carbon and nitrogen concentrations in the soil depth of 0-10cm and 10-20cm than the areas of field conversion to Korean pine forest and indigenous forest. In general, soil carbon and nitrogen concentrations decreased with soil depth. Organic matter accumulation as a balance of input and decomposition seemed to be higher in the soil of previous rice field, and carbon and nitrogen accumulation was largely confined to the topsoil. Soil respiration rates were greatest at the area of rice field conversion to forest, and appeared to be related to soil carbon and soil moisture. Soil nitrogen availability measured by the ion exchange resin bag method differed significantly among land-use types; soil inorganic nitrogen ($NH_4{^+}+NO_3{^-}$) and ammonium availability were highest in the soil under indigenous oak forest followed by conversion of old field to artificial Korean pine forest and conversion of old field to natural willow-maple forest.

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Development of a System Dynamics Model For Estimating the Volume of Forest Resources and Function of Public Benefit (산림자원 및 산림의 공익기능량 추정을 위한 시스템다이내믹스 모형 개발)

  • Cho, Yoon-Sook
    • Korean System Dynamics Review
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.5-36
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this paper is to develop a System Dynamics model for estimating the volume of forest resources in the future and simulating the volume of function of public benefit linked to forest resources in dynamic manner. Also it is to analyze the impact when the volume of forest land conversion is controlled by policy using the SD model. The analysis was done at nation-wide for the simulation period 2000 to 2040. Estimated forest area was 6.2 million ha and estimated growing stock was $4.7\;billion\;m^3$ in 2040 from the future forecast without policies. Changing of forest resources, 13.9 billion tons of forest-ground-water storage was estimated, $1.8\;million\;m^3$ of erosion control of forest was estimated and 377 million tons of $CO_2$ absorption was estimated. As a result of simulation with two alternatives, forest area was less reduced and growing stock was bigger than do nothing policy. Also, function of public benefit reflected by changes of forest resources was enhanced. This study contributes to estimate the quantitatively measured volume of forest resources and function of public benefit over the 30 years in Korean forest land in scientific way. Using this SD model, decision maker would develop forest land policies more delicately for deserving forest resources and increasing the volume of function of public.

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Evaluation of Permission Standards for Forest Land-use Conversion using Delphi Technique (델파이 기법을 활용한 산지전용허가기준의 적정성 평가)

  • Park, Youngkyu;Song, Jungeun;Kwon, Soonduk;Kim, Eunhee;Chung, Joosang
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.97 no.6
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    • pp.617-626
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    • 2008
  • Recently, it has been issued whether the current permission standards for forest land-use conversion is adequate or not. This study was aimed at evaluating the propriety of the current permission standards using the Delphi technique, which is one of survey techniques regarding experts's opinions. The results of the survey indicated that the standards related to the connection development restriction and the height of the first berm were underrated in most of the evaluation factors. The size limit and the altitude restriction of the land-use conversion also have a low propriety or applicability due to their vagueness. In case of average slope, its applicability was rated as significantly low because there is no standardized method for estimating or verifying the average slope. A statistical analysis based on coefficient of variation and one-way ANOVA were conducted to examine whether each group of experts agree with these survey results. It is appeared that the survey using Delphi technique could successfully achieved an agreement from each group of experts. Overall, evaluation factors considered in this study seems to be effective to verify the problems of each standards and to guide to improvement of the standards.

Soil Erosion and Sediment Yield Reduction Analysis with Land Use Conversion from Illegal Agricultural Farming to Forest in Jawoon-ri, Kangwon using the SATEEC ArcView GIS System (SATEEC ArcView GIS 시스템을 이용한 홍천군 자운리 유역 무허가경작지의 산림 환원에 따른 토양유실 및 유사저감 분석)

  • Jang, Won-Seok;Park, Youn-Shik;Kim, Jong-Gun;Choi, Joong-Dae;Lim, Kyoung-Jae
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.1300-1304
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    • 2008
  • The fact that soil loss causing to increase muddy water and devastate an ecosystem has been appearing upon a hot social and environmental issues which should be solved. Soil losses are occurring in most agricultural areas with rainfall-induced runoff. It makes hydraulic structure unstable, causing environmental and economical problems because muddy water destroys ecosystem and causes intake water deterioration. One of three severe muddy water source areas in Soyanggang-dam watershed is Jawoon-ri region, located in Hongcheon county. In this area, many cash-crops are planted at illegally cultivated agricultural fields, which were virgin forest areas. The purpose of this study is to estimate soil loss with current land uses (including illegal cash-crop cultivation) and soil loss reduction with land use conversion from illegal cultivation back to forest. In this study, the Sediment Assessment Tool for Effective Erosion Control (SATEEC) ArcView GIS system was utilized to assess soil erosion. If the illegally cultivated agricultural areas are converted back to forest, it is expected to 17.42% reduction in soil loss. At the Jawoon-ri region, illegally cultivated agricultural areas located at over 30% and 15% slopes take 47.48 ha (30.83%) and 103.64 ha (67.29%) of illegally cultivated agricultural fields respectively. If all illegally cultivated agricultural fields are converted back to forest, it is expected that 17.41% of soil erosion and sediment reduction, 10.86% reduction with forest conversion from 30% sloping illegally agricultural fields, and 16.15% reduction with forest conversion from 15% sloping illegally agricultural fields. Therefore, illegally cultivated agricultural fields located at these sloping areas need to be first converted back to forest to maximize reductions in soil loss reduction and muddy water outflow from the Jawoon-ri regions.

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Changes in Forest Disturbance Patterns from 1976 to 2005 in South Korea

  • Park, Pil Sun;Lee, Kyu Hwa;Jung, Mun Ho;Shin, Hanna;Jang, Woongsoon;Bae, Kikang;Lee, Jongkoo;Lee, Don Koo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.98 no.5
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    • pp.593-601
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    • 2009
  • Forest disturbances including forest fire, insect pests and diseases, landslides, and forest conversion from 1976 to 2005 were investigated to trace the changes of major forest disturbance agents and their characteristics over time in accordance with changes in natural and social environment in South Korea. While the damaged area by insect pests and diseases continuously decreased for the past 30 years, damaged areas by forest fire and landslide were fluctuating through years. The interval of large forest fires has become shorter with increased tree volume. The precipitation between January and April were significantly correlated with large fire occurrences as Pearson's correlation coefficient -0.400 (P=0.029). The composition of major insect pests and diseases damaging Korean forests has been changed continuously, and become more diversified. While damages by pine caterpillar (Dendrolimus spectabilis) and pine needle gall midge (Thecodiplosis japonensis) decreased, damage by introduced pests has been more serious recently. The change of precipitation pattern that brought more localized heavy rain or powerful typhoon resulted in the recent increase in landslide areas. The major land uses to induce forest conversion have been changed, reflecting the changes in industrial structure in South Korea as agriculture and mining in 1970s, mining and golf ranges classified in pasture in 1980s, and road and housing construction in 1990s and 2000s. Changes in forest disturbance patterns in South Korea show that a country's industrial development is jointly working with global warming on forest stand dynamics. Altering energy structure and land use pattern induced by industrial development accumulates forest volume and reforms microenvironments on forest floor, interacting with climate change, inducing shorter interval of large forest fire and changes in major species composition of forest insect pests and diseases.