• Title, Summary, Keyword: forensic anthropology

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A young couple's grave found in the Rakhigarhi cemetery of the Harappan Civilization

  • Shinde, Vasant;Lee, Hyejin;Yadav, Yogesh;Waghmare, Pranjali;Jadhav, Nilesh;Hong, Jong Ha;Kim, Yong Jun;Shin, Dong Hoon
    • Anatomy and Cell Biology
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    • v.51 no.3
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    • pp.200-204
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    • 2018
  • The Harappan Civilization, one of the earliest complex societies in the world, flourished on the Indian subcontinent. Although many additional Harappan settlements and cemeteries have been discovered and investigated, no coupled burials at Harappan cemeteries have been reported to date. In 2013-2016, we excavated the cemetery of the Rakhigarhi site (Haryana), the largest city of the Harappan Civilization. At the site, we found a grave that turned out to be a coupled (joint) burial of the primary type. This report is the first anthropologically confirmed case of coupled burial from a Harappan cemetery.

Detecting buried human remains using near-surface geophysical instruments

  • Powell Kathryn
    • Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.88-92
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    • 2004
  • To improve the recovery rate of unlocated buried human remains in forensic investigations, there is scope to evaluate and develop techniques that are applicable to the Australian environment. I established controlled gravesites (comprising shallow buried kangaroos, pigs, and human cadavers) in South Australia, to allow the methodical testing of remote sensing equipment for the purpose of grave detection in forensic investigations. Eight-month-old pig graves are shown to provide more distinct identifying results using ground-penetrating radar when compared to four-year-old kangaroo graves. Two further aspects of this research are presented: information (obtained from a survey) relating to the police use of geophysical instruments for locating buried human remains, and the use of electrical resistivity for locating human remains buried in a coffin. The survey of Australian police jurisdictions, covering the period 1995-2000, showed that police searches for unlocated bodies have not successfully located human remains using any geophysical instruments (such as ground-penetrating radar, magnetometers, or electrical resistivity). Lower resistivity readings were found coincident with the 150-year-old single historical burial in a heavily excavated field, in a situation where its exact location was previously unknown.

PCR-based genotyping of Korean population for forensic applications

  • Ryu, Jae-Song;Gu, Yun-Mo;So, Jae-Seong
    • 한국생물공학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.592-595
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    • 2000
  • In human chromosome, a short sequence of DNA has been repeated a number of times. These repeats are called variable number of tandem repeat(VNTR) or short tandem repeat(STR) which has short repeat core. VNTR and STR are used in the field of forensic science, evolution, and anthropology. In this work, we examined allele frequencies of 3 VNTR(YNZ22, NeuR, D21S11) and one STR(Humth01) in a Korean population sample by polymerase chain reaction(PCR) followed by high-resolution polyacrylamide gelelectrophoresis(PAGE) with silver staining. Subsequently, the polymorphism information content(PIC) was calculated : the highest PIC was observed for the NeuR locus(0.95680) and lowest for the Humth01 locus(0.75809).

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Comparison of Helminth Infection among the Native Populations of the Arctic and Subarctic Areas in Western Siberia Throughout History: Parasitological Researches on Contemporary and the Archaeological Resources

  • Slepchenko, Sergey Mikhailovich;Bugmyrin, Sergey Vladimirovich;Kozlov, Andrew Igorevich;Vershubskaya, Galina Grigorievna;Shin, Dong Hoon
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.57 no.6
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    • pp.607-612
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    • 2019
  • The aim of this parasitological study is examining contemporary (the late 20th century) specimens of the arctic or subarctic areas in Western Siberia and comparing them with the information acquired from archaeological samples from the same area. In the contemporary specimens, we observed the parasite eggs of 3 different species: Opisthochis felineus, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Enterobius vermicularis. Meanwhile, in archaeoparasitological results of Vesakoyakha, Kikki-Akki, and Nyamboyto I burial grounds, the eggs of Diphyllobothrium and Taenia spp. were found while no nematode (soil-transmitted) eggs were observed in the same samples. In this study, we concluded helminth infection pattern among the arctic and subarctic peoples of Western Siberia throughout history as follows: the raw fish-eating tradition did not undergo radical change in the area at least since the 18th century; and A. lumbricoides or E. vermicularis did not infect the inhabitants of this area before 20th century. With respect to the Western Siberia, we caught glimpse of the parasite infection pattern prevalent therein via investigations on contemporary and archaeoparasitological specimens.

Analytical Review of the Forensic Anthropological Techniques for Stature Estimation in Korea (한국에서 사용되는 법의인류학적 키 추정 방법에 대한 제언)

  • Jeong, Yangseung;Woo, Eun Jin
    • Anatomy & Biological Anthropology
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.121-131
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    • 2018
  • Stature is one of the unique biological properties of a person, which can be used for identification of the individual. In this regard, statures are estimated for the unknown victims from crimes and disasters. However, the accuracy of estimates may be compromised by inappropriate methodologies and/or practices of stature estimation. Discussed in this study are the methodological issues related to the current practices of forensic anthropological stature estimation in Korea, followed by suggestions to enhance the accuracy of the stature estimates. Summaries of forensic anthropological examinations for 560 skeletal remains, which were conducted at the National Forensic Service (NFS), were reviewed. Mr. Yoo Byung-eun's case is utilized as an example of the NFS's practices. To estimate Mr. Yoo's stature, Trotter's (1970) femur equation was applied even though the fibula equation of a lower standard error was available. In his case report, the standard error associated with the equation (${\pm}3.8cm$) was interpreted as an 'error range', which gave a hasty impression that the prediction interval is that narrow. Also, stature shrinkage by aging was not considered, so the estimated stature in Mr. Yoo's case report should be regarded as his maximum living stature, rather than his stature-at-death. Lastly, applying Trotter's (1970) White female equations to Korean female remains is likely to underestimate their statures. The anatomical method will enhance the accuracy of stature estimates. However, in cases that the anatomical method is not feasible, the mathematical method based on Korean samples should be considered. Since 1980's, effort has been made to generate stature estimation equations using Korean samples. Applying the equations based on Korean samples to Korean skeletal remains will enhance the accuracy of the stature estimates, which will eventually increase the likelihood of successful identification of the unknowns.

PCR Analysis of Four Length-Polmorphic Loci in Korea Population for Genotyping

  • Ryu, Jae-Song;Koo, Yoon-Mo;So, Jae-Seong
    • Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering:BBE
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.169-173
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    • 2000
  • On human chromoscomes, a short sequence of DNA is known to repeat a number of times. These are called variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) or short tandem respeat (STR) which has a short core. VNTR and STR are used in the filed of forensic science, evolution, and anthropology. In this work, we examined allele frequencies of one VNTR (YNZ22) and three STRs (NeuR, D21S11, Humth01) in a korean population sample by polymerase chain reaction (RCP) followed by high-resolution polyacrylamide gel electro-phoresis (PAGE) with silver stain. Subsequently, the polymorphism information content (PIC) was calculated : the hifhest PIC was observed in the NeuR locus (0.95680) and lowest in the Humth01 locus (0.75809).

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Measurement of facial soft tissues thickness using 3D computed tomographic images (3차원 전산화단층찰영 영상을 이용한 얼굴 연조직 두께 계측)

  • Jeong Ho-Gul;Kim Kee-Deog;Han Seung-Ho;Shin Dong-Won;Hu Kyung-Seok;Lee Jae-Bum;Park Hyok;Park Chang-Seo
    • Imaging Science in Dentistry
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.49-54
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    • 2006
  • Purpose : To evaluate accuracy and reliability of program to measure facial soft tissue thickness using 3D computed tomographic images by comparing with direct measurement. Materials and Methods : One cadaver was scanned with a Helical CT with 3 mm slice thickness and 3 mm/sec table speed. The acquired data was reconstructed with 1.5 mm reconstruction interval and the images were transferred to a personal computer. The facial soft tissue thickness were measured using a program developed newly in 3D image. For direct measurement, the cadaver was cut with a bone cutter and then a ruler was placed above the cut side. The procedure was followed by taking pictures of the facial soft tissues with a high-resolution digital camera. Then the measurements were done in the photographic images and repeated for ten times. A repeated measure analysis of variance was adopted to compare and analyze the measurements resulting from the two different methods. Comparison according to the areas was analyzed by Mann-Whitney test. Results : There were no statistically significant differences between the direct measurements and those using the 3D images (p>0.05). There were statistical differences in the measurements on 17 points but all the points except 2 points showed a mean difference of 0.5 mm or less. Conclusion : The developed software program to measure the facial soft tissue thickness using 3D images was so accurate that it allows to measure facial soft tissues thickness more easily in forensic science and anthropology.

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