• Title, Summary, Keyword: food thickener

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Effect of pH on Rheological Properties of Dysphagia-Oriented Thickened Water

  • Yoon, Seung-No;Yoo, Byoungseung
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.73-77
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    • 2016
  • Flow and dynamic rheological properties of thickened waters prepared with commercial food thickeners were investigated at different pH levels (3, 4, 5, 6, and 7). The commercial xanthan gum (XG)-based thickener (thickener A) and starch-based thickener (thickener B), which have been commonly used in a domestic hospital and nursing home for patients with swallowing difficulty (dysphagia) in Korea, were selected in this study. Thickened samples with both thickeners at different pH levels showed high shear-thinning flow behaviors (n=0.08~0.22). Thickened samples at pH 3 showed higher n values and lower consistency index (K) values when compared to those at other pH levels. The K values of thickener A increased with an increase in pH level, while the n values decreased, showing that the flow properties greatly depended on pH. There were no noticeable changes in the K values of thickener B between pH 4 and 7. At pH 3, the thickened water with thickener A showed a higher storage modulus (G') value, while that with thickener B showed a lower G'. These rheological parameters exhibited differences in rheological behaviors between XG-based and starch-based thickeners, indicating that the rheological properties of thickened waters appear to be greatly influenced by the acidic condition and the type of food thickener. Appropriately selecting a commercial food thickener seems to be greatly important for the preparation of thickened acidic fluids with desirable rheological properties for safe swallowing.

Effect of NaCl Addition on Rheological Behaviors of Commercial Gum-Based Food Thickener Used for Dysphagia Diets

  • Cho, Hyun-Moon;Yoo, Whachun;Yoo, Byoungseung
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.137-142
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    • 2015
  • Rheological properties of thickened fluids used for consumption by people with dysphagia (swallowing difficulty) are very sensitive to several factors, such as thickener type, temperature, pH, sugar, protein, and NaCl. In this study, steady and dynamic rheological properties of thickened water samples mixed with five commercial xanthan gum-based food thickeners (A~E) were studied in the presence of NaCl at different concentrations (0.3%, 0.6%, 0.9%, and 1.2%). The magnitudes of apparent viscosity (${\eta}_{a,50}$), consistency index (K), yield stress (${\sigma}_{oc}$), and dynamic moduli (G' and G") showed significant differences in rheological behaviors between thickened samples with various NaCl concentrations. Dynamic moduli values of all thickened samples, except for samples with thickener C, were much higher than those of the control (0% NaCl). All rheological parameter values (K, G', and G") in a thickener A were much higher than those in other thickeners. These results suggest that rheological properties of thickened samples containing NaCl are strongly affected by xanthan gum-NaCl interaction and depended on the type of thickener.

Relationship between Apparent Viscosity and Line-Spread Test Measurement of Thickened Fruit Juices Prepared with a Xanthan Gum-based Thickener

  • Kim, Sung-Gun;Yoo, Whachun;Yoo, Byoungseung
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.242-245
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    • 2014
  • The flow behaviors of three thickened fruit juices (orange, apple, and grape juice) prepared with a commercial instant xanthan gum (XG)-based thickener that is marketed in Korea were investigated at different thickener concentrations (1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0%, 2.5%, 3.0%, and 3.5%) and setting times (5 and 30 min) using a rheometer and a line-spread measurement method. The flow distance values measured by the line-spread test (LST) were compared with the apparent viscosity (${\eta}_{a,50}$) values measured with a sophisticated computer-controlled rheometer. The ${\eta}_{a,50}$ values of the juices increased as thickener concentration increased, whereas their flow distances decreased. The ${\eta}_{a,50}$ values at the 30-min setting time were much higher than those at the 5-min setting time, indicating that the setting time before serving or consuming thickened juices can affect viscosity values. Plots comparing ${\eta}_{a,50}$ values to LST flow distances revealed strong exponential relationships between the two measures ($R^2$=0.989 and $R^2$=0.987 for the 5- and 30-min setting times, respectively). These results indicate that the LST can be a suitable instrument for evaluating the viscosity of thickened fruit juices prepared with different XG-based thickener concentrations and setting times for the dysphagia diet.

Development and characterization of thickeners using natural materials (자연재료를 이용한 증점소재 개발 및 특성연구)

  • Jin, Ha-Kyung;Kim, Bum-Keun;Han, Jung-Ah
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.229-234
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    • 2017
  • For elderly individuals with swallowing difficulties, texture-modified food containing thickeners is needed. The plant materials freeze-dried yam, lotus root, and artichoke were evaluated for their potential use as thickeners and compared to a commercial thickener (corresponding to 0.5, 1, or 2 bag viscosity, respectively). Yam powder showed a high peak viscosity, corresponding to that of rice starch. Although artichoke showed no pasting viscosity, it may be useful as a thickener when combined with xanthan gum. The certain amount of yam, lotus root, and artichoke powders added to commercial soup showed similar viscosities as the addition of 0.5 or 1 bag commercial thickener at $60^{\circ}C$. However, sufficient viscosity corresponding to that of 2 bags of commercial thickener was not achieved by using the plant material itself. Sensory tests by elderly subjects revealed that the soup with yam powder was preferred compared to soup made with other materials.

Development of Semi-Solid Apple Baby Food using High Pressure Processing and Quality Evaluation (초고압을 이용한 반고형 사과 이유식 개발 및 품질평가)

  • Cho, Hyung-Yong;Cho, Eun-Kyoung;Kim, Byoung-Chul;Shin, Hae-Hun
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.777-785
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    • 2011
  • For the purpose of develop semi-solid baby food, we investigated ingredients, processing aids as a thickener, processing suitability test, natural antibrowning agent, packing method, novel preservation technology, storage test and quality evaluation. In results, semi-solid baby food was developed. It's formulation is eco-friendly apple as a main ingredients, natural rhubarb extract 5% and thickener 4%. Thickener was used brown rice puffing powder and sweet pumpkin puffing powder. High pressure processing(HPP) and pouch packaging was used as processing and novel preservation technology. In results of storage test and quality evaluation, shelf-life of semi-solid baby food was 15 days in $5^{\circ}C$ cold storage and hedonic score of sensory evaluation was 4.3/5.0. Taste of them was fresh and sweet.

Effect of Thickener Type on the Rheological Properties of Hot Thickened Soups Suitable for Elderly People with Swallowing Difficulty

  • Kim, Sung-Gun;Yoo, Whachun;Yoo, Byoungseung
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.358-362
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    • 2014
  • Flow and dynamic rheological properties of hot thickened soups for consumption by the elderly people with swallowing difficulty (dysphagia) were investigated at a serving temperature of $60^{\circ}C$. In this study, sea mustard soup (SMS) and dried pollock soup (DPS), which have been widely known as favorable hot soups provided in a domestic hospitals and nursing homes for dysphagic patients, were thickened with four commercial xanthan gum (XG)-based food thickeners (coded A~D) marketed in Korea. Thickened soups prepared with different thickeners showed high shear-thinning flow behaviors (n=0.15~0.21). Apparent viscosity (${\eta}_{a,50}$), consistency index (K), storage modulus (G'), and loss modulus (G") demonstrated differences in rheological behaviors between the XG-based thickeners. The magnitudes of (G') were much higher than those of (G") over the entire range of frequency (${\omega}$) with the high dependence on ${\omega}$, showing the rheological behavior similar to a weak gel. In general, all rheological parameter values of thickened DPS samples were higher when compared to the thickened SMS samples. These results indicate that flow and dynamic rheological properties of hot thickened soups containing commercial XG-based thickeners are strongly dependent on the type of thickener and soup.

Characteristics of grain powder as a viscosity agent (증점제로서의 곡류 가루 특성 연구)

  • Sul, Yoona;Han, Jung-Ah
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.50 no.6
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    • pp.608-613
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    • 2018
  • For increasing both the viscosity and intake of calories and nutrients, four cereal powders: Goami (GR), waxy barley (WBL), germinated brown rice (GBR), and oat (OT) were added to rice porridge, and the properties of the porridge were compared with that containing a commercial thickener. Among the samples, the porridge with WBL showed the highest viscosity, whereas that with GR showed the lowest. With regards to color properties, the porridge with GR showed the highest whiteness, while those with OT or GBR had the highest yellowness, affecting the color of the rice porridge. The viscosity level of porridges with cereal powders did not reach that of the porridge with the commercial thickener at $90-95^{\circ}C$; however, at $55-60^{\circ}C$, the viscosity of the porridge with cereals was enough to replace the commercial thickener. With regards to organoleptic tests, the overall acceptability was mainly attributed to color, and there were no significant differences in other properties. From these results, it seems that the cereal powders could be suitable substitutes for commercial thickeners.

Baby Food Processing and Properties by using High Pressure Processing (초고압 처리에 의한 이유식 가공 및 특성)

  • Cho, Hyoung-Yong;Cho, Eun-Kyoung;Kim, Byoung-Chul;Shin, Hae-Hun
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.746-752
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    • 2011
  • In the manufacture of baby food in the form of semi-solid to give the most suitable rheological properties to select thickener, 4% of rice flour, modified starch 1 and modified starch or 0.3% pectin added to baby food. After 3 minutes at a pressure 550 MPa high pressure processing(HPP), sensory evaluation conducted to measure the viscosity results, the addition of rice flour, baby food bananas and apples all the color, texture, flow properties and high affinity for most commercial baby food as well as the most likely to show the viscosity of semi-solid state in the manufacture of baby food there were rice flower most suitable. The baby food that 4%, 6% and 8% of rice flower added as thickener were high pressure processing at 450 MPa and 550 MPa pressure and 1, 3 and 5 min conditions. In results, the higher added percentage of rice flower, the viscosity and lightness were increased, pH and sugar content were not significantly different from. In addition, ultra-high pressure processing conditions and the processing time for a change in pressure due to the increase is not significantly different. Because of high-pressure processing does not significantly affect the physical properties of the baby food, consideration of the economy and gelatinization degree, high-voltage processing conditions for the manufacture of baby food 550 MPa, 3 min was considered the most suitable processing conditions.

Effect of the Additives on Choux Quality of Rice Flour (쌀가루 슈의 품질향상을 위한 첨가물의 효과)

  • 이선옥;김명애
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.92-98
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    • 1996
  • This experiment was carried out to investigate the effective additives and amount of addition in order to improve the quality of chou made with rice flour. The four emulsifiers and four thickeners were used as the additives in this test. The chou was formed with rice flour without the additives. There were not significantly differences in the sensory evaluation between choux of rice flour of non-additives and the additives, but the emulsifiers treatment increased the expansion capacity of paste. Thickeners did not improve the quality of choux. The hardness of pastes were increased and the cavities in choux were not formed in addition of high amount of thickeners. The mixture of two kinds of emulsifiers, the mixture of emulsifiers and a thickener did not improve of choux quality compared to the addition of emulsifier. The best quality of chou was obtained from 0.6% of lecithin.

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Sensory Properties and Viscosity of Bechamel Sauce by Cooking Methods and Ratio of Raw Materials (조리 방법과 재료 배합비에 따른 Bechamel Sauce의 특성)

  • Oh, Chan
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.307-311
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    • 2000
  • Sauces are various combination of ingredients mixed together, usually cooked, and in some stage of liquidity. Sauces are used to enhance the flavor of food dishes and to hold ingredients together while a food dish is being cooked. A cooked sauce is combination of a fat, thickener, and liquid. The degree of thickness of the sauce will vary with the proportions of the ingredients. the gelling characteristics of the thickener, and the length of the cooking time. The purpose of this study was to investigate the sensory properties and viscosity of a medium Bechamel sauce differing from cooking methods and ratio of raw materials. Objective evaluation was done by viscometer and line spread chart. Sensory evaluation was done by a panel of 8 judges majoring in food and nutrition. Viscosity of Bechamel sauce was decreased by increasing the amount of milk. Spreadability was increased by increasing the amount of milk, Vice versa. As a result of the sensory evaluation for Bechamel sauce made with various levels of milk, Bechamel sauce having mixture ratio of 1 butter, 1 flour, and 17 milk was the most preferable. Sauteing onion with butter was the most desirable method.

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