• Title, Summary, Keyword: fog computing

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Task Distribution Scheme based on Service Requirements Considering Opportunistic Fog Computing Nodes in Fog Computing Environments (포그 컴퓨팅 환경에서 기회적 포그 컴퓨팅 노드들을 고려한 서비스 요구사항 기반 테스크 분배 방법)

  • Kyung, Yeunwoong
    • Journal of Korea Multimedia Society
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.51-57
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    • 2021
  • In this paper, we propose a task distribution scheme in fog computing environment considering opportunistic fog computing nodes. As latency is one of the important performance metric for IoT(Internet of Things) applications, there have been lots of researches on the fog computing system. However, since the load can be concentrated to the specific fog computing nodes due to the spatial and temporal IoT characteristics, the load distribution should be considered to prevent the performance degradation. Therefore, this paper proposes a task distribution scheme which considers the static as well as opportunistic fog computing nodes according to their mobility feature. Especially, based on the task requirements, the proposed scheme supports the delay sensitive task processing at the static fog node and delay in-sensitive tasks by means of the opportunistic fog nodes for the task distribution. Based on the performance evaluation, the proposed scheme shows low service response time compared to the conventional schemes.

Service Mobility Support Scheme in SDN-based Fog Computing Environment (SDN 기반 Fog Computing 환경에서 서비스 이동성 제공 방안)

  • Kyung, Yeun-Woong;Kim, Tae-Kook
    • Journal of The Korea Internet of Things Society
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.39-44
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    • 2020
  • In this paper, we propose a SDN-based fog computing service mobility support scheme. Fog computing architecture has been attracted because it enables task offloading services to IoT(Internet of Things) devices which has limited computing and power resources. However, since static as well as mobile IoT devices are candidate service targets for the fog computing service, the efficient task offloading scheme considering the mobility should be required. Especially for the IoT services which need low-latency response, the new connection and task offloading delay with the new fog computing node after handover can occur QoS(Quality of Service) degradation. Therefore, this paper proposes an efficient service mobility support scheme which considers both task migration and flow rule pre-installations. Task migration allows for the service connectivity when the fog computing node needs to be changed. In addition, the flow rule pre-installations into the forwarding nodes along the path after handover enables to reduce the connection delay and service interruption time.

An Authentication Scheme Using OAuth and Cyber Physical Social System (Cyber-Physical-Social 시스템과 OAuth를 이용한 IoT 인증 기법)

  • Cho, Jeong-woo;Lee, Kuk-young;Lee, Ki Young
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Information and Commucation Sciences Conference
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    • pp.348-351
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    • 2016
  • Recently on IoT environment, there is necessary of protected network, which is only specific user can access it. Applying OAuth protocol on IoT, it can be easier to construct network authentication system, but it is hard to construct protected network authentication system. And there is weakness of OAuth protocol, which is easily attacked by sniffing Token by attacker. So, it is necessary to secondary authentication for OAuth. In ultimate IoT, the fog computing is essential. Fog computing is extension of cloud that enables networking not only in core system but also in edge system and communication node to node. Strength of fog computing is location awareness, support for mobility, and so on. If authentication in fog computing uses this strength, it can be more specialized in Fog Computing. So, in secondary Authentication, using Cyber-Physical-Social System will increase convenience of user than using existing authentication system, such as authentication certificate, id/password and group key, which is inconvenient for user. This study is about authentication based Cyber-Physical-Social System.

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Scalable Service Placement in the Fog Computing Environment for the IoT-Based Smart City

  • Choi, Jonghwa;Ahn, Sanghyun
    • Journal of Information Processing Systems
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.440-448
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    • 2019
  • The Internet of Things (IoT) is one of the main enablers for situation awareness needed in accomplishing smart cities. IoT devices, especially for monitoring purposes, have stringent timing requirements which may not be met by cloud computing. This deficiency of cloud computing can be overcome by fog computing for which fog nodes are placed close to IoT devices. Because of low capabilities of fog nodes compared to cloud data centers, fog nodes may not be deployed with all the services required by IoT devices. Thus, in this article, we focus on the issue of fog service placement and present the recent research trends in this issue. Most of the literature on fog service placement deals with determining an appropriate fog node satisfying the various requirements like delay from the perspective of one or more service requests. In this article, we aim to effectively place fog services in accordance with the pre-obtained service demands, which may have been collected during the prior time interval, instead of on-demand service placement for one or more service requests. The concept of the logical fog network is newly presented for the sake of the scalability of fog service placement in a large-scale smart city. The logical fog network is formed in a tree topology rooted at the cloud data center. Based on the logical fog network, a service placement approach is proposed so that services can be placed on fog nodes in a resource-effective way.

The Design of Dynamic Fog Cloud System using mDBaaS

  • Hwang, Chigon;Shin, Hyoyoung;Lee, Jong-Yong;Jung, Kyedong
    • International Journal of Internet, Broadcasting and Communication
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.59-66
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    • 2017
  • Cloud computing has evolved into a core computing infrastructure for the internet that encompasses content, as well as communications, applications and commerce. By providing powerful computing and communications capabilities in the palm of the hand everywhere with a variety of smart devices, mobile applications such as virtual reality, sensing and navigation have emerged and radically changed the patterns people live. The data that is generated is getting bigger. Cloud computing, on the other hand, has problems with system load and speed due to the collection, processing and control of remote data. To solve this problem, fog computing has been proposed in which data is collected and processed at an edge. In this paper, we propose a system that dynamically selects a fog server that acts as a cloud in the edge. It serves as a mediator in the cloud, and provides information on the services and systems belonging to the cloud to the mobile device so that the mobile device can act as a fog. When the role of the fog system is complete, we provide it to the cloud to virtualize the fog. The heterogeneous problem of data of mobile nodes can be solved by using mDBaaS (Mobile DataBase as a Service) and we propose a system design method for this.

Zero-Knowledge Realization of Software-Defined Gateway in Fog Computing

  • Lin, Te-Yuan;Fuh, Chiou-Shann
    • KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems (TIIS)
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    • v.12 no.12
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    • pp.5654-5668
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    • 2018
  • Driven by security and real-time demands of Internet of Things (IoT), the timing of fog computing and edge computing have gradually come into place. Gateways bear more nearby computing, storage, analysis and as an intelligent broker of the whole computing lifecycle in between local devices and the remote cloud. In fog computing, the edge broker requires X-aware capabilities that combines software programmability, stream processing, hardware optimization and various connectivity to deal with such as security, data abstraction, network latency, service classification and workload allocation strategy. The prosperous of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) pushes the possibility of gateway capabilities further landed. In this paper, we propose a software-defined gateway (SDG) scheme for fog computing paradigm termed as Fog Computing Zero-Knowledge Gateway that strengthens data protection and resilience merits designed for industrial internet of things or highly privacy concerned hybrid cloud scenarios. It is a proxy for fog nodes and able to integrate with existing commodity gateways. The contribution is that it converts Privacy-Enhancing Technologies rules into provable statements without knowing original sensitive data and guarantees privacy rules applied to the sensitive data before being propagated while preventing potential leakage threats. Some logical functions can be offloaded to any programmable micro-controller embedded to achieve higher computing efficiency.

Adaptive Deadline-aware Scheme (ADAS) for Data Migration between Cloud and Fog Layers

  • Khalid, Adnan;Shahbaz, Muhammad
    • KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems (TIIS)
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.1002-1015
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    • 2018
  • The advent of Internet of Things (IoT) and the evident inadequacy of Cloud networks concerning management of numerous end nodes have brought about a shift of paradigm giving birth to Fog computing. Fog computing is an extension of Cloud computing that extends Cloud resources at the edge of the network, closer to the user. Cloud computing has become one of the essential needs of people over the Internet but with the emerging concept of IoT, traditional Clouds seem inadequate. IoT entails extremely low latency and for that, the Cloud servers that are distant and unknown to the user appear to be unsuitable. With the help of Fog computing, the Fog devices installed would be closer to the user that will provide an immediate storage for the frequently needed data. This paper discusses data migration between different storage types especially between Cloud devices and then presents a mechanism to migrate data between Cloud and Fog Layer. We call this mechanism Adaptive Deadline-Aware Scheme (ADAS) for Data migration between Cloud and Fog. We will demonstrate that we can access and process latency sensitive "hot" data through the proposed ADAS more efficiently than with a traditional Cloud setup.

Traffic-based reinforcement learning with neural network algorithm in fog computing environment

  • Jung, Tae-Won;Lee, Jong-Yong;Jung, Kye-Dong
    • International Journal of Internet, Broadcasting and Communication
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.144-150
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    • 2020
  • Reinforcement learning is a technology that can present successful and creative solutions in many areas. This reinforcement learning technology was used to deploy containers from cloud servers to fog servers to help them learn the maximization of rewards due to reduced traffic. Leveraging reinforcement learning is aimed at predicting traffic in the network and optimizing traffic-based fog computing network environment for cloud, fog and clients. The reinforcement learning system collects network traffic data from the fog server and IoT. Reinforcement learning neural networks, which use collected traffic data as input values, can consist of Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) neural networks in network environments that support fog computing, to learn time series data and to predict optimized traffic. Description of the input and output values of the traffic-based reinforcement learning LSTM neural network, the composition of the node, the activation function and error function of the hidden layer, the overfitting method, and the optimization algorithm.

A Study on the Security Framework for IoT Services based on Cloud and Fog Computing (클라우드와 포그 컴퓨팅 기반 IoT 서비스를 위한 보안 프레임워크 연구)

  • Shin, Minjeong;Kim, Sungun
    • Journal of Korea Multimedia Society
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    • v.20 no.12
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    • pp.1928-1939
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    • 2017
  • Fog computing is another paradigm of the cloud computing, which extends the ubiquitous services to applications on many connected devices in the IoT (Internet of Things). In general, if we access a lot of IoT devices with existing cloud, we waste a huge amount of bandwidth and work efficiency becomes low. So we apply the paradigm called fog between IoT devices and cloud. The network architecture based on cloud and fog computing discloses the security and privacy issues according to mixed paradigm. There are so many security issues in many aspects. Moreover many IoT devices are connected at fog and they generate much data, therefore light and efficient security mechanism is needed. For example, with inappropriate encryption or authentication algorithm, it causes a huge bandwidth loss. In this paper, we consider issues related with data encryption and authentication mechanism in the network architecture for cloud and fog-based M2M (Machine to Machine) IoT services. This includes trusted encryption and authentication algorithm, and key generation method. The contribution of this paper is to provide efficient security mechanisms for the proposed service architecture. We implemented the envisaged conceptual security check mechanisms and verified their performance.

An Efficient IoT Platform for Fog Computing (포그 컴퓨팅을 위한 효율적인 IoT 플랫폼)

  • Lee, Han Sol;Choi, Jeong Woo;Byeon, Gi Beom;Hong, Ji Man
    • Smart Media Journal
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.35-42
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    • 2019
  • With IoT device technology developments, such devices now can perceive the surrounding environment and operate upon the condition, but a method for efficiently processing an enormous amount of IoT device data is required. The existing cloud computing has a transmission delay problem due to load and distance. Fog Computing, an environment to control IoT devices, therefore, emerged to solve this problem. In Fog Computing, IoT devices are located close to each other to solve the shortcomings of the cloud system. While many earlier studies on Fog Computing for IoT mainly focus on its structure and framework, we would like to propose an integrated Fog Computing platform that monitors, analyzes, and controls IoT devices.