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Properties of Harmful Substances Absorption Eco-friendly Artificial Stone Containing Basalt Waste Rock (현무암 폐석을 첨가한 유해물질 흡착 친환경 인조석재의 특성)

  • Pyeon, Su-Jeong;Gwon, Oh-Han;Kim, Tae-Hyun;Lee, Sang-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Recycled Construction Resources Institute
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.431-438
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    • 2016
  • Recently, Both rapid economic growth and high-quality native finishing materials demand in buildings such as local infrastructure facilities and cultural facilities have increased along with local quarries. So, increasing local quarries and environmental pollution occurred in quarries get the eyes to damaged area of the surroundings. As an example, carcinogen such as solid formed to fixing asbestos and dust have damaged to local resident. Especially, Radon gas released from asbestos can exist everywhere on earth, released soil and rock as radioactive substances, can be caused lung cancer followed by a smoking. When pollution source to indoor air quality that lacking ventilation rate of the residential building moved in a cycle, human responses such as headache, dizziness, etc. get appear, so on it threatened resident's physical condition. Thus, we need to urgent attention to reduction harmful substance. In the case of radon gas of the pollution source to indoor air quality in housing, it has characteristic that keep on going through half-life released from source, we need to control radon gas source than source removal. We set on vermiculite addition ratio to 10% which has harmful substances adsorption performance, proceed experiment to basalt waste rock addition ratio 50, 60, 70, 80(%). The result of an experiment, based on 'KS F 4035, precast terrazzo', we can be obtainable in the best terrazzo at basalt waste rock addition ratio 70%.

An Experimental Study on the Estimation of Chloride Diffusion Coefficient of LNG Storage Tanks (LNG 저장탱크 염해 확산 계수 산출을 위한 실험적 고찰)

  • Lee, Seung-Rim;Hwang, Seung-Hyun
    • Journal of Energy Engineering
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.119-123
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    • 2012
  • Although LNG storage tanks are very delicate with chloride attack owing to its operating inshore location, specific integrity management system for chloride attack has not been studied so far. As the design warranty life time, about 25 years, has come, to prevent paying huge amount of construction cost and required resources for new alternative storage tanks and manage the life time of operating storage tanks, the basic data of chloride attack is necessary. This study intended to build up basic data for following detailed study to develop technologies for life time management of LNG storage tanks, NT Build 492 method in North Europe was used to test chloride diffusion coefficient for the newly-constructing concrete outer tank. Results of these tests lead us to the conclusion that 90 days diffusion coefficients show 46% of 28 days' due to a large quantity of fly ash mixing and much similar to estimation from concrete process table. It seems resonable to conclude that 90 days specimens are recommended estimating the chloride diffusion coefficient for LNG storage tanks to enhance the reliabilities.

Surface characteristics for thermal diffusion of FA-BFS-based geopolymer ceramics added alumina aggregate (알루미나 골재를 첨가한 FA-BFS계 지오폴리머 세라믹스의 열확산에 대한 표면 특성)

  • Kim, Jin-Ho;Park, Hyun;Kim, Kyung-Nam
    • Journal of the Korean Crystal Growth and Crystal Technology
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.61-70
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    • 2019
  • Geopolymer is an eco-friendly construction material that has various advantages such as reduced $CO_2$ emission, fire resistance and low thermal conductivity compared to cement. However, it has not been many studies on the thermal behavior of the surface of the geopolymer panel when flame is applied to the surface. In this study, surface characteristics of hardened geopolymer on flame exposure was investigated to observe its characteristics as heat-resistant architectural materials. External structure changes and crack due to the heat shock were not observed during the exposure on flame. According to the residue of calcite and halo pattern of aluminosilicate gel, decarboxylation and dehydration were extremely limited to the surface and, therefore, it is thought that durability of hardened geopolymer was sustained. Gehlenite and calcium silicate portion was inversely proportional to quartz and calcite and significantly directly proportional to BFS replacement ratio. Microstructure changes due to the thermal shock caused decarboxylation and dehydration of crystallization and it was developed the pore and new crystalline phase like calcium silicate and gehlenite. It is thought that those crystalline phase worked as a densification and strengthening mechanism on geopolymer panel surface.

Properties of Low Carbon Type Hydraulic Cement Binder Using Waste Recycle Powder (무기계 재생원료를 사용한 저탄소형 수경성 시멘트 결합재의 특성)

  • Song, Hun;Shin, Hyeon-Uk;Tae, Sung-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Recycled Construction Resources Institute
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.22-28
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    • 2019
  • Cement is a basic material for the construction industry and it requires high temperature sintering when manufacturing cement. $CO_2$ emissions from raw materials and fuels are recognized as new environmental problems and efforts are underway to reduce them. Techniques for reducing $CO_2$ in concrete are also recommended to use blended cement such as blast furnace slag or fly ash. In addition, the construction waste generated in the dismantling of concrete structures is recognized as another environmental problem. Thus, various methods are being implemented to increase the recycling rate. The purpose of this study is to utilize the inorganic raw materials generated during the dismantling of the structure as a raw material for the low carbon type cement binder. Such as, waste concrete powder, waste cement block, waste clay brick and waste textile as raw materials for low carbon type cement binder. From the research results, low carbon type cement binder was manufactured from the raw material composition of waste concrete powder, waste cement block, waste clay brick and waste textile.

Characteristics of Compressive Strength and Drying-shrinkage Equation of Alkali-activated Mortar (알칼리 활성화 결합재 모르타르의 압축강도 특성 및 건조수축 추정식에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Kwang-Min;Kim, Hyung-Suk;Cho, Young-Keun
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.114-121
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study is to understand a compressive strength and propose a dry shrinkage strain equation being able to predict dry shrinkage of alkali-activated materials(AAM) mortar samples manufactured using fly-ash(FA) and ground granulated blast furnace slag(GGBFS). The main parameters investigated were the GGBFS replace ratios(30, 50, 70 and 100%) and sodium silicate modules(Ms[$SiO_2/Na_2O$] 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0). The compressive strength of AAM increased with increases GGBFS replace ratios or Ms contents. The dry shrinkage strain of AAM decreased with increases Ms contents. But, the dry shrinkage strain of AAM increased as the GGBFS replace ratio increases. Therefore, the GGBFS replace ratio seems to have very significant and important consequences for the mix design of the AAM mortar. The results indicated the R-square of single regression analysis based on each mix properties was the highest value; 0.7539~0.9786(average 0.9359). And the presumption equation of dry shrinkage strain with all variables(GGBFS, Ms and material age) has higher accuracy and its R-square was 0.8020 at initial curing temperature 23 degrees Celsius and 0.8018 at initial curuing temperature 70 degrees Celsius.

Co-firing Characteristics and Slagging Behavior of Sewage Sludge with Coal and Wood Pellet in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed (기포 유동층 반응기를 이용한 하수 슬러지와 석탄 및 우드 펠렛의 혼소 특성 및 슬래깅 성향 연구)

  • Ahn, Hyungjun;Kim, Donghee;Lee, Youngjae
    • Clean Technology
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.323-331
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    • 2018
  • The results of an experimental investigation on the co-firing characteristics and slagging behavior of dried and hydrothermal carbonization sewage sludge, sub-bituminous coal, and wood pellet in a fluidized bed were presented. Combustion tests were conducted in a lab-scale bubbling fluidized bed system at the uniform fuel-air equivalence ratio, air flow rate, and initial bed temperature to measure bed temperature distribution and combustion gas composition. 4 different fuel blending cases were prepared by mixing sewage sludge fuels with coal and wood pellet with the ratio of 50 : 50 by the heating value. $NO_x$ was mostly NO than $NO_2$ and measured in the range of 400 to 600 ppm in all cases. $SO_2$ was considered to be affected mostly by the sulfur content of the sewage sludge fuels. The cases of hydrothermal carbonization sewage sludge mixture showed slightly less $SO_2$ emission but higher fuel-N conversion than the dried sewage sludge mixing cases. The result of fly ash composition analysis implied that the sewage sludge fuels would increase the possibility of slagging/fouling considering the contents of alkali species, such as Na, K, P. Between the two different sewage sludge fuels, dried sewage sludge fuel was expected to have the more severe impact on slagging/fouling behavior than hydrothermal carbonization sewage sludge fuel.

Evaluation of Apparent Chloride Diffusion Coefficient and Surface Chloride Contents of FA concrete Exposed Splash zone Considering Crack Width (비말 지역에 노출된 FA 콘크리트의 균열을 고려한 겉보기 염화물 확산계수 및 표면 염화물량 평가)

  • Yoon, Yong-Sik;Kwon, Seung-Jun
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.18-25
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    • 2019
  • The cracks occurred during service life of concrete structure should be considered in durability design, because of the concrete's material property which is weak in tensile strength. In this study, the fly ash concrete mixtures considering 2 levels of strength is designed and outdoor exposure tests are conducted for those concrete specimens. The exposure environment is set to a splash zone, and in order to evaluate the effect of crack width on the behavior of chloride diffusion, the crack width of up to 1.0 mm is generated at intervals of 0.1 mm at each concrete mixture. After that, apparent chloride diffusion coefficient and surface chloride contents are deducted considering 3 levels of exposure periods(180 days, 365 days, 730 days). The diffusion coefficients of two types of mixture increase with the increase of crack width, and the diffusion coefficients decrease with the increase of exposure periods. In addition, the effect of the crack width on the diffusion coefficient is reduced as the exposure periods increase, which is attributed to the extra hydrate by chloride ion reducing the diffusivity of concrete. The behavior of the surface chloride contents does not significantly change by the increase in crack width, compared to the behavior of apparent chloride diffusion coefficient. Also, In the high strength FA concrete mixture, the surface chloride contents are 78.9 % ~ 90.7 % than the normal FA strength concrete mixture. Thus, Surface chloride contents have correlation with the strength of concrete.

Durability Characteristics in Concrete with Ternary Blended Concrete and Low Fineness GGBFS (삼성분계 콘크리트와 저분말도 슬래그를 혼입한 콘크리트의 내구 특성)

  • Kim, Tae-Hoon;Jang, Seung-Yup;Kwon, Seung-Jun
    • Journal of the Korean Recycled Construction Resources Institute
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.287-294
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    • 2019
  • GGBFS(Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag) has been widely used in concrete for its excellent resistance chloride and chemical attack, however cracks due to hydration heat and dry shrinkage are reported. In many International Standards, GGBFS with low fineness of 3,000 grade is classified for wide commercialization and crack control. In this paper, the mechanical and durability performance of concrete were investigated through two mix proportions; One (BS) has 50% of w/b(water to binder) ratio and 60% replacement ratio with low-fineness GGBFS, and the other (TS) has 50% of w/b and 60% replacement ratio with 4000 grade and FA (Fly Ash). The strength difference between TS and BS concrete was not great from 3 day to 91 day of age, and BS showed excellent performance for chloride diffusion and carbonation resistance. Two mixtures also indicate a high durability index (more than 90.0) for freezing-thawing since they contain sufficient air content. Through improvement of strength in low fineness GGBFS concrete at early age, mass concrete with low hydration heat and high durability can be manufactured.

Field Applicability Evaluation of Control Low Strength Materials as Utilizing Various Industrial by-Products (공동충전재로써 각종 산업부산물을 활용한 CLSM의 현장적용 가능성 평가)

  • Liao, Xiao-kai;Kim, Dong-Hun
    • Journal of the Korean Recycled Construction Resources Institute
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.387-394
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    • 2020
  • In this research, a physical property test of CLSM, which can safely and effectively utilize a great number of industrial byproducts and waste types, was used to review the applicability of GBFS, FNS, and FGB, as well as their field applicabilities as cavity fillers, and the following conclusions have been reached. first, For CLSM utilizing GBFS, FNS, and FGB, it was revealed that a proper mixing of over 30% of GBFS and FNS or within 5% of FGB is effective in improving the fluidity for field application. second, It was revealed that GF15B5 can suppress bleeding at a similar level as the base, whereas GF30B5 can do so at about 0.17% compared to the base. It was also verified that GF15, GF30, and GF45 can suppress bleeding at about 0.2%, 0.26%, and 0.3%, respectively, compared to the base. third, Both GF15B5 and GF30B5 exceeded 0.4MPa in 7day strength tests to satisfy the field application and, also, the rates of increase of their initial strengths were found to be 323% and 233% higher than the base, respectively. Meanwhile, the 7day strength test of GF, which utilizes GBFS and FNS, also reached over 0.2MPa for field application, and it was revealed that GF15, GF30, and GF45 show 160%, 237%, and 185% higher strength increase rates, respectively, compared to the base.

Property of tow Shrinkage High Performance Concrete depending on Mixture Proportions and Material Characteristics (배합 및 재료요인에 따른 저수축 고성능 콘크리트의 품질 특성)

  • Han Cheon-Goo;Kim Sung-Wook;Koh Kyoung-Taek;Han Mu-Cheol
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.805-811
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    • 2004
  • In this paper, effects of mixture proportion and material condition on both fundamental properties, drying and autogenous shrinkage of high performance concrete are discussed. According to the results, for the effect of mixture proportion on the fundamental properties, decrease in W/B and unit water content results in reduction of fluidity, while air content has no variation. Compressive strength exhibits an decreasing tendency with an increase in W/B and unit water content do not remarkable affect the compressive strength. For the effect of materials on the fluidity, the fluidity of low heat portland cement(LPC) is smaller than that of ordinary portland cement(OPC). The use of Polycarbonic acid based superplasticizer(PS) has more favorable effect on enhancing fluidity than Naphtalene based superplasticlzer(NS) and Melamine based superplasticizer(MS). Air content of concrete using LPC is larger than that using OPC. The effects of superplasticizer type on the air content is larger in order of MS, PS and NS. The use of LPC exhibited lower strength development at early age than OPC, whereas after 91days, similar level of compressive strength is achieved regardless of cement type. Compressive strength of concrete is not affected by SP type. For the effect of mixture proportion and materials on drying and autogenous shrinkage, an increase in W/B results in reduction of drying shrinkage and an decrease in water content leads to reduce drying shrinkage. Autogenous shrinkage is not observed until 49 days with the concrete mixture with $35\%$ of W/B and $145 kg/m^3$ of water content. This is due to the combination effects of expansion admixture and shrinkage reducing admixture, which causes an offset of autogenous shrinkage. The use of LPC results in a reduction in autogenous shrinkage compared with OPC. SP type has little influence on the autogenous shrinkage. It is found from the results that mixture proportioning of high performance concrete incorporating fly ash, silica fume, expansion admixture and shrinkage reducing admixture is need to focus on the increase in W/B and the reduction in water content and the use of LPC and MS is also required to use to secure the stability against shrinkage properties.