• Title, Summary, Keyword: flowering time

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Overcoming sterility by Caffeine and Temperature in Oriental-Asiatic Interspecific Lily Hybrid (백합 Oriental-Asiatic 종간잡종의 임성 회복을 위한 카페인과 변온처리)

  • Park, Song Kyoung;Park, In Sook;Kim, Chang Kil;Jee, Sun Ok;Lim, Ki Byung
    • FLOWER RESEARCH JOURNAL
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.279-284
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    • 2009
  • In order to recover fertility from sterile interspecific OA-1 $F_1$ hybrid (Oriental hybrid 'Mero Star' ${\times}$ Asiatic hybrid 'Connecticut King'), various concentrations (0.1, 0.3 and 0.5%) of caffeine were injected directly into flower buds and then confirmed the viability of OA-1 $F_1$ hybrid at the flowering time. After the caffeine treatment, fertilized $F_1$ hybrids were crossed as female with Asiatic hybrid 'Lanzarote' as male. Five plantlets were obtained from seven embryos of 16 pollinated flowers at 0.3% treatment of caffeine while 0.5% treatment of caffeine obtained one plant let and 0.1 % treatment of caffeine plantlet did not produce at all. Thus 0.3% of caffeine treatment was considered as optimum concentration to produce subsequent progenies and the OA-l $F_1$ hybrid treated with caffeine produced 51% of putative 2n gametes. Pollen germination of OA-2 ('Romero Star' ${\times}$ 'Lady Rosa') and OA-3 ('Expression' ${\times}$ 'Lady Rosa') was not differ between temperature treatment alone and in combination with caffeine and temperature treatment. In the reciprocal crosses of OA-1 and Asiatic hybrid 'Lanzarote' or Oriental hybrid 'Sorbonne', A ('Lanzarote') ${\times}$ OA-1 or OA-1 ${\times}$ A crosses showed better results than O ('Sorbonne') ${\times}$ OA-1 or OA-1 ${\times}$ a crosses in plant obtaining. All progenies obtained from A ${\times}$ OA-1 or OA-1 ${\times}$ A crosses were confirmed as triploids by GISH analysis.

Effect of Alachlor Herbicide and Transparent Polyethylene Film Mulching on Growth and Yield of Peanuts (Alachlor와 P.E. 피복(被覆)이 땅콩의 생육(生育)과 수량(收量)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Lee, S.S.;Kang, K.H.;Back, J.H.;Lee, K.H.;Jung, S.H.;Choi, D.W.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.79-87
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    • 1984
  • Herbicidal effects of alachlor to peanuts were observed under different formulations (granule containing 5.0% a.i. and emulsifiable concentrate containing 43.7% a.i.) and levels (granule with 3 and 6kg/l0a and emulsion with 300㏄/l0a) with the transparent polyethylene (P.E.) film mulching. Formulations and levels of alachlor did not affect emergence ratio, time of emergence and flowering, and early growth of peanuts such as the number of leaves and branches, length of branches; and shoot dry weight at 20 and 40 days after planting, but early growth was enhanced by P.E. film mulching. At harvest, weed dry weight was positively correlated with length of branches, but negatively correlated with the number of branches and shoot dry weight. Acalyphu australis and Chenopodium album were not effectively controlled by the application of alachlor and growth of C. album was retarded under P.E. film mulching. Portulaca oleracea and Digitaria sanguinalis were effectively controlled by alachlor, but they were not affected by P.E. film mulching. At harvest, D. sanguinalis, A. australis, and Echinochloa crus galli were predominant weeds in all treatments; persistence of alachlor may not be long enough to control even sensitive weeds to alachlor such as D, sanguinalis in the field of peanuts of which canopy development was relatively slow. Weed dry weight at harvest was negatively correlated with the number of pods and grain yield of peanuts. Among the yield components only the number of nods per plant was positively correlated with grain yield. Hana weeding after July 1 increased grain yield of Peanuts even in alchlor applied plots.

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Studies on the Consumptine Use of Irrigated Water in Paddy Fields During the Growing of Rice Plants(III) (벼생유기간중의 논에서의 분석소비에 관한 연구(II))

  • 민병섭
    • Magazine of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.1775-1782
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    • 1969
  • The results of the study on the consumptine use of irrigated water in paddy fields during the growing season of rice plants are summarized as follows. 1. Transpiration and evaporation from water surface. 1) Amount of transpiration of rice plant increases gradually after transplantation and suddenly increases in the head swelling period and reaches the peak between the end of the head swelling poriod and early period of heading and flowering. (the sixth period for early maturing variety, the seventh period for medium or late maturing varieties), then it decreases gradually after that, for early, medium and late maturing varieties. 2) In the transpiration of rice plants there is hardly any difference among varieties up to the fifth period, but the early maturing variety is the most vigorous in the sixth period, and the late maturing variety is more vigorous than others continuously after the seventh period. 3) The amount of transpiration of the sixth period for early maturing variety of the seventh period for medium and late maturing variety in which transpiration is the most vigorous, is 15% or 16% of the total amount of transpiration through all periods. 4) Transpiration of rice plants must be determined by using transpiration intensity as the standard coefficient of computation of amount of transpiration, because it originates in the physiological action.(Table 7) 5) Transpiration ratio of rice plants is approximately 450 to 480 6) Equations which are able to compute amount of transpiration of each variety up th the heading-flowering peried, in which the amount of transpiration of rice plants is the maximum in this study are as follows: Early maturing variety ; Y=0.658+1.088X Medium maturing variety ; Y=0.780+1.050X Late maturing variety ; Y=0.646+1.091X Y=amount of transpiration ; X=number of period. 7) As we know from figure 1 and 2, correlation between the amount evaporation from water surface in paddy fields and amount of transpiration shows high negative. 8) It is possible to calculate the amount of evaporation from the water surface in the paddy field for varieties used in this study on the base of ratio of it to amount of evaporation by atmometer(Table 11) and Table 10. Also the amount of evaporation from the water surface in the paddy field is to be computed by the following equations until the period in which it is the minimum quantity the sixth period for early maturing variety and the seventh period for medium or late maturing varieties. Early maturing variety ; Y=4.67-0.58X Medium maturing variety ; Y=4.70-0.59X Late maturing variety ; Y=4.71-0.59X Y=amount of evaporation from water surface in the paddy field X=number of period. 9) Changes in the amount of evapo-transpiration of each growing period have the same tendency as transpiration, and the maximum quantity of early maturing variety is in the sixth period and medium or late maturing varieties are in the seventh period. 10) The amount of evapo-transpiration can be calculated on the base of the evapo-transpiration intensity (Table 14) and Tablet 12, for varieties used in this study. Also, it is possible to compute it according to the following equations with in the period of maximum quantity. Early maturing variety ; Y=5.36+0.503X Medium maturing variety ; Y=5.41+0.456X Late maturing variety ; Y=5.80+0.494X Y=amount of evapo-transpiration. X=number of period. 11) Ratios of the total amount of evapo-transpiration to the total amount of evaporation by atmometer through all growing periods, are 1.23 for early maturing variety, 1.25 for medium maturing variety, 1.27 for late maturing variety, respectively. 12) Only air temperature shows high correlation in relation between amount of evapo-transpiration and climatic conditions from the viewpoint of Korean climatic conditions through all growing periods of rice plants. 2. Amount of percolation 1) The amount of percolation for computation of planning water requirment ought to depend on water holding dates. 3. Available rainfall 1) The available rainfall and its coefficient of each period during the growing season of paddy fields are shown in Table 8. 2) The ratio (available coefficient) of available rainfall to the amount of rainfall during the growing season of paddy fields seems to be from 65% to 75% as the standard in Korea. 3) Available rainfall during the growing season of paddy fields in the common year is estimated to be about 550 millimeters. 4. Effects to be influenced upon percolation by transpiration of rice plants. 1) The stronger absorbtive action is, the more the amount of percolation decreases, because absorbtive action of rice plant roots influence upon percolation(Table 21, Table 22) 2) In case of planting of rice plants, there are several entirely different changes in the amount of percolation in the forenoon, at night and in the afternoon during the growing season, that is, is the morning and at night, the amount of percolation increases gradually after transplantation to the peak in the end of July or the early part of August (wast or soil temperature is the highest), and it decreases gradually after that, neverthless, in the afternoon, it decreases gradually after transplantation to be at the minimum in the middle of August, and it increases gradually after that. 3) In spite of the increasing amount of transpiration, the amount of daytime percolation decreases gadually after transplantation and appears to suddenly decrease about head swelling dates or heading-flowering period, but it begins to increase suddenly at the end of August again. 4) Changs of amount of percolation during all growing periods show some variable phenomena, that is, amount of percolation decreases after the end of July, and it increases in end August again, also it decreases after that once more. This phenomena may be influenced complexly from water or soil temperature(night time and forenoon) as absorbtive action of rice plant roots. 5) Correlation between the amount of daytime percolation and the amount of transpiration shows high negative, amount of night percolation is influenced by water or soil temperature, but there is little no influence by transpiration. It is estimated that the amount of a daily percolation is more influenced by of other causes than transpiration. 6) Correlation between the amount of night percoe, lation and water or soil temp tureshows high positive, but there is not any correlation between the amount of forenoon percolation or afternoon percolation and water of soil temperature. 7) There is high positive correlation which is r=+0.8382 between the amount of daily percolation of planting pot of rice plant and amount and amount of daily percolation of non-planting pot. 8) The total amount of percolation through all growin. periods of rice plants may be influenced more from specific permeability of soil, water of soil temperature, and otheres than transpiration of rice plants.

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Studies on the Natural Distribution and Ecology of Ilex cornuta Lindley et Pax. in Korea (호랑가시나무의 천연분포(天然分布)와 군낙생태(群落生態)에 관한 연구(研究))

  • Lee, Jeong Seok
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.62 no.1
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    • pp.24-42
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    • 1983
  • To develop Ilex cornuta which grow naturally in the southwest seaside district as new ornamental tree, the author chose I. cornuta growing in the four natural communities and those cultivated in Kwangju city as a sample, and investigated its ecology, morphology and characteristics. The results obtained was summarized as follows; 1) The natural distribution of I. cornuta marks $35^{\circ}$43'N and $126^{\circ}$44'E in the southwestern part of Korea and $33^{\circ}$20'N and $126^{\circ}$15'E in Jejoo island. This area has the following necessary conditions for Ilex cornuta: the annual average temperature is above $12^{\circ}C$, the coldness index below $-12.7^{\circ}C$, annual average relative humidity 75-80%, and the number of snow-covering days is 20-25 days, situated within 20km of from coastline and within, 100m above sea level and mainly at the foot of the mountain facing the southeast. 2) The vegetation in I. cornuta community can be divided that upper layer is composed of Pinus thunbergii and P. densiflora, middle layer of Eurya japonica var. montana, Ilex cornuta and Vaccinium bracteatum, and the ground vegetation is composed of Carex lanceolata and Arundinella hirta var. ciliare. The community has high species diversity which indicates it is at the stage of development. Although I. cornuta is a species of the southern type of temperate zone where coniferous tree or broad leaved, evergreen trees grow together, it occasionally grows in the subtropical zone. 3) Parent rock is gneiss or rhyolite etc., and soil is acidic (about pH 4.5-5.0) and the content of available phosphorus is low. 4) At maturity, the height growth averaged $10.48{\pm}0.23cm$ a year and the diameter growth 0.43 cm a year, and the annual ring was not clear. Mean leaf-number was 11.34. There are a significant positive correlation between twig-elongation and leaf-number. 5) One-year-old seedling grows up to 10.66 cm (max. 18.2 cm, min. 4.0 cm) in shoot-height, with its leaf number 12.1 (max. 18, min), its basal diameter 2.24 mm (max. 4.0 mm, min. 1.0 mm) and shows rhythmical growth in high temperature period. There were significant positive correlations between stalk-height and leaf-number, between stalk-height and basal-diameter, and between number and basal diameter. 6) The flowering time ranged from the end of April to the beginning of May, and the flower has tetra-merouscorella and corymb of yellowish green. It has a bisexual flower and dioecism with a sexual ratio 1:1. 7) The fruit, after fertilization, grows 0.87 cm long (0.61-1.31 cm) and 0.8 cm wide (0.62-1.05 cm) by the beginning of May. Fruits begin to turn red and continue to ripen until the end of October or the beginning of November and remain unfading until the end of following May. With the partial change in color of dark-brown at the beginning of the June fruits begin to fall, bur some remain even after three years. 8) The seed acquision ratio is 24.7% by weight, and the number of grains per fruit averages 3.9 and the seed weight per liter is 114.2 gram, while the average weight of 1,000 seeds is 24.56 grams. 9) Seeds after complete removal of sarcocarp, were buried under ground in a fixed temperature and humidity and they began to develop root in October, a year later and germinated in the next April. Under sunlight or drought, however, the dormant state may be continued.

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