• Title, Summary, Keyword: flowering time

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The Effect of Fluctuations in Photoperiod and Ambient Temperature on the Timing of Flowering: Time to Move on Natural Environmental Conditions

  • Song, Young Hun
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.39 no.10
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    • pp.715-721
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    • 2016
  • Plants have become physiologically adapted to a seasonally shifting environment by evolving many sensory mechanisms. Seasonal flowering is a good example of adaptation to local environmental demands and is crucial for maximizing reproductive fitness. Photoperiod and temperature are major environmental stimuli that control flowering through expression of a floral inducer, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) protein. Recent discoveries made using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana have shown that the functions of photoreceptors are essential for the timing of FT gene induction, via modulation of the transcriptional activator CONSTANS (CO) at transcriptional and post-translational levels in response to seasonal variations. The activation of FT transcription by the fine-tuned CO protein enables plants to switch from vegetative growth to flowering under inductive environmental conditions. The present review briefly summarizes our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which the information of environmental stimuli is sensed and transduced to trigger FT induction in leaves.

Effect of the Harvest Season on the Yield and Growth of Unripe Fruit and Biennial Flowering of 'Miyagawa' Satsuma Mandarin in Open Field Cultivation (노지재배 풋귤 수확시기가 수량과 과실생육 및 다음해 착화에 미치는 영향)

  • Kang, Seok-Beom;Moon, Young-Eel;Yankg, Kyung-Rok;Joa, Jae-Ho;Lee, Hae-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.314-320
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    • 2019
  • BACKGROUND: As consumption of unripe mandarin increases, its cultivation has increased in open field cultivation areas. Because unripe mandarin must be harvested before ripening and color change, the optimum harvest time must be determined. This study investigated the effect of the harvest season on the yield of unripe fruit and biennial flowering of 'Miyagawa' satsuma mandarin. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two areas of unripe mandarin orchard were selected, and the yield, fruit growth, working time, and flowering of trees the following year were investigated. Fruit was harvested at 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 days after full bloom and at general ripening. Fruit yield of unripe mandarin increased with later harvest time from 100th to 120th day except normal ripening. The next year, biennial occurred with normal ripening and harvesting, but not at the 120th day after full bloom. At the 40th day (earliest harvest time), summer and autumn shoots were present, but not after the 100th day. The 40th day required the most harvesting time; because the time gradually decreased with later harvest, the harvest time was shortest on the 120th day, and general ripening occurred shortly after the 120th day. CONCLUSION: Harvesting of unripe mandarin 100-120 days after full bloom was ideal to reduce harvesting time, enhance yield, and enable flowering the following year.

Changes in Contents of Ginsenosides, Free Sugars and Fatty Acids in Developing Ginseng Seed (인삼종자 생장과정에서 사포닌, 유리당 및 지방산의 변화)

  • 이종철
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.134-137
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    • 1988
  • Sizes of ginseng seeds and contents of ginsenosides, free sugars and fatty acids in the seeds were investigated at different dates after flowering of 4 year old ginseng to get basic information used for determining harvest . time of ginseng seed. The sizes of seeds were maximum about 35 days after flowering(DAF), while those of endosperms reached maximum at 50 DAF. At 65 DAF seeds with intact pulp weighed most heavy. The amounts of total saponin and ginsenosides were decreased with time after flowering. Contents of free sugars such as glucose, maltose and fructose were decreased continously after flowering. Amount of palmic acid was decreased, .but those of oleic, linoleic and stearic acids were increased with time after flowering.

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The Effect of Soil Conditioners on the Rutin Biosynthesis and the Yield of Buckwheat(Fagopyrum esculentum moench) (메밀의 rutin 생합성과 수량에 대한 토양개량제의 효과)

  • Kim, Hee-Kwon;Lee, Yeen;Kim, Byoung-Ho;Yun, Bong-Ki
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.7-11
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    • 1999
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of soil conditioners, such as lime, borax, poultry waste sawdust manure (P.W.S.M) and mixed oil cakes (M.O.C), on the rutin biosynthesis and the yield of buckwheat. The content of phosphorus ($P_2O_5$) in buckwheat plants before flowering was higher at before flowering than that of flowering time at all plots. The content of nitrogen (N), potassium ($K_2O$), calcium (CaO) and magnesium (MgO) was lower at before flowering than those of flowering time at all plots. The contents of rutin in buckwheat plant at flowering time was higher than that at before flowering content of rutin in leaf was higher than that in stem. The contents of rutin in buckwheat plant was the highest at the plot treated with borax (B) compared to other plots. Correlation between rutin and amino acid was positive in buckwheat leaf, while it was negative in buckwheat stem. The yield of buckwheat was 21 percent higher at the plot treated with borax than the plot applied with the other three ingredients.

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Characteristics of Flower of Plus Tree Clones of Pinus koraiensis S. et Z. (잣나무 수형목(秀型木) clone의 개화특성(開花特性))

  • Han, Sang Sup;Lee, Sang Boong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.79 no.3
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    • pp.290-301
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    • 1990
  • The 167 plus tree clones of Pinus koraiensis in clone bank planted in 1983 were investigated for time of flowering, rate of flowering, and number of flowering from 1986 to 1989. The results were as follows : 1) There were clones in the minority which do not cross in natural pollination between earlest flowering female clones and latest shedding male clones. 2) The rate of male flowering appeared less than rate of female flowering and received influence of genetic more than rate of female flowering. 3) The numbers of flowering in female and male flower were affected by small number of clones. 4) The flowering number for female strobili was not related to the flowering number of male flower. The 42 clones among 167 clone had not male flower. 5) The flowering number of 167clones were classified three groups in female flower and four groups in male flower by L.S.D 5% test. 6) The clones with abundant female and male flower were selected based on the component analysis. 7) As Based on flowering rate and number of female, the juvenile phase of plus tree clones appeared to be until four years after grafting ; the transition period appeared to be from five to seven years after grafting ; the adult phase appeared to begin from eight years after grafting, 8) The grafted trees of Pinus koraiensis appeared early flowerring about six years compared with seedling trees.

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Effects of Uniconazole Treatment Time on the Growth and Flowering of Cymbidium Pine Clash 'Moon Venus' and Cym. Green Sour 'A One' (Uniconazole 처리시기가 심비디움 Pine Clash 'Moon Venus'와 Green Sour 'A One'의 생장 및 개화에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Hong Yul;Chung, Jae-Dong
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.344-345
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    • 1999
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of a growth retardant uniconazole treatment time on the growth and flowering of Cymbidium Pine Clash 'Moon Venus' and Cym. Green Sour 'A One' in order to develop a substitutional technique on the highland cultivation. Leaf growth of both cultivars was more remarkably reduced by earlier uniconazole treatment time and growth reduction of 'A One' was more remarkable than 'Moon Venus'. Flowering time of 'Moon Venus' treated with uniconazole at May 7 and 27 was accelerated by 5 and 6 days respectively. Moreover, the number of inflorescences and florets showed a tendency to increase. However there was no difference in flowering time of 'A One' among treatments but there was a tendency to decrease in the number of inflorescences and florets by uniconazole treatment. In both cultivars, there was no difference among treatments in the length and width of lower sepal which represent the floret size.

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Difference of Suaeda japonica Populations from two Different Habitats in Sorae, Incheon, Korea (인천 소래 간석지내 두개의 칠면초 ( Suadeda japonica ) 개체군간의 차이에 관하여)

  • Lee, Kun-Seop;Oh, Kye-Chil
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.133-144
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    • 1989
  • The morphology and flowering time of two Suaeda japonica populations from different habitats, the creek and the bank of the mudflat in Sorae, were surveyed. And standard transplantation and reciprocal transplantation were carried out to determine whether their characteristics were genetically fixed or not. Also soil sample of these habitats were analyzed. The amounts of loss on ignition, maximum field capacity, total nitrogen, exchangeable calcium and potassium, and soluble phosphorus were found to be significantly different between two habitats. Leaf thickness, leaf width, leaf length, stem height number of branches, and number of seeds were significantly different between plants of two populations. And flowering times of two populations did not overlap. According to the results of transplantation, leaf width, leaf thickness, and flowering times were the same as those at their original habitat. But the stem lenght, leaf lenght, number of branches and unmber of seeds were not. Therefore, the differences in the leaf length, leaf thickness, and flowering time seemed to bo genetically fixed. It were suggested that the creek bank populations of Suaeda japoinica were to be considered as different ecotypes.

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Determination of Seeding and Harvesting Time in Snap Bean

  • Lee, Sang-Soon;Lee, Jeong-Dong;Hwang, Young-Hyun
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.64-67
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    • 2001
  • Snap bean is a new corp in Korea but believed to have a great deal of potentials for both domestic and overseas markets. The present study was performed to obtain the basic information about growth- and quality-related characteristics and to determinate the optimum seeding date and harvesting time for snap bean. Pod yield was significantly affected by seeding date. The highest pod yield was obtained from March 20 for determinate type and April 4 for indeterminate one, respectively, with the range of 13.0-23.7 t/ha. The pod length of indeterminate type was over 13cm, and the pod length was over 5 grams. The pod width for tested varieties was less than 1.0cm. Considering the pod growth characters such as pod length, pod width, and pod weight, the optimum harvesting time for immature pods of snap bean was supposed to be from 15 to 20 days after flowering. The daily yield of snap bean was begun to sharply increase from 15 days after the first flowering and the maximum yield was recorded at 30 days after flowering. For the accumulated yield, nearly 90% of total yield was obtained in 42 days after flowering.

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Changes of Berry Characteristics and Ginsenoside Content Depending on Collection Time of Korean Ginseng Berry (고려인삼 열매채취시기에 따른 열매형질 및 진세노사이드 함량 변화)

  • Yi, Eun Seob;Kim, Yeon Ju;An, Young Nam;Han, Jeong A;Cho, Chang Hui
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.214-219
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    • 2018
  • Background: This study was carried out to determine the best time for collecting ginseng berries without reducing the ginsenoside-Re content of ginseng roots, which are used as food, medicine, or cosmetic materials. Methods and Results: The test variety of ginseng used in this study was is Chunpung, which was collected from a 4-year-old ginseng field. Ginseng berries were collected at 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, and 56 days after flowering. The number of berry bunches per $1.62m^2$ ranged from 43.4 to 61.4, while the weight of berries per $1.62m^2$ was the greatest when they were collected 49 days after flowering. The root fresh weight per $1.62m^2$ was increased by 0.21 - 1.00 kg compared with that before the test, but root weight gain was decreased as the berry collection time was delayed. Total ginsenoside content of 4-year-old ginseng was the highest when berries were collected 7 days after flowering, while the ginsenoside-Re contents was the highest when collection was done 14 days after flowering. Conclusions: The most suitable period for ginseng berry collection was proposed to be from 14 to 21 days after flowering, as this is when the content of ginsenoside-Re, which is useful as a medicinal or cosmetic material, is still high and the ginseng root has not yet decreased in weight.

A New Spray Chrysanthemum Cultivar, "Moon Festival" with Vigorous Semi-Double Flower Type and Light-ivory White Petals for Cut Flower

  • Lim, Jin-Hee;Shin, Hak-Ki;Park, Sang Kun;Cho, Hae-Ryong;Rhee, Hye-Kyung;Kim, Mi-Seon;Joung, Hyang Young
    • Korean Journal of Breeding Science
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.336-339
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    • 2008
  • A new spray chrysanthemum cultivar, 'Moon Festival' was released by National Horticultural Research Institute (NHRI), Rural Development Administration (RDA), Korea in 2007. A cross was made in 2002 between '01B1-559', a breeding line of NHRI and 'Baeksokuk', a spray cultivar with white petals. Trials were conducted from 2005 to 2007 for evaluation and selection of this cultivar, including shading culture in summer and retarding culture in autumn. The natural flowering time of "Moon Festival" is late October, but year-round flowering is possible by shading and lighting treatment. The cultivar is semi- double type flowers with light-ivory white petals and green flower center. Flower neck and stem are very hardy. The diameter of flower is 67.5 mm. The number of flowers per stem and petals per flower is 11.5 and 100.5, respectively. The days to flowering under the short day is about 54 in autumn season.