• Title, Summary, Keyword: flowering time

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The Trend on the Change of the Cherry Blossom Flowering Time due to the Temperature Change (기온 변화에 따른 벚꽃 개화시기의 변화 경향)

  • Lee, Seungho;Lee, Kyoungmi
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.45-54
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    • 2003
  • The purpose of this paper is to examine the trend on the change of the cherry blossom flowering time due to the temperature change by selecting regions that have long periods of cherry blossom flowering time data as cases. With the flowering time data, the distribution of cherry blossom flowering time, time series change and change rate of cherry blossom flowering time were analyzed. Also, the correlation between the cherry blossom flowering time and the temperature was analyzed. The flowering of cherry blossom is earlier in metropolitan areas, and in the east coastal region than the west coastal region. The trend on the change of the cherry blossom flowering time is very similar to change the temperature. The change rate of the cherry blossom flowering time is rising up in the whole regions under study, and is relatively high in metropolitan areas. Especially, the cherry blossom flowering time festinated greatly in Pohang that is one of the heavily industrialized cities. From the analysis of correlation analysis between cherry blossom flowering time and temperature elements, the cherry blossom flowering time is highly related with mean temperature of March, which the month is just before the beginning of flowering.

Changes of Flowering Time in the Weather Flora in Susan Using the Time Series Analysis (시계열 분석을 이용한 부산지역 계절식물의 개화시기 변화)

  • Choi, Chul-Mann;Moon, Sung-Gi
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.369-374
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    • 2009
  • To examine the trend on the flowering time in some weather flora including Prunus serrulata var. spontanea, Cosmos bipinnatus, and Robinia pseudo-acacia in Busan, the changes in time series and rate of flowering time of plants were analyzed using the method of time series analysis. According to the correlation between the flowering time and the temperature, changing pattern of flowering time was very similar to the pattern of the temperature, and change rate was gradually risen up as time goes on. Especially, the change rate of flowering time in C. bipinnatus was 0.487 day/year and showed the highest value. In flowering date in 2007, the difference was one day between measurement value and prediction value in C. bipinnatus and R. pseudo-acacia, whereas the difference was 8 days in P. mume showing great difference compared to other plants. Flowering time was highly related with temperature of February and March in the weather flora except for P. mume, R. pseudo-acacia and C. bipinnatus. In most plants, flowering time was highly related with a daily average temperature. However, the correlation between flowering time and a daily minimum temperature was the highest in Rhododendron mucronulatum and P. persica, otherwise the correlation between flowering time and a daily maximum temperature was the highest in Pyrus sp.

Relationship between the Time and Duration of Flowering in Several Woody Plants in Springtime

  • Min, Byeong-Mee;Lee, Ji-Sook;Jeong, Sang-Jin
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.139-146
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    • 2008
  • To clarify the relationship between the timing and the duration of flowering among populations, plants, and individual flowers, the dates of flower budding, flowering and deflowering were monitored for ten woody species from March 1 to June 30, in 2005, 2006 and 2007, in temperate deciduous forests at three sites of Namsan, and individual plants from seven woody species were monitored from March 1 to May 31, in 2006. Total durations of flower budding, flowering, and deflowering varied among the plant species. Three durations of these phenological stages of Stephanandra incisa were the longest (74 days, 109 days, and 101 days, respectively), and those of Prunus serrulata var. spontanea were the shortest (7 days, 7 days, and 4 days, respectively). For each species, phenological durations varied among years but were similar among the study sites in the same year. There was no relationship between flowering time and flowering duration on the population level. On the plant level, the duration of flower budding was over 11 days in all specie; S. incisa had the longest duration (73.3 days), and that of Styrax japonica was long as well (29.0 days), while that of Prunus leveilleana was the shortest (11.3 days). The longer the mean flower budding duration, the greater the difference among the plants within a species. The flowering duration of for S. incisa was 92.2 days, while that of Forsythia koreana was 27.2 days. The flowering durations of all other species were $10{\sim}20$ days. The deflowering duration was 92.0 days in S. incisa and <15 days in all other species. Differences among the plants in deflowering duration were smaller than those of the other phenological stages. In the species that flowered in April, the correlation coefficient between the flowering duration and the first flowering date was negative and significant. However, in the species that flowered in May, the correlation between flowering duration and the first flowering date was not significant. For individual plants of all species except for S. alnifolia, the earlier the flowering time, the longer the flowering duration. Differences between flowering time and flowering duration across years were significant in six species.

Overriding Photoperiod Sensitivity of Flowering Time by Constitutive Expression of a MADS Box Gene

  • N, Gynheung-A
    • Proceedings of the Botanical Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.4-9
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    • 1996
  • The majority of plants sense environmental signals, such as day length or temperature, to select their transition timing from vegetative growth t flowering. Here, we report the identification of a regulatory gene, OsMADS1, that controls the photoperiod sensitivity of flowering time. Constitutive expression of OsMADS1 in a long-day flowering plant, Nicotiana sylvestris, resulted in flowering in both short-day long-day conditions. Similarly, ectopic expression of the gene in a short-day flowering plant, N. tabacum cv. Maryland Mammoth, also induced flowering regardless of the day length. The transition time was dependent on the level of the OsMADS1 transcript in transgenic plants. These suggest that OsMADS1 is a key regulatory factor that determines the transition from shoot apex to floral meristem and that it can be used for controlling flowering time in a variety of plant species.

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Effect of Rainfall Time after Flowering on Grain Yield and Quality in Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) (홍화 개화후 강우 시기가 종실 수량과 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Park Jun-Hong;Park So-Deuk;Kim Se-Jong
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.340-343
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    • 2006
  • This study was conducted to find out the effect of rainfall time on growth and seed quality in safflower. Rainfall was done artificially and the treatment of rainfall time was divided into 6 parts. Each rainfall treatment was done from the first day of flowering up to the fifth day after flowering, from sixth day after flowering to the tenth day after flowering, from the eleventh day after flowering to the fifteenth day after flowering, from sixteenth day after flowering to twentith day after flowering, from the twenty first day after flowering to the twenty fifth day after flowering and from twenty sixth day after flowering to thirtith day after flowering. Rainfall time after flowering did not affect disease occurrence on the upper part and flower bud of safflower, which were infected at were 3.3 and 1, respectively. Ripened grain found on the main stem and primary branch was 37.4% and 65.0% at first day to the fifth day and sixth day to the tenth day rainfall periods after flowering, respectively. Yield was decreased by 14% in the sixth day up to the tenth day and eleventh day up to the fifteenth day rainfall periods (282-281kg/10a) compared to the one under control (327kg/10a). Hunter's L value was 73.5 and 69.9 in twenty first up to the twenty fifth day and twenty sixth up to the thirtith day rainfall periods after flowering, which decreased significantly to 79.3 under non-rainfall period. Therefore, it can be concluded that the optimum harvest time is twenty fifth day after flowering to maintain seed quality at rainfall time and before harvesting period.

The time and duration of flowering in an Adonis multiflora (Ranunculaceae) population

  • Min, Byeong-Mee
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.155-163
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    • 2014
  • Adonis multiflora is a spring ephemeral herb growing in temperate deciduous forests. To determine the flowering properties of a natural population of A. multiflora, air temperature, flowering time, and flower-falling were monitored from February 2009 to May 2011. The A. multiflora population in this study started flowering in early March and ended it in mid-April. The average flowering duration of a flower was 14.4 days in 2009 and 19.6 days in 2011. The average duration of flower-falling was between 3.4 days and 4.2 days for three years. Cumulative flowering rate (CFR) was correlated with year day (YD), year day index (YDI), and Nuttonson's index (Tn), with correlation coefficients (CC) of over 0.9 at the 1% significance level; CC value between CFR and YD was the largest and that between CFR and YDI was the smallest. However, at the 5% significance level, CFR was closely related with Tn more than any other factors. The CCs between flowering times of two years in each plant were high and significant at 1% level. The YD value of flowering time of a flower was inversely related to its flowering duration significantly for three years. In a given plant, when more flowering started early, the flowering duration was longer. The first flower blossomed on 73.4 YD in 2010 and 78.9 YD in 2011, and remained for 16.7 days in 2009 and 27.4 days in 2011, respectively; the fifth flower developed on 92.5 YD in 2010 and 96.6 YD in 2011, and remained for 8.0 days in 2009 and 14.6 days in 2011. The YD differences between the flowering times of two flowers decreased in the order of inflorescence.

Classification of Flowering Group and the Evaluation of Flowering Characteristics for Soybean (Glycine max Merrill) Varieties from North Korea (북한 콩 품종의 개화기 군 분류와 개화특성 평가)

  • Lee, Hye Ji;Kim, Bo Hwan;Kim, Wook;Park, Sei Joon
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.65 no.1
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    • pp.47-55
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    • 2020
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the flowering characteristics of 22 soybean (Glycine max Merrill) varieties of North Korea and classify the flowering group by the flowering date. The flowering date and the days required for flowering with the different planting times on May 31, June 19, June 30, July 3, and July 4 were investigated at the agricultural experimental field of Korea University for three years from 2017 to 2019. The flowering date and the days for flowering of "Yeonpungkong", an early maturing soybean cultivar of Korea, were July 18 and 48 days, respectively, at the planting time of May 31, those of "Daewonkong", a mid-late maturing cultivar, were July 30 and 60 days, respectively. Based on the flowering dates of "Yeonpungkong" and "Daewonkong", North Korean soybean varieties were classified into six flowering groups. Eight North Korean soybean varieties had the flowering dates earlier than "Yeonpungkong", including "Brekkhat" classified into the early flowering group. The range of flowering date was July 2 to 15 at planting time of May 31. Twelve North Korean soybean varieties had flowering dates similar to or later than "Daewonkong", including "Chang Dan Bac Mok" classified into the mid-late flowering group. The range of flowering date was July 24 to 30 at the planting time of May 31. For flowering response to environmental stimulus, all of the mid-late flowering varieties of North Korea responded to "photosensitive or day-length" for flowering reaction. The early flowering varieties were divided by "photosensitive" response and "temperature" response variety.

The peduncle-specific expression during floral transition by high-throughput transcriptome analysis in wheat

  • Lee, Cheol Won;Seo, Yong Weo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.87-87
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    • 2017
  • Flowering time of either early or late is one of the crucial parameters that determine the crop productivity. Therefore, elucidation of regulatory mechanisms of flowering time should contribute to breeding for yield enhancement. However, comprehensive explanation on molecular mechanism of flowering has not yet been reported in hexaploidy common wheat (Triticum asetivum L.). The mechanism of flowering in wheat has been studied mostly using flag leaf or floral meristem. The exposed peduncle, which is a shoot part between bottom of the spike and flag leaf, could be an important tissue that is responsible for flowering through various molecules expressing. To clarify for transcriptomic dynamics in the wheat peduncle that was uncovered by leaf sheath of flag leaf, RNA sequencing and transcriptomic analysis were conducted. With this, we also analyzed other transcriptomic results deposited in the public DB to identify genes specially expressed in peduncle tissue at transition from vegetative to reproductive phase. The obtained results will provide valuable information to understand the role of peduncle for flowing regulation in wheat aimming for elucidation of the regulatory mechanism of wheat flowering.

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Temperature-driven changes of pollinator assemblage and activity of Megaleranthis saniculifolia (Ranunculaceae) at high altitudes on Mt. Sobaeksan, South Korea

  • Lee, Hakbong;Kang, Hyesoon
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.265-271
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    • 2018
  • Background: Temperature-driven variation in pollinator assemblage and activity are important information, especially at high altitudes, where rising temperature trends exceed global levels. Temporal patterns of pollinators in a flowering season can be used as a proxy to predict the changes of high-altitude plants' mutualistic relationships. We observed a spring temperature change in one population of a high-altitude endemic species, Megaleranthis saniculifolia on Mt. Sobaeksan, and related it to pollinator assemblage and activity changes. Methods: This study was conducted at two sites, each facing different slopes (NE and NW), for two times in the spring of 2013 (early-flowering, April 27-28, vs. mid-flowering, May 7-8, 2013). We confirmed that the two sites were comparable in snowmelt regime, composition of flowering plants, and flower density, which could affect pollinator assemblage and activity. Pollinator assemblage and activity were investigated at three quadrats ($1m^2$ with 5-m distance) for each site, covering a total of 840 min observation for each site. We analyzed correlations between the temperature and visitation frequency. Results: Twelve pollinator species belonging to four orders were observed for M. saniculifolia at both sites during early- and mid-flowering times. Diptera (five species) and hymenopteran species (four species) were the most abundant pollinators. Pollinator richness increased at both sites toward the mid-flowering time [early vs. mid = 7 (NE) and 3 (NW) vs. 9 (NE) and 5 (NW)]. Compared to the early-flowering time, visitation frequency showed a fourfold increase in the mid-flowering time. With the progression of spring, major pollinators changed from flies to bees. Upon using data pooled over both sites and flowering times, hourly visitation frequency was strongly positively correlated with hourly mean air temperature. Conclusions: The spring temperature change over a relatively brief flowering period of M. saniculifolia at high altitudes can alter pollinator assemblages through pollinator dominance and visitation frequency changes. Thus, this study emphasizes information on intra- and inter-annual variations in the mutualistic relationship between pollinators and M. saniculifolia to further assess the warming impacts on M. saniculifolia's reproductive fitness.

Effect of High Night Time Temperatures on Flowering Period of Spray-Chrysanthemum cv. 'Euro' During Summer Season (여름철 동안 야간 고온이 스프레이국화 '유로(Euro)'의 개화시기에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Yoon-Ha;Lee, In-Jung
    • Current Research on Agriculture and Life Sciences
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.61-64
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    • 2013
  • This study identified the effect of night time temperatures on the flowering period of spray-chrysanthemum during the summer season in South Korea. According to the results for 2005, the temperature at night time sustained more than $25^{\circ}C$ for 23.6 days during the short day period and delayed the flowering period for 22 days. Similar observations were reported in 2006, as the night time temperature sustained more than $25^{\circ}C$ for 23.6 days during the short day period and delayed flowering period for 23 days. The results for 2007 year showed that night time temperature sustained more than $25^{\circ}C$ for 31.9 days during the same period and delayed flowering for 31 days. In conclusion, based on the results for 2005 to 2007, a specific correlation was found between high night time temperatures and a delayed flowering period for the 'Euro' spray-chrysanthemum.

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