• Title, Summary, Keyword: flexural stiffness

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Experimental Investigation for Flexural Stiffness of Paperboard-stacked Structure

  • Lee, Myung-Hoon;Park, Jong-Min
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF PACKAGING SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.9-15
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    • 2001
  • Top-to-bottom compression strength of corrugated fiberboard boxes is partly dependent on the load-carrying ability of the central panel areas. The ability of these central areas to resist bending under load will increase the stacking strength of the box. The difference of box compression strengths, among boxes which are made with identical dimensions and fabricated with same components but different flute sizes, is primarily due to difference of the flexural stiffness of the box panels. Top-to-bottom compression strength of a box is accurately predicted by flexural stiffness measurements and the edge crush test of the combined boards. This study was carried out to analyze the flexural stiffness, maximum bending force and maximum deflection for various corrugated fiberboards by experimental investigation. There were significant differences between the machine direction (MD) and the cross-machine direction (CD) of corrugated fiberboards tested. It was about 50% in SW and DW, and $62%{\sim}74%$ in dual-medium corrugated fiberboards(e.g. DM, DMA and DMB), respectively. There were no significant differences of maximum deflection in machine direction among the tested fiberboards but, in cross direction, DM showed the highest value and followed by SW, DMA, DMB and DW in order. For the corrugated fiberboards tested, flexural stiffness in machine direction is about $29%{\sim}48%$ larger than cross direction, and difference of flexural stiffness between the two direction is the lowest in DMA and DMB.

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Experimental Investigation for Flexural Stiffness of Paperboard-stacked Structure (종이성형구조물의 휨강성에 대한 실험적 연구)

  • Park, Jong-Min;Lee, Myung-Hoon
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF PACKAGING SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.17-23
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    • 1999
  • Top-to-bottom compression strength of corrugated fiberboard boxes is partly dependent on the load-carrying ability of the central panel areas. The ability of these central areas to resist bending under load will increase the stacking strength of the box. The difference of box compression strengths, among boxes which are made with identical dimensions and fabricated with same components but different flute sizes, is primarily due to difference of the flexural stiffness of the box panels. Top-to-bottom compression strength of a box is accurately predicted by flexural stiffness measurements and the edge crush test of the combined boards. This study was rallied out to analyze the flexural stiffness, maximum bending force and maximum deflection for various corrugated fiber-boards by experimental investigation. There were significant differences between the machine direction (MD) and the cross-machine direction (CD) of corrugated fiberboards tested. It was about 50% in SW and DW, and $62%{\sim}74%$ in dual-medium corrugated fiberboards(e.g. DM, DMA and DMB), respectively. There were no significant differences of maximum deflection in machine direction among the tested fiberboards but, in cross direction, DM showed the highest value and followed by SW, DMA, DMB and DW in order. For the corrugated fiberboards tested, flexural stiffness in machine direction is about $29%{\sim}48%$ larger than cross direction, and difference of flexural stiffness between the two direction is the lowest in DMA and DMB.

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Flexural stiffness of steel-concrete composite beam under positive moment

  • Ding, Fa-Xing;Liu, Jing;Liu, Xue-Mei;Guo, Feng-Qi;Jiang, Li-Zhong
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.1369-1389
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    • 2016
  • This paper investigates the flexural stiffness of simply supported steel-concrete composite I-beams under positive bending moment through combined experimental, numerical, and different standard methods. 14 composite beams are tested for experimental study and parameters including shear connection degree, transverse and longitudinal reinforcement ratios, loading way are also investigated. ABAQUS is employed to establish finite element (FE) models to simulate the flexural behavior of composite beams. The influences of a few key parameters, such as the shear connection degree, stud arrangement, stud diameter, beam length, loading way, on the flexural stiffness is also studied by parametric study. In addition, three widely used standard methods including GB, AISC, and British standards are used to estimate the flexural stiffness of the composite beams. The results are compared with the experimental and numerical results. The findings have provided comprehensive understanding of the flexural stiffness and the modelling of the composite beams. The results also indicate that GB 50017-2003 could provide better results in comparison to the other standards.

Seismic performance of steel plate shear walls with variable column flexural stiffness

  • Curkovic, Ivan;Skejic, Davor;Dzeba, Ivica
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.1-18
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    • 2019
  • In the present study, the behavior of steel plate shear walls (SPSW) with variable column flexural stiffness is experimentally and numerically investigated. Altogether six one-bay one-story specimens, three moment resisting frames (MRFs) and three SPSWs, were designed, fabricated and tested. Column flexural stiffness of the first specimen pair (one MRF and one SPSW) corresponded to the value required by the design codes, while for the second and third pair it was reduced by 18% and 36%, respectively. The quasi-static cyclic test result indicate that SPSW with reduced column flexural stiffness have satisfactory performance up to 4% story drift ratio, allow development of the tension field over the entire infill panel, and cause negligible column "pull-in" deformation which indicates that prescribed minimal column flexural stiffness value, according to AISC 341-10, might be conservative. In addition, finite element (FE) pushover simulations using shell elements were developed. Such FE models can predict SPSW cyclic behavior reasonably well and can be used to conduct numerical parametric analyses. It should be mentioned that these FE models were not able to reproduce column "pull-in" deformation indicating the need for further development of FE simulations with cyclic load introduction which will be part of another paper.

The Effect of the flexural stiffness of Floor Slabs on The Seismic Response of Multi-story Building Structures (바닥판의 휨강성이 고층건물의 지진거동에 미치는 영향)

  • 김현수
    • Proceedings of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.170-177
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    • 2000
  • Recently many high-rise apartment buildings are constructed using the box system which is composed only of concrete walls and slabs. Commercial softwares such as ETABS used for the analysis of high-rise apartment buildings are employing the rigid diaphragm assumption for simplicity in the analysis procedure. In general the flexural stiffness of floor slabs are ignored in the analysis, This assumption may be reasonable for the estimation of seismic response of framed structures. But in the case of the box system used in the apartment buildings floor slabs has major effects on the lateral stiffness of the structure. So if the flexural stiffness of slabs in the box system is ignored the lateral stiffness may be significantly underestimated, For these reasons it is recommended to use plate elements to represent the floor slabs. In the study A typical frame structure and a box system structure are chosen as the example structure. When a 20 story frame structure is subjected to the static lateral loads the displacements of the roof are 15.33cm and 17.52cm for the cases with and without the flexural stiffness of the floor slabs. And in case of box system the roof displacement was reduced from 16.18cm to 8.61cm The model without the flexural stiffness of floor slabs turned out to elongate the natural periods of vibration accordingly.

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Seismic performance of composite plate shear walls with variable column flexural stiffness

  • Curkovic, Ivan;Skejic, Davor;Dzeba, Ivica;De Matteis, Gianfranco
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.19-36
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    • 2019
  • Cyclic behaviour of composite (steel-concrete) plate shear walls (CPSW) with variable column flexural stiffness is experimentally and numerically investigated. The investigation included design, fabrication and testing of three pairs of one-bay one-storey CPSW specimens. The reference specimen pair was designed in way that its column flexural stiffness corresponds to the value required by the design codes, while within the other two specimen pairs column flexural stiffness was reduced by 18% and 36%, respectively. Specimens were subjected to quasi-static cyclic tests. Obtained results indicate that column flexural stiffness reduction in CPSW does not have negative impact on the overall behaviour allowing for satisfactory performance for up to 4% storey drift ratio while also enabling inelastic buckling of the infill steel plate. Additionally, in comparison to similar steel plate shear wall (SPSW) specimens, column "pull-in" deformations are less pronounced within CPSW specimens. Therefore, the results indicate that prescribed minimal column flexural stiffness value used for CPSW might be conservative, and can additionally be reduced when compared to the prescribed value for SPSWs. Furthermore, finite element (FE) pushover simulations were conducted using shell and solid elements. Such FE models can adequately simulate cyclic behaviour of CPSW and as such could be further used for numerical parametric analyses. It is necessary to mention that the implemented pushover FE models were not able to adequately reproduce column "pull-in" deformation and that further development of FE simulations is required where cyclic loading of the shear walls needs to be simulated.

Flexural Performance of RC Beams Strengthened with Diffrent Amount of CFRP Composite (탄소섬유복합체로 보강된 RC부재의 보강재 강성에 따른 휨 보강성능)

  • You, Young-Chan;Choi, Ki-Sun;Kim, Keung-Hwan
    • Proceedings of the Korea Concrete Institute Conference
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    • pp.129-132
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    • 2006
  • It is generally reported that most of RC beams strengthened with simply bonded FRP composite is failed by FRP debonding. Also, the flexural performance of RC member strengthened with FRP composite can be calculated using the effective strain of FRP. The effective strain as a result of the debonding failure depends on many variables, such as FRP stiffness including the thickness($t_f$) and modulus of elasticity($E_f$), the amount of FRP but the FRP stiffness is reportedly the most influential. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to examine effects of FRP stiffness on the flexural strengthening of RC beams. 4 different stiffness of CFRP composite including CFRP sheet and laminae were selected. From the tests, it was found that the flexural performance of RC beams strengthened with CFRP composite can be calculated based on the effective strain of the CFRP composite and the effective strain is inversely proportional to the CFRP stiffness.

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Flexural Behavior of I-beam Composite Hollow Slabs (I형강 합성 중공바닥판의 휨거동)

  • 김대호;심창수;박창규;정영수
    • Proceedings of the Korea Concrete Institute Conference
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    • pp.421-426
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    • 2003
  • For the replacement of deteriorated concrete decks or wider-span slab, composite slab could be very attactive due to higher stiffness and strength. Based on the previous research, a modified I-beam composite hollow slab was suggested. In order to investigate the static flexural behavior of the proposed composite slab and to suggest its flexural design method, experiments were performed. Judging from the tests, a composite slab with I-beam having a semi-circle hole showed better structural performance. The effect of web details on the flexural stiffness was negligible. Flexural stiffness, ultimate strength, and ductility of the composite slabs were significantly greater than the RC slab due to composite action. While the failure of the RC slab was punching shear failure, the composite hollow slab showed flexural cracking and failure by yielding of the I-beams and crushing of concrete. Therefore, the current one-way design concept is appropriate for the design of I-beam composite hollow slab.

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Evaluation of Flexural Stiffness Considering Flexural Tensile Strength of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete (강섬유보강 콘크리트의 휨인장강도 특성을 고려한 휨강성 평가)

  • Hong, Geon-Ho;Jung, Seong-Won
    • Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea Structure & Construction
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    • v.35 no.8
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    • pp.131-138
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    • 2019
  • Since concrete has a low tensile strength compared to the compressive strength, reinforced concrete flexural members represent easy crack occurance under a small load. In order to overcome this problem, steel fiber reinforced concrete has been developed to compensate the tensile strength and brittleness of members. However, in the design formula of the domestic building code, it is not specified in the design formula reflecting the material characteristics. Therefore, the field application of the steel fiber reinforced concrete have had many restrictions. In this study, a flexural tensile strength model of steel fiber reinforced concrete is proposed by collecting and analyzing the material properties of material test results conducted by various researchers, and verified by the test results of cracking and stiffness evaluation of flexural members based on the proposed model. As a result of this study, the flexural tensile strength model of steel fiber reinforced concrete which can reflect the mixing ratio and aspect ratio of the steel fiber was proposed and the validity of the proposed material model equation was evaluated from the load-deflection relationship in the flexural test of the slab member.

Flexural Performance of Full-scale RC Beams Strengthened with Different Amount of FRP Composite (FRP복합체로 보강된 실물모형 RC보의 보강재 강성에 따른 휨 보강성능)

  • Choi, Ki-Sun;You, Young-Chan;Kim, Keung-Hwan
    • Proceedings of the Korea Concrete Institute Conference
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    • pp.125-128
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    • 2006
  • Many research have been carried out concerned with the flexural performance of FRP composite in a various ways. Most of them, however, have used a small-scale specimen, so haven't been fully verified by full-scale model test. In this study, a full-scale RC beam model test for flexural strengthening with CFRP composites has been performed in order to verify test results obtained through a series of small-scale model test with respect to FRP stiffness affecting strengthening performance in the previous studies. A total of 4 specimens have been manufactured including control beam. The specimens strengthened with CFRP composites consist of 3 different CFRP stiffness with 2 types of CFRP composite. Consequently, the purpose of this study is to estimate influence of the size effect of specimens and FRP stiffness on the flexural performance. As a result, the effective strain of FRP composite is inversely proportional to FRP stiffness and ensures the same performance with small-scale model test.

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