Inal, Ali;Kaplan, M. Ali;Kucukoner, Mehmet;Urakci, Zuhat;Karakus, Abdullah;Isikdogan, Abdurrahman
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Background: Platinum-hased chemotherapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is still considered the first choice, presenting a modest survival advantage. However, the patients eventually experience disease progression and require second-line therapy. While there are reliable predictors to identify patients receiving first-line chemotherapy, very little knowledge is available about the prognostic factors in patients who receive second-line treatments. The present study was therefore performed. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 107 patients receiving second-line treatments from August 2002 to March 2012 in the Dicle University, School of Medicine, Department of Medical Oncology. Fourteen potential prognostic variables were chosen for analysis in this study. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify prognostic factors associated with survival. Result: The results of univariate analysis for overall survival (OS) were identified to have prognostic significance: performance status (PS), stage, response to first-line chemotherapy response to second-line chemotherapy and number of metastasis. PS, diabetes mellitus (DM), response to first-line chemotherapy and response to second-line chemotherapy were identified to have prognostic significance for progression-free survival (PFS). Multivariate analysis showed that PS, response to first-line chemotherapy and response to second-line chemotherapy were considered independent prognostic factors for OS. Furthermore, PS and response to second-line chemotherapy were considered independent prognostic factors for PFS. Conclusion: In conclusion, PS, response to first and second-line chemotherapy were identified as important prognostic factors for OS in advanced NSCLC patients who were undergoing second-line palliative treatment. Furthermore, PS and response to second-line chemotherapy were considered independent prognostic factors for PFS. It may be concluded that these findings may facilitate pretreatment prediction of survival and can be used for selecting patients for the correct choice of treatment.
Objectives: Advanced gastric cancer (AGC) patients have a poor prognosis. The best benefit of chemotherapy is usually achieved by first line setting. Very few studies have compared combination regimens. This study was designed to compare two combination regimens. Methods: Patients with advanced gastric cancer receiving first line chemotherapy were retrospectively collected, and divided into two groups, receiving DCF (docetaxel, cisplatin and fluorouracil) or ECF (epirubicin, cisplatin and fluorouracil) regimens. Data were collected for the retrospective analysis in a single center. Results: Eighty-six patients were eligible for analysis. Median overall survival (OS) was 10.0 months in the ECF group and 11.0 months in the DCF group (p=0.31). Median progression free survival (PFS) for ECF and DCF was equal at 6.0 months. Second line chemotherapy were administered in more than one third of patients. Both regimens had similar toxicity. Conclusions: This is the first study investigating the outcomes of gastric cancer chemotherapy in this region. ECF and DCF regimens have similar efficacy and a similar tolerability profile for first line treatment of advanced gastric cancer. The decision of the first line chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer could be improved with patient selection according to clinical parameters and molecular markers.
Background: Chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment for the majority of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) without driver mutations and many receive therapies beyond first-line. Second-line chemotherapy has been disappointing both in terms of response rate and survival and we know relatively little about the prognostic factors. Materials and Methods: One thousand and eight patients with advanced NSCLC who received second-line chemotherapy after progression were reviewed in Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, China, from September 2005 to July 2010. We analyzed the effects of potential prognostic factors on the outcomes of second-line chemotherapy (overall response rate, ORR; progression free survival, PFS; overall survival, OS). Results: The response and progression free survival of first-line chemotherapy affects the ORR, PFS and OS of second-line chemotherapy (ORR: CR/PR 15.4%, SD 10.1%, PD2.3%, p<0.001; PFS: CR/PR 3.80 months, SD 2.77 months, PD 2.03 months, p<0.001; OS: CR/PR 11.60 months, SD 10.33 months, PD 6.57 months, p=0.578, p<0.001, p<0.001, respectively). On multivariate analysis, better response to first-line therapy (CR/PR: HR=0.751, p=0.002; SD: HR=0.781, p=0.021) and progression within 3-6 months (HR=0.626, p<0.001), together with adenocarcinoma (HR=0.815, p=0.017), without liver metastasis (HR=0.541, p=0.001), never-smoker (HR=0.772, p=0.001), and ECOG PS 0-1 (HR=0.745, p=0.021) were predictors for good OS following second-line chemotherapy. Conclusions: Patients who responded to first-line chemotherapy had a better outcome after second-line therapy for advanced NSCLC, and the efficacy of first-line chemotherapy, period of progression, histology, liver metastasis, smoking status and ECOG PS were independent prognostic factors for OS.
Huang, Xin-En;Tian, Guang-Yu;Cao, Jie;Xu, Xia;Lu, Yan-Yan;Wu, Xue-Yan;Liu, Jin;Shi, Lin;Xiang, Jin
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Purpose: The current research was conducted to investigate the efficacy and safety of pemetrexed given continuously as a basement agent for first-, second- to third line chemotherapy of patients with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma. Patients and Methods: Patients with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma who were diagnosed in Jiangsu Cancer Hospital and Research Insitute, were enrolled. All received pemetrexed 500 $mg/m^2$ (intravenous; on day 1), and another chemotherapieutic agent every 3 weeks until disease progression, or intolerable toxicity. Then the patients were changed to a second line chemotherapy that was still based on pemetrexed 500 $mg/m^2$ and another chemotherapeutic agent differing from the first line example, until disease progression, or intolerable toxicity. When third line chemotherapy was needed, pemetrexed 500 $mg/m^2$ and another new chemotherapeutic agent were combined until disease progression. Evaluation of efficacy was conducted after two cycles of chemotherapy using the Response Evaluation Criteria for Solid Tumors. Toxicity was recorded according to NCI Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Results: From January 2010 to September 2013, 15 patients were enrolled. Their median age was 56 years (range 43 to 77 years). Eight patients were male and 7 female. Five patients (33.3%) achieved PR, while 6 patients (40.0%) remained stable, no CR on first line; and 1 PR (7.7%), 5 stable (38.5%) were recorded when pemetrexed was ordered in second line; 5 patients (41.7%) were stable after pemetrexed was combined in third line; no complete response was observed. Main side effects were grade 1 to 2 neutrophil suppression and thrombocytopenia. Other toxicities included elevated transaminase and oral mucositis, but no treatment related death occurred. Conclusions: Pemetrexed continuously as a basement agent from first-, second- to third line chemotherapy is mildly effective in treating patients with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma with tolerable toxicity.
Lee, Seok Jeong;Kang, Hyun Ju;Kim, Seo Woo;Ryu, Yon Ju;Lee, Jin Hwa;Kim, Yookyung;Chang, Jung Hyun
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
Background: This study analyzed the negative prognostic factors in patients who received second-line chemotherapy for advanced inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 137 patients with inoperable stage III-IV NSCLC who received second-line chemotherapy. The effects of clinical parameters on survival were analyzed and the hazard ratios (HR) for mortality were identified by a Cox regression analysis. Results: Sex, age older than 65 years, smoking history, cell type, T-stage, best response to first-line chemotherapy and first-line chemotherapy regimen were significant negative predictors in univariate analysis. The multivariate analysis showed that patients older than 65 years (HR, 1.530; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.020-2.297), advanced T stage (T4 vs. T1; HR, 2.273; 95% CI, 1.010-5.114) and non-responders who showed progression with first-line chemotherapy (HR, 1.530; 95% CI, 1.063-2.203) had higher HR for death. Conclusion: The age factor, T stage and responsiveness to first-line chemotherapy were important factors in predicting the outcome of patients with advanced NSCLC who received second-line chemotherapy. The results may help to predict outcomes for these patients in the future.
Purpose: This study was conducted to observe the efficacy and safety of pemetrexed based chemotherapy in treating patients with locally advanced or metastatic cancers as first-line, second-line or third-line therapy. Materials and Methods: From May 2011 to January 2015, we recruited 29 patients with advanced breast cancer, 19 patients with advanced ovary cancer, 17 patients with advanced esophageal cancer,5 patients with advanced gallbladder cancer,5 patients with advanced cervical cancer and 1 patient with advanced tongue cancer in Jiangsu Cancer Hospital and Research Institute.All of them were pathologically confirmed and treated with pemetrexed based chemotherapy. After two cycles of treatment,efficacy and safety can be evaluated. Results: For pemetrexed based regimens,including 76 patients with 6 kinds of advanced cancer were considered eligible for inclusion. Complete remission represents CR, partial remission represents PR, stable disease represents SD, progressive disease represents PD. Among 29 patients with advanced breast cancer, 4 patients chose pemetrexed based regimens as second-line treatment,1 of them was PR,the other 3 got SD. The last 25 patients made use of this chemotherapy as third-line treatment, except one patient could not be assessed, 2 of them got PR,6 of them got SD,the remaining 16 of them finally were PD.19 patients with advanced ovary cancer,5 patients used this regimens as second-line treatment, 3 of them got PD,the remaining patients got SD, respectively. The last 14 patients made use of pemetrexed based regimens as third-line treatment,. RR (CR+PR) was 28.5%. Among 17 patients with advanced esophageal cancer, 2 patients made use of pemetrexed based regimens as first-line treatment,both of them got PR.4 of them used this chemotherapy as second-line regimen, except 2 patients could not be assessed,the remaining 2 was PD at last. The last 11 patients was third-line users, RR (CR+PR) was 18.2%. Among 5 patients with advanced gallbladder cancer, pemetrexed based regimens was used in 1 patient as first-line treatment and 1 patient as second-line treatment. The curative effect was SD and PD, respectively. 3 patients accepted pemetrexed based regimens as third-line treatment, 2 of them got PD as results and another was SD. Among 5 patients with advanced cervical cancer, just 1 patient adopted pemetrexed based regimens as first-line treatment, whose curative effect was PR.2 patients chose this chemotherapy regimens as second-line treatment. Both of them got PD as their consequence. The last 2 patients made use of the regimens as third-line treatment, the effect of them was PD and SD, respectively. The one who with advanced tongue cancer, pemetrexed based regimens was used as second-line treatment, and the consequence was PD. About 71.1% patients experienced bone marrow suppression. Among them, 5 patients reached 4 grade. Other toxicity of pemetrexed were neurotoxicity, fatigue, diarrhea, dysphagia and vomiting. No treatment related death occurred with pemetrexed-based treatment. Conclusions: Pemetrexed based chemotherapy has considerable effect in patients with advanced cancers such as breast cancer,esophageal cancer and ovary cancer. More randomly clinical trials are needed to verify the results.
Objective: Highly effective chemotherapy for patients with low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is associated with almost a 100% cure rate. However, 20%-30% of patients treated with chemotherapy need to change their regimens due to severe adverse events (SAEs) or drug resistance. We examined the treatment outcomes of second-line chemotherapy for patients with low-risk GTN. Methods: Between 1980 and 2015, 281 patients with low-risk GTN were treated. Of these 281 patients, 178 patients were primarily treated with 5-day intramuscular methotrexate (MTX; n=114) or 5-day drip infusion etoposide (ETP; n=64). We examined the remission rates, the drug change rates, and the outcomes of second-line chemotherapy. Results: The primary remission rates and drug resistant rates of 5-day ETP were significantly higher (p<0.001) and significantly lower (p=0.002) than those of 5-day MTX, respectively. Forty-seven patients (26.4%) required a change in their chemotherapy regimen due to the SAEs (n=16) and drug resistance (n=31), respectively. Of these 47 patients failed the first-line regimen, 39 patients (39/47, 82.9%) were re-treated with single-agent chemotherapy, and 35 patients (35/39, 89.7%) achieved remission. Four patients failed second-line, single-agent chemotherapy and eight patients (17.0%) who failed first-line regimens were treated with combined or multi-agent chemotherapy and achieved remission. Conclusions: Patients with low-risk GTN were usually treated with single-agent chemotherapy, while 20%-30% patients had to change their chemotherapy regimen due to SAEs or drug resistance. The second-line regimens of single-agent chemotherapy were effective; however, there were several patients who needed multiple agents and combined chemotherapy to achieve remission.
Inal, Ali;Kaplan, M. Ali;Kucukoner, Mehmet;Urakci, Zuhat;Guven, Mehmet;Nas, Necip;Yunce, Muharrem;Isikdogan, Abdurrahman
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Background: The majority of patients with gastric cancer in developing countries present with advanced disease. Systemic chemotherapy therefore has limited impact on overall survival. Patients eligible for chemotherapy should be selected carefully. The aim of this study was to analyze prognostic factors for survival in advanced gastric cancer patients undergoing first-line palliative chemotherapy. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 107 locally advanced or metastatic gastric cancer patients who were treated with docetaxel and cisplatin plus fluorouracil (DCF) as first-line treatment between June 2007 and August 2011. Twenty-eight potential prognostic variables were chosen for univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Among the 28 variables of univariate analysis, nine variables were identified to have prognostic significance: performance status, histology, location of primary tumor, lung metastasis, peritoneum metastasis, ascites, hemoglobin, albumin, weight loss and bone metastasis. Multivariate analysis by Cox proportional hazard model, including nine prognostic significance factors evident in univariate analysis, revealed weight loss, histology, peritoneum metastasis, ascites and serum hemoglobin level to be independent variables. Conclusion: Performance status, weight loss, histology, peritoneum metastasis, ascites and serum hemoglobin level were identified as important prognostic factors in advanced gastric cancer patients. These findings may facilitate pretreatment prediction of survival and can be used for selecting patients for treatment.
Purpose: To compare the safety and efficacy of first-line chemotherapy regimen with or without doxorubicin in treating patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma (STS). Patients and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed a cohort of 56 patients histologically confirmed with STS who were treated at Jiangsu Cancer Hospital and Research Institute from July 2011 to June 2012.The basic element of first line chemotherapy contained epirubicin in group B and lacked epirubicin in group A. Response was assessed using RECIST criteria. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate progress free survival (PFS). Results: According to RECIST criteria, patients in group treated by chemotherapy without epirubicin, the objective response (OR) ratio was 6.5 % (CR0%+PR6.5%). Disease control rate (DCR=CR+PR+SD) was 25.8% with a median follow-up of 14.6 months, including 2 patients achieving a partial response (PR 6.5%) and a stable response (SD 19.4%) in 6. In group B with epirubicin based regimens, no patient had complete response, PR (28 %) was observed in 7 and SD (24 %) in 6. DCR was observed in 13 patients (52%). By Fisher's exact test, the DCR difference between the two groups was statistically significant (p=0.046). In group A, median PFS was 3.0 months (95%CI:2.1-3.8), compared with 4.0 months (95% CI:3.03-4.97) in group B (p=0.0397 by log-rank test). Epirubicin based chemotherapy and ECOG performance status 0-1 were identified as favorable factors for progression in our cohort of patients. Differences of nonhematologic and hematologic toxicities were not statistically significant between the two groups, and the addition of epirobicin was not associated with cardiac toxicity (p=0.446). Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that epirubicin-based chemotherapy is effective and well tolerated, and is superior to chemotherapy without epirubicin regarding efficacy. Therefore it is recommended that epirubicin-based chemotherapy should be considered as first line for patients with advanced STS.
Background: This systemic analysis was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pemetrexed based chemotherapy in treating patients with metastatic breast cancer as first or second line chemotherapy. Methods: Clinical studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of pemetrexed based regimens on response and safety for patients with breast cancer were identified using a predefined search strategy. Pooled response rate (RR) of treatment were calculated. Results: In first line pemetrexed based regimens, 10 clinical studies which including 513 patients with advanced breast cancer were considered eligible for inclusion. For second line pemetrexed based chemotherapy, 5 clinical studies which including 281 patients with advanced breast cancer were considered eligible. Systemic analysis suggested that, in all patients, pooled RR was 32.6% (167/513) in pemetrexed based first line regimens, and 13.9 % (39/281) in pemetrexed based second line regimens. Major adverse effects were neutropenia, leukopenia, fatigue, and anemia in pemetrexed based first line treatment; and lymphopenia, neutropenia, leukopenia, as well as anemia in second line chemotherapy. One treatment related death occurred with pemetrexed based second line treatment. Conclusion: This systemic analysis suggests that pemetrexed based first line regimens are associated with a reasonable response rate and acceptable toxicity, however with low response rate for treating patients with metastatic breast cancer when is used in the second line.
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