• Title, Summary, Keyword: fire occurrence factor

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Development of Parallel Arc Fault Detector Using Ripple Voltage (리플전압을 이용한 병렬아크 사고 감지기 개발)

  • Choi, Jung-Kyu;Kwak, Dong-Kurl
    • The Transactions of the Korean Institute of Power Electronics
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.453-456
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    • 2016
  • The major causes of electrical fire in low-voltage distribution lines are classified into short-circuit fault, overload fault, electric leakage, and electric contact failure. The special principal factor of the fire is electric arc or spark accompanied with such electric faults. This paper studies the development of an electric fire prevention system with detection and alarm of that in case of parallel arc fault occurrence in low-voltage distribution lines. The proposed system is designed on algorithm sensing the instantaneous voltage drop of line voltage at arc fault occurrence. The proposed detector has characteristics of high-speed operation responsibility and superior system reliability from composition using a large number of semiconductor devices. A new sensing control method that shows the detection of parallel arc fault is sensed to ripple voltage drop through a diode bridge full-wave rectifier at electrical accident occurrence. Some experimental tests of the proposed system also confirm the practicality and validity of the analytical results.

A Study on the Wildland Fire Total Hazard Classification (산림화재 종합위험등급화에 관한 연구)

  • 김동현;김태구;김광일
    • Fire Science and Engineering
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.49-54
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    • 2001
  • Recently, intentional arsons for exploitation and wildland fire caused by abnormal change of weather are increasing as well as the damage scale due to such fire in the world. The number of such big wildland fire is also increasing in Korea these days. Fire prevention activity can be said as more important than fire putting-out activity after a fire occurrence for the most effective way to cope with wildland fire, and the research on wildland fire prevention system is what we need to do urgently, In this study I examined and analyzed the experiments and data about the factors influencing wildland fire and stated the dangerousness of each factor for all of the 6 factors and set up the general dangerousness rating applying each factor's contribution to the dangerousness.

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Characteristics of Soil Erosion on the Forest Fired Sites by Using Rainfall Simulator (인공강우장치를 이용한 산불발생지의 토양침식 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Heon Ho;Joo, Jae Duk
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.95 no.6
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    • pp.649-656
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of study is to measure soil erosion quantity for elapsed four years from the fire on forest fired sites of Dong-gu, Daegu. This study was conducted to investigate the characteristics of soil erosion by fire occurrence influencing on the soil erosion were. Also analysis result follows that the relations between soil erosion quantity and rainfall intensity, the slope and elapsed year. The results analysed were as follows: 1. Soil erosion by year of occurrence of forest fire was increased 1.9 to 5.7 times as rainfall intensity was increased by 30 m/hr, and 1.4 to 14.2% as degree of slope was increased by $10^{\circ}$. 2. In the first year of forest fire occurrence, soil erosion was fairly heavy for 10 minutes of initial rainfall of which rainfall intensity was 80 m/hr and degree of slope was $30^{\circ}$. The amount of soil erosion was gradually reduced as elapsed time. From two years after fire, the amount of soil erosion by rainfall intensity and degree of slope was nearly constant. 3. The amount of soil erosion by rainfall intensity and slope in accordance with elapsed time after fire was reduced 28.9 to 94.1% in three years after occurrence of forest fire as compared to the first year of fire. Soil erosion was fairly heavy by rainfall intensity and slope in the first year of fire, but it was gradually reduced from two years after fire. 4. In the analysis on influences of each factors on the amount of soil erosion on forest fired sites, the amount of soil erosion was significant differences in major impacts of each rainfall intensity, degree of slope and elapsed year after fire and interaction of rainfall intensity${\times}$degree of slope and rainfall intensity${\times}$elapsed year after fire, but no differences were observed in interaction of degree of slope${\times}$elapsed year after fire and rainfall intensity${\times}$degree of slope${\times}$elapsed year after fire. Rainfall intensity was the most affecting factor on the amount of soil erosion and followed by degree of slope and elapsed year after fire. 5. For correlation between soil erosion and affecting three factors, soil erosion showed significant positive relation with rainfall intensity and degree of slope at I % level, and significant negative relation with elapsed year after fire at 1 % level. 6. As a result of regression of affecting three factors on soil erosion. rainfall intensity was most significant impact factor in explaining the amount of soil erosion on forest fired sites, followed by degree of slope and elapsed year after forest fire. 7. The formula for estimating soil erosion using rainfall intensity, degree of slope and elapsed year after forest fire occurrence was made. S.E = 0.092R.I + 0.211D.S - 0.942E.Y(S.E : Soil erosion, R.I : Rainfall intensity, D.S : Degree of slope, E.Y : Elapsed year after forest fire occurrence)

A Study on Development of Arc Fault Circuit Interrupter Used in House Distribution Line (옥내 배전선로용 아크차단기 개발에 관한 연구)

  • Kwak, Dong-Kurl;Choi, Jung-Kyu;Park, Young-Jic;Kim, Jin-Hwan;Son, Jae-Hyun
    • Proceedings of the KIPE Conference
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    • pp.546-547
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    • 2013
  • This paper proposes an arc fault circuit interrupter (AFCI) using the distorted voltage wave in electric arc faults. It perceives a voltage instantaneously at the time of voltage drop. and occurrence. It is an AFCI of the new concept which operates with high reliability. The primary reason of electric fire is arc and spark. It prevents an electric fire or an electric leakage accident with quick responsiveness. Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker(ELB), Molded_case Circuit Breaker (MCCB) or Residual Current Protective Device(RCD) can not cut off electric arc or spark to be a major factor of electrical fire. This theory will be able to intercept an arc or a spark. which occurrence with periodic. Consequently It raises a reliability and validates a practicality of RCD.

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Developing Fire-Danger Rating Model (산림화재예측(山林火災豫測) Model의 개발(開發)을 위(爲)한 연구(硏究))

  • Han, Sang Yeol;Choi, Kwan
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.80 no.3
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    • pp.257-264
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    • 1991
  • Korea has accomplished the afforestation of its forest land in the early 1980's. To meet the increasing demand for forest products and forest recreation, a development of scientific forest management system is needed as a whole. For this purpose the development of efficient forestfire management system is essential. In this context, the purpose of this study is to develop a theoretical foundation of forestfire danger rating system. In this study, it is hypothesized that the degree of forestfire risk is affected by Weather Factor and Man-Caused Risk Factor. (1) To accommodate the Weather Factor, a statistical model was estimated in which weather variables such as humidity, temperature, precipitation, wind velocity, duration of sunshine were included as independent variables and the probability of forestfire occurrence as dependent variable. (2) To account man-caused risk, historical data of forestfire occurrence was investigated. The contribution of man's activities make to risk was evaluated from three inputs. The first, potential risk class is a semipermanent number which ranks the man-caused fire potential of the individual protection unit relative to that of the other protection units. The second, the risk sources ratio, is that portion of the potential man-caused fire problem which can be charged to a specific cause. The third, daily activity level is that the fire control officer's estimate of how active each of these sources is, For each risk sources, evaluate its daily activity level ; the resulting number is the partial risk factor. Sum up the partial risk factors, one for each source, to get the unnormalized Man-Caused Risk. To make up the Man-Caused Risk, the partial risk factor and the unit's potential risk class were considered together. (3) At last, Fire occurrence index was formed fire danger rating estimation by the Weather Factors and the Man-Caused Risk Index were integrated to form the final Fire Occurrence Index.

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Differences in Incidence of Lower Back Pain according to Fire Fighters' Duty Type (외근직 소방공무원의 직무유형에 따른 요통발생의 차이)

  • Hong, Sung-Gi;Im, Jeong-Soo;Youn, Sung-Tae;Yim, Jun
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.99-112
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of fire fighters' duty type on occurrence and severity of low back pain. Data were collected with questionnaire to 450 fire fighters working at 119 safety center and rescue unit of 30 fire stations in Gyeonggi-do. Finally the study was analyzed for 360 persons among them. The risk of experiencing of lower back pain occurred in the order of Rescue[odds ratio(OR) 3.36, 95% confidence interval(95% CI) 1.18-9.52], Vehicle operation(OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.26-5.50), First aid(OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.03-4.59), and Putting out a fire. The risk on severity of lower back pain occurred in the order of Vehicle operation(OR 4.00, 95% CI 1.57-9.80), First aid(OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.00-4.81), Putting out a fire, and Rescue. These result suggest that duty type of fire fighters may be a prognostic factor for occurrence and severity of low back pain. The potential implications of these findings are discussed about different approach for primary and secondary prevention by duty type of fire fighters.

A Study on Electrical Fire Disaster Prevention Device used in Double Circuit Break (고정밀 전류센서를 이용한 이중 차단용 전기화재 방재장치에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Dong-Pil;Kwak, Dong-Kurl;Jung, Do-Young;Kim, Choon-Sam;Shin, Ho-Joon
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.2102-2103
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    • 2008
  • The major causes of electrical fire are classified to short circuit fault, overload fault, electric leakage and electric contact failure. The occurrence factor of the fire is electric arc or spark accompanied with electrical faults. Residual Current Protective Device(RCD) of high sensitivity type used at low voltage wiring cuts off earth leakage and overload, but the RCD can't cut off electric arc or spark to be a major factor of electrical fire. As the RCDs which are applied low voltage distribution panel are prescribed to rated breaking time about 30[ms](KS C 4613), the RCDs can't perceive to the periodic electric arc or spark of more short wavelength level. To be improved on such problem, this paper is proposed to a electrical fire disaster prevention device(EFDPD) for a RCD trip or a self circuit-breaking function on electric arc or spark due to electrical fire. Some experimental results of the proposed apparatus is confirmed to the validity of the analytical results.

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Analysis of traffic accidents involving 119 emergency (119 구급대 구급차 교통사고 현황 분석)

  • Lee, Jeong-Ho;Shin, Dong-Min
    • The Korean Journal of Emergency Medical Services
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.35-47
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate both the occurrence status of emergency vehicles traffic accidents and contents of the experiences of emergency medical technicians (EMTs) in fire station. Methods: A self-reported questionnaire was completed by 451 EMTs in fire stations in 6 cities provinces from February 9, 2017 to February 27, 2017. Results: Of 451 EMTs, 207 (45.9%) had traffic accidents experience. Regarding environment-related features, results indicated hour (12~18 hours), place (national highway), traffic flow (smooth), weather (clear), season (winter), and day (Friday). Regarding correlation analysis of differences in the number of ambulance traffic accidents pursuant to general features of accident-experienced drivers as a human factor, there were no significant differences in recruitment, driving careers of regular cars, driving careers of fire engines, and class but there were significant differences in fire-fighting careers. Accident experience in the group with careers over 6 years and less than 10 years higher than in the other groups. Conclusion: Efforts to expand fire engine driving education programs for the prevention of traffic accidents involving 119 emergency vehicles are required.

A Study on Protection Device for Electrical Fire Prevention on Joint/Contact Badness Faults (접속·접촉불량 사고에 의한 전기화재 방지용 보호장치에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Jung-Kyu;Kwak, Dong-Kurl;Lee, Seung-Chul;Lee, Bong-Seob;Park, Young-Jic
    • Proceedings of the KIPE Conference
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    • pp.5-6
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    • 2014
  • According to 2013 fire statistical yearbook in the National Emergency Management Agency, the main cause of an electrical fire are classified to short circuit fault, overload fault, electric leakage, partial disconnection, and joint/contact badness. The occurrence factor of fire is electric arc or spark accompanied with electrical faults. Residual Current Protective Devices(RCDs) of high sensitivity type used at single phase (220V) cut off earth leakage and overload but the RCDs can not cut off electric arc or spark to be a main cause of electrical fire. To be improved on such problem, this thesis is proposed to a auxiliary control device for RCD cut off electric arc or spark.

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Development of Arc Fault Circuit Interrupter Using the Distorted Voltage Wave in Electric Arc Faults (아크사고 발생 시 전압 왜형파를 이용한 아크차단기 개발)

  • Kwak, Dong-Kurl
    • The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers
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    • v.62 no.6
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    • pp.876-880
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    • 2013
  • The major causes of electrical fire are classified to short circuit fault, overload fault, electric leakage and electric contact failure. The principal factor of the fire is electric arc or spark accompanied with such electric faults. Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker (ELB) and Molded_case Circuit Breaker (MCCB), that is, Residual Current Protective Devices (RCDs) used on low voltage distribution lines cut off earth leakage and overload, but the RCD can not cut off electric arc or spark to be a major factor of electrical fire. As the RCDs which are applied in low voltage distribution panel are prescribed to rated breaking time about 30[ms] (KS C 4613), the RCDs can't perceive to the periodic electric arc or spark of more short wavelength level. To improve such problems, this paper studies on an arc fault circuit interrupter (AFCI) using the distorted voltage wave in electric arc faults. The proposed voltage sensing type AFCI is an electrical fire prevention apparatus of new conception that operates a circuit breaker with sensing the instantaneous voltage drop of line voltage at electrical faults occurrence. The proposed AFCI is composed of control circuit topology using some semiconductor switching devices. Some experimental tests of the proposed AFCI confirm practicality and the validity of the analytical results.