• Title, Summary, Keyword: fingerprints

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Effects and Limitations of Separating Overlapped Fingerprints Using Fast Fourier Transform (고속 푸리에 변환(fast Fourier transform, FFT)을 이용한 겹친지문 분리의 효과와 한계)

  • Kim, Chaewon;Kim, Chaelin;Lee, Hanna;Yu, Jeseol;Jang, Yunsik
    • Korean Security Journal
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    • no.61
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    • pp.377-400
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    • 2019
  • Photography is the most commonly used method of documenting the crime and incident scene as it helps maintaining chain of custody (COC) and prove integrity of the physical evidence. It can also capture phenomena as they are. However, digital images can be manipulated and lose their authenticity as admissible evidence. Thus only limited techniques can be used to enhance images, and one of them is Fourier transform. Fourier transform refers to transformation of images into frequency signals. Fast Fourier transform (FFT) is used in this study. In this experiment, we overlapped fingerprints with graph paper or other fingerprints and separated the fingerprints. Then we evaluated and compared quality of the separated fingerprints to the original fingerprints, and examined whether the two fingerprints can be identified as same fingerprints. In the case of the fingerprints on graph paper and general pattern-overlapping fingerprints, fingerprint ridges are enhanced. On the other hand, in case of separating complicated fingerprints such as core-to-core overlapping and delta-to-delta overlapping fingerprints, quality of fingerprints can be deteriorated. Quality of fingerprints is known to possibly bring negative effects on the credibility of examiners. The result of this study may be applicable to other areas using digital imaging enhancement technology.

Study on the spectroscopic reconstruction of explosive-contaminated overlapping fingerprints using the laser-induced plasma emissions

  • Yang, Jun-Ho;Yoh, Jai-Ick
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.86-97
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    • 2020
  • Reconstruction and separation of explosive-contaminated overlapping fingerprints constitutes an analytical challenge of high significance in forensic sciences. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) allows real-time chemical mapping by detecting the light emissions from laser-induced plasma and can offer powerful means of fingerprint classification based on the chemical components of the sample. During recent years LIBS has been studied one of the spectroscopic techniques with larger capability for forensic sciences. However, despite of the great sensitivity, LIBS suffers from a limited detection due to difficulties in reconstruction of overlapping fingerprints. Here, the authors propose a simple, yet effective, method of using chemical mapping to separate and reconstruct the explosive-contaminated, overlapping fingerprints. A Q-switched Nd:YAG laser system (1064 nm), which allows the laser beam diameter and the area of the ablated crater to be controlled, was used to analyze the chemical compositions of eight samples of explosive-contaminated fingerprints (featuring two sample explosive and four individuals) via the LIBS. Then, the chemical validations were further performed by applying the Raman spectroscopy. The results were subjected to principal component and partial least-squares multivariate analyses, and showed the classification of contaminated fingerprints at higher than 91% accuracy. Robustness and sensitivity tests indicate that the novel method used here is effective for separating and reconstructing the overlapping fingerprints with explosive trace.

Classification of Fingerprints using Fast Fourier Transform (고속 퓨리에 변환을 이용한 지문의 분류)

  • Lee, Jung-Moon;Park, Sin-Jae;Kwon, Yong-Ho
    • Journal of Industrial Technology
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    • v.18
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    • pp.295-302
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    • 1998
  • Classification of fingerprints is one of the major subjects on which many researchers have been studying for efficient identification. But fingerprints should be preprocessed in various ways prior to being classified. Factors such as the accuracy and the processing time should be considered in classification of fingerprints. In this paper, we propose a method for classifying fingerprints into several frequent patterns. This method consists of two stages. A fingerprint image is first converted to a skeleton form to find out the center. Then it is identified as a member of one of preclassified pattern by the frequency domain feature. Experiments show that the proposed method is quite useful in classifying fingerprints into typical patterns.

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An Efficient Fingerprint Matching by Multiple Reference Points

  • Khongkraphan, Kittiya
    • Journal of Information Processing Systems
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.22-33
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    • 2019
  • This paper introduces an efficient fingerprint matching method based on multiple reference minutiae points. First, we attempt to effectively align two fingerprints by employing multiple reference minutiae points. However, the corresponding minutiae points between two fingerprints are ambiguous since a minutia of one fingerprint can be a match to any minutia of the other fingerprint. Therefore, we introduce a novel method based on linear classification concept to establish minutiae correspondences between two fingerprints. Each minutiae correspondence represents a possible alignment. For each possible alignment, a matching score is computed using minutiae and ridge orientation features and the maximum score is then selected to represent the similarity of the two fingerprints. The proposed method is evaluated using fingerprint databases, FVC2002 and FVC2004. In addition, we compare our approach with two existing methods and find that our approach outperforms them in term of matching accuracy, especially in the case of non-linear distorted fingerprints. Furthermore, the experiments show that our method provides additional advantages in low quality fingerprint images such as inaccurate position, missing minutiae, and spurious extracted minutiae.

Multi-modal Authentication Using Score Fusion of ECG and Fingerprints

  • Kwon, Young-Bin;Kim, Jason
    • Journal of information and communication convergence engineering
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.132-146
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    • 2020
  • Biometric technologies have become widely available in many different fields. However, biometric technologies using existing physical features such as fingerprints, facial features, irises, and veins must consider forgery and alterations targeting them through fraudulent physical characteristics such as fake fingerprints. Thus, a trend toward next-generation biometric technologies using behavioral biometrics of a living person, such as bio-signals and walking characteristics, has emerged. Accordingly, in this study, we developed a bio-signal authentication algorithm using electrocardiogram (ECG) signals, which are the most uniquely identifiable form of bio-signal available. When using ECG signals with our system, the personal identification and authentication accuracy are approximately 90% during a state of rest. When using fingerprints alone, the equal error rate (EER) is 0.243%; however, when fusing the scores of both the ECG signal and fingerprints, the EER decreases to 0.113% on average. In addition, as a function of detecting a presentation attack on a mobile phone, a method for rejecting a transaction when a fake fingerprint is applied was successfully implemented.

A New Fingerprinting Method Using Safranine O for Adhesive Tapes and Non-Porous Papers

  • Kim, Young-Sam;Oh, In-Sun;Yoon, Kwang-Sang;Kim, Young-Joo;Eom, Yong-Bin
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.197-200
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    • 2010
  • All citizens over 17 year old living in Korea have to be fingerprinted to obtain a certificate of resident registration. For this reason, human identification through fingerprints has been used actively in crime scene investigation. The fingerprint is so unique that it is one of the most certain ways to identify oneself and it can differentiate between genetically identical twins. Fingerprints gained in crime scene indicate a direction of criminal investigation in conjecturing a suspect. Fingerprints help a reunion of family got scattered for a long time and make it possible to get a personal identification for missing person who met with natural calamity. We developed a new fingerprinting method using safranine O, so as to develop fingerprints on the adhesive tapes and non-porous papers in various physical environments. Results were compared to the preexisting fingerprinting method, the minutiae numbers of fingerprints were greatly increased in our newly developed safranine O fingerprinting method. This newly developed safranine O method showed a quantity and quality comparable to the preexisting fingerprinting method routinely used in these days. In our hands, the safranine O fingerprinting method is another easy and obvious choice when the forensic case sample is available for fingerprints on the adhesive tapes and non-porous papers.

Forensic Classification of Latent Fingerprints Applying Laser-induced Plasma Spectroscopy Combined with Chemometric Methods (케모메트릭 방법과 결합된 레이저 유도 플라즈마 분광법을 적용한 유류 지문의 법의학적 분류 연구)

  • Yang, Jun-Ho;Yoh, Jai-Ick
    • Korean Journal of Optics and Photonics
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.125-133
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    • 2020
  • An innovative method for separating overlapping latent fingerprints, using laser-induced plasma spectroscopy (LIPS) combined with multivariate analysis, is reported in the current study. LIPS provides the capabilities of real-time analysis and high-speed scanning, as well as data regarding the chemical components of overlapping fingerprints. These spectra provide valuable chemical information for the forensic classification and reconstruction of overlapping latent fingerprints, by applying appropriate multivariate analysis. This study utilizes principal-component analysis (PCA) and partial-least-squares (PLS) techniques for the basis classification of four types of fingerprints from the LIPS spectra. The proposed method is successfully demonstrated through a classification example of four distinct latent fingerprints, using discrimination such as soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) and partial-least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). This demonstration develops an accuracy of more than 85% and is proven to be sufficiently robust. In addition, by laser-scanning analysis at a spatial interval of 125 ㎛, the overlapping fingerprints were separated as two-dimensional forms.

An Innovative Fingerprinting Procedure for Human Identification

  • Kim, Young-Sam;Yoon, Kwang-Sang;Eom, Yong-Bin;Seo, Joong-Seok;Kim, Jong-Bae
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.187-197
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    • 2009
  • Fingerprinting is a frontier technique that is the most frequently applied for human identification throughout the world. All citizens over 17 year old living in the Republic of Korea must be fingerprinted to obtain a certificate of resident registration. In Korea, for this reason, human identification through fingerprints has been far better developed and used efficiently both in crime scene investigation and in confirmation of an unidentified body. Scientific approaches have been made to accurately extract the metamorphosed fingerprints in various environments. Because most of the studies on fingerprinting have been accomplished with biometric techniques, researches on restoration of human dermal tissue and taking custody data after collecting fingerprints have been comparatively undermined. In this study, a newly innovative method for fingerprint extraction was developed using the polyester film with print powders and the high temperature-moisturizing method. Compared to the conventional fingerprinting method of paper with ink, minutiae numbers of fingerprints were greatly increased in polyester film with print powders after restoration of fingertips by high temperature-moisturization. This newly developed procedure would be an efficient fingerprinting technique which could be utilized in scientific investigation and in personal identification in the future. Furthermore, the new method for restoration and extraction of fingerprints are easy and inexpensive to practice for a number of human identification.

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Audio Fingerprint Based on Combining Binary Fingerprints (이진 핑거프린트의 결합에 의한 강인한 오디오 핑거프린트)

  • Jang, Dal-Won;Lee, Seok-Pil
    • Journal of Broadcast Engineering
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.659-669
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    • 2012
  • This paper proposes the method to extract a binary audio fingerprint by combining several base binary fingerprints. Based on majority voting of base fingerprints, which are designed by mimicking the fingerprint used in Philips fingerprinting system, the proposed fingerprint is determined. In the matching part, the base fingerprints are extracted from the query, and distance is computed using the sum of them. In the experiments, the proposed fingerprint outperforms the base binary fingerprints. The method can be used for enhancing the existing binary fingerprint or for designing a new fingerprint.

Smart Optical Fingerprint Sensor for Robust Fake Fingerprint Detection

  • Baek, Young-Hyun
    • IEIE Transactions on Smart Processing and Computing
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.71-75
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    • 2017
  • In this paper, a smart optical fingerprint sensor technology that is robust against faked fingerprints. A new lens and prism accurately detect fingerprint ridges and valleys that are needed to express a fingerprint's intrinsic characteristics well. The proposed technology includes light path configuration and an optical fingerprint sensor that can effectively identify faked fingerprint features. Results of simulation show the smart optical fingerprint sensor classifies the characteristics of faked fingerprints made from silicone, gelatin, paper, and rubber, and show that the proposed technology has superior detection performance with faked fingerprints, compared to the existing infrared discrimination method.