• Title, Summary, Keyword: fibre sources

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Feeding Dry Sows Ad libitum with High Fibre Diets

  • Ru, Y.J.;Bao, Y.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.283-300
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    • 2004
  • Currently commercial dry sows are housed in individual stalls and subject to restricted feeding. These sows often show stereotypic behaviours which increase their maintenance energy requirement. Group housing is desirable to improve animal welfare and public perception. However, under restricted feeding systems, group-housed dry sows are also aggressive. The feed intake of these sows is variable, depending on their social rank, which results in different milk production and variable piglet performance. These problems can be solved by ad libitum feeding systems, but the large capacity of intake by dry sows will not allow this feeding system to be practical as high feeding level during pregnancy can reduce reproduction performance of sows. Current research indicates that feeding high fibre diets to dry sows enables sows to be fed ad libitum, but the effect of dietary fibre on feed intake and nutrient utilisation is dependent on the quality of fibre sources. Most research has focused on sugar beet pulp, straw, lucerne meal and by-products, but there is a need to identify and evaluate some widely available and cheap fibre materials and feed grains for developing the best strategy to control nutrient intake of dry sows while feeding ad libitum.

Dietary Fibre and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer: a Case-Control Study

  • Song, Y;Liu, M;Yang, FG;Cui, LH;Lu, XY;Chen, C
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.9
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    • pp.3747-3752
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    • 2015
  • Background: Colorectal cancer is one of the most commonly occurring cancers in China. Dietary fibre has been thought to decrease the risk of colorectal cancer in Western countries. However, studies investigating the association between dietary fibre (particularly soluble and insoluble fibres) and colorectal cancer have hitherto been lacking in China. Objective: This case-control study examined the effect of dietary fibre intake on the risk of colorectal cancer, stratified by tumour site. Materials and Methods: The study included 265 cases (colon cancer, 105; rectal cancer, 144; colon and rectal cancer, 16) and 252 controls residing in Qingdao. A food frequency questionnaire that included 121 food items was used to collect dietary information. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression analysis. Results: For food groups, controls in the study consumed more vegetables, soy food and total fibre than did colorectal cancer patients (p<0.05). The intakes of fruit, meat and sea-food did not differ significantly between cases and controls. However, we did not find any association between soy food intake and colon cancer. We observed inverse associations between total fibre intake and colorectal, colon and rectal cancer (Q4 vs Q1: OR=0.44, 95%CI, 0.27-0.73; OR=0.40, 95%CI, 0.21-0.76; OR=0.52, 95%CI, 0.29-0.91). Vegetable fibre intake showed similar inverse associations (Q4 vs Q1: OR=0.51, 95%CI, 0.31-0.85; OR=0.48, 95%CI, 0.25-0.91; OR=0.53, 95%CI, 0.29-0.97). In addition, inverse associations were observed between soluble fibre and insoluble fibre and both colorectal cancer and colon cancer. No relationship was found between colorectal cancer and fruit, soy or grain fibre intakewhen the results were stratified by tumour site. Conclusions: The present study suggests that vegetable fibre and total fibre play very important roles in protecting against colorectal cancer. Soluble and insoluble fibres were inversely associated with only colorectal cancer and colon cancer.

Risk assessment of steel and steel-concrete composite 3D buildings considering sources of uncertainty

  • Lagaros, Nikos D.
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.19-43
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    • 2014
  • A risk assessment framework for evaluating building structures is implemented in this study. This framework allows considering sources of uncertainty both on structural capacity and seismic demand. In particular randomness on seismic load, incident angle, material properties, floor mass and structural damping are considered; in addition the choice of fibre modelling versus plastic hinge model is also considered as a source of uncertainty. The main objective of this work is to study the contribution of these sources of uncertainty on the fragilities of steel and steel-reinforced concrete composite 3D building structures. The fragility curves are expressed in the form of a two-parameter lognormal distribution where vertical statistics in conjunction with metaheuristic optimization are implemented for calculating the two parameters.

Effect of Feed Protein Source on Digestion and Wool Production in Angora Rabbit

  • Bhatt, R.S.;Sawal, R.K.;Mahajan, A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.7
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    • pp.1075-1079
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    • 1999
  • Adult German cross $(German{\times}British{\times}Russian)$ angora rabbits (one year age), 32 in number were divided randomly into four groups $(T_1-T_4)$ with equal sex ratio and fed diets containing $T_1$ groundnut cake (GNC); $T_3$, soyaflakes (SF); $T_4$, sunflower cake (SFC) and $T_2$, a mixture of all the three cakes along with green forage as roughage for a period of 9 months. Nine per cent protein was added from each protein source. Fibre level was maintained by adjusting the level of rice phak in the diets. The diets were iso-nitrogenous and contained similar level of fibre. DMI through roughage was not affected due to source of protein in the diet, however, DMI through concentrate was higher $(p{\leq}0.05)$ with SFC diet, which resulted in higher total feed intake in the group $(T_4)$. Body weights increased up to second shearing, thereafter it decreased due to summer depression. Diet containing soyaflakes sustained higher wool yield whereas, it was lowest $(p{\leq}0.05)$ on SFC diet. Wool attributes (staple length, medullation, fibre diameter) were not affected due to source of protein in the diet. Digestibility of fibre and its fractions (ADF, cellulose, hemicellulose) decreased $(p{\leq}0.05)$ with incorporation of SFC in the diets. Balance of calcium was lowest whereas, that of nitrogen was highest with SFC diet $(T_4)$. Biological value of N and net protein utilization was better when different protein sources were mixed together $(T_2)$. Protein quality of soyaflakes proved better for wool production followed by groundnut cake and mixture of three protein sources. Sunflower cake alone or in combination decreased wool production which may be checked by supplementation of amino acids and energy.

Effect of Fibre Level and Fibre Source on Gut Morphology and Micro-environment in Local (Mong Cai) and Exotic (Landrace×Yorkshire) Pigs

  • Ngoc, T.T.B.;Hong, T.T.T.;Len, N.T.;Lindberg, J.E.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.12
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    • pp.1726-1733
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    • 2012
  • The effect of genotype, fibre level and fibre source on gut morphology, environment and microflora was studied using 18 Mong Cai (MC) and 18 Landrace${\times}$Yorkshire (LY) pigs, aged around 60 d. The diets were based on maize, rice bran, soybean meal, fish meal and soybean oil, and cassava residue (CR) or brewer's grain (BG) as fibrous ingredient sources in the high-fibre diets (HF). A low-fibre diet (LF), containing around 200 g NDF/kg dry matter (DM), was formulated without CR and BG as feed ingredients. The HF diets (HF-CR and HF-BG) were formulated to contain around 270 g NDF/kg DM. The experiment was arranged according to a $2{\times}3$ factorial completely randomized design with six replications, and lasted 30 d. Crypt density in ileum was lowest (p<0.05) and villus height in jejunum and ileum were the greatest (p<0.05) in pigs fed diet HF-BG. Villus width in ileum was greatest in pigs fed diets HF-CR and HF-BG (p<0.05). Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) counts in stomach were greatest (p<0.05) and E. coli counts in ileum and colon were lowest (p<0.05) in pigs fed diet HF-CR. The concentration of total organic acids in ileum, caecum and colon were greatest (p<0.05), and pH in ileum and colon were lowest (p<0.05) in pigs fed diet HF-CR. Crypt density in ileum was lowest, and villus height in ileum and villus width in jejunum and ileum was greatest in LY pigs (p<0.05). LAB counts in stomach and ileum were greatest, and E. coli counts in ileum were lowest in MC pigs (p<0.05). The concentration of total organic acids in ileum, caecum and colon were greatest (p<0.05) and pH lowest (p<0.05) in MC pigs.

Effect of fibrous diets on chemical composition and odours from pig slurry

  • Mpendulo, Conference Thando;Hlatini, Vuyisa Andries;Ncobela, Cypril Ndumiso;Chimonyo, Michael
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.11
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    • pp.1833-1839
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    • 2018
  • Objective: Incorporating high fibre ingredients into pig diets has the potential to reduce odour emissions from of pigs. The current study was carried out to determine effect of diets containing 0, 80 and 160 g/kg of each of lucerne hay, maize cobs and sunflower husks on the chemical characteristics and odours from pig slurries. Methods: Twenty eight pigs averaging $18{\pm}2.0kg$ were kept in individual cages, over four weeks. All pigs were fed ad libitum. Faeces and urine were collected, mixed in a 1:2.3 ratio (w/w), stored and fermented for 16 days in a temperature controlled room at $22^{\circ}C{\pm}2.3^{\circ}C$. The slurry was sampled twice (on day 1 and on day 16) of the fermentation period and analysed for pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrogen and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) concentration, on wet basis. All samples were tested for odour offensiveness using 18 panelists. A scale of 1 to 5 was used to rank the odour severity, (1 = not offensive, 5 = extremely offensive). Results: Slurry pH and COD varied with fibre source (p<0.05). On day 16, COD for lucerne hay, sunflower husk and maize cobs were 369, 512, and 425 (standard error of the mean = 34.2) mg of oxygen per litre. Total SCFA concentration was higher at day 16 than day 1 (p<0.05). Odour offensiveness varied with fibre source across both incubation periods (p<0.05). Sunflower husks and lucerne hay-based diets were rated as less offensive (mean rank = 2.2) than maize cob diets (mean rank of 4.3) (p<0.05). Conclusion: It was concluded that different fibre sources and incubation period influence chemical composition and odour of the slurry. There is, thereby, a need to incorporate locally available fibrous feeds in the diet of pigs because they have an economical and environmental relevance to pig management.

Evaluation of Recyclability of Fibrous Raw Materials from Scums in Papermaking Process (제지공정 scum에서의 섬유상 원료 재이용성 평가)

  • Kang, Kwang-Ho;Kim, Hyoung-Jin
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.44 no.6
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    • pp.58-69
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    • 2012
  • As the meaning of dictionary terminology, scum refers to a layer of impurities that accumulates at the surface of a liquid. In papermaking process, scum indicates the floated solid waste generated by a flotation process during the primary wastewater treatment. In this study, different kinds of stocks and scums collected from newspaper, liner, tissue and fine paper were analysed in details. The purpose of this study was firstly to demonstrate the composition characteristics of different sources of scum, secondly the analysis of environmental hazardous materials, and thirdly the evaluation of reutilization ability of fibrous materials from collected scum. As mentioned the meaning of solid waste, scum was actually differ from the waste sludge in sources, compositions and recycling abilities. In the same manner of waste paper, the sludge which is generated within onsite of papermaking processes would be reused as a raw material. The general compositions of scum from waste water were mainly inorganic ash materials, fine fibre fractions, recycled fibre debries, and ink particles. If the scum is able to reuse as fibrous additives in papermaking process, it could contribute to the savings of running costs in both the subsidiaries of fibrous material and the solid waste treatment with even small quantity.

Biological Contamination Parameters of Cotton Lint as Biomarkers for Fibre Quality; A Preliminary Study

  • Lane Samantha R.;Sewell Robert D.E.;Jiang Robert
    • Fibers and Polymers
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.8-11
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    • 2006
  • It has been reported for several decades that microbes, which naturally contaminate cotton fibres during crop growth and subsequent storage can have an adverse effect on the structural quality of cotton lint. Although several studies have analysed the relationship between numbers of Gram-negative bacteria or bacterial endotoxin and particular physical properties, these studies have been limited to cotton from the United States, and the possible effects of fungal contamination have not been examined in detail. This study quantified the Gram-negative bacteria and fungal cells, as well as measuring concentrations of bacterial endotoxin and fungal glucan, on cotton lint samples from international sources. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients calculated between these results and quality data analysed by an automated testing instrument revealed several significant correlations. Findings included inverse correlations between the biological contamination parameters and fibre elongation, micronaire and reflectance. The possible causes and implications of these findings were also discussed.

Chemical Characterization and Water Holding Capacity of Fibre-rich Feedstuffs Used for Pigs in Vietnam

  • Ngoc, T.T.B.;Len, N.T.;Lindberg, J.E.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.861-868
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    • 2012
  • During two years, four samples per year were collected in Vietnam from rice bran, cassava residue, brewer's grain, tofu residue, soybean meal, coconut cake, sweet potato vines and water spinach for chemical analysis and assessment of water holding capacity (WHC). The selected feedstuffs represent fibre-rich plant sources and agro-industry co-products commonly used in pig feeding in Vietnam. The content (g/kg DM) of crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE) and non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) varied between feedstuffs and ranged from 21 to 506 for CP, from 14 to 118 for EE and from 197 to 572 for NSP. Cassava residue had a high starch content of 563 g/kg DM, while sweet potato vines, water spinach, coconut cake and soybean meal had a high content of sugars (63-71 g/kg DM). The content of individual neutral sugars varied between feed ingredients, with the highest content of arabinose, galactose and glucose in tofu residue, the highest content of xylose in brewer's grain and the highest content of mannose in coconut cake. The content of uronic acid was high for cassava residue, tofu residue, sweet potato vines and water spinach (57-88 g/kg DM). The content of soluble non-cellulosic polysaccharides (S-NCP) was positively correlated ($r^2$ = 0.82) to the WHC. The content (g/kg DM) of CP, NDF, neutral sugars, total NSP, total NCP, S-NCP and total dietary fibre in tofu residue, water spinach and coconut cake varied (p<0.05) between years. In conclusion, diet formulation to pigs can be improved if the variation in chemical composition of the fibre fraction and in WHC between potential feed ingredients is taken into account.

Effects of Protein and Carbohydrate Supplementations on Fibre Digestion and Microbial Population of Sheep

  • Jetana, T.;Abdullah, N.;Halim, R.A.;Jalaludin, S.;Ho, Y.W.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.510-521
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    • 1998
  • The effects of two types of protein, soybean meal (SBM) and fish meal (FM); and two types of energy supplements, corn flour (CF) and paper pulp (PP), on intake of guinea grass (Panicum maximum), fibre digestion and microbial activities in four Merino rams with an average weight of $54.4{\pm}4.5kg$ were studied. Each animal was fitted with a ruminal cannula and a duodenal cannula at the proximal position. The animals were fed twice daily with chopped guinea grass (5 cm) ad libitum and one of the four dietary supplements: 170 g FM+268 g PP; 170 g FM+268 g CF; 200 g SBM+200 g PP or 200 g SBM+200 g CF. All the supplements were mixed with 100 g molasses. In sacco and in vivo digestibilities, digesta flow rates, fermentation and microbial population were studied in a $4{\times}4$ Latin square design with a $2{\times}2$ factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. The effects of energy or protein sources were not significant on grass intake of sheep. The potential degradabilities of NDF and ADF were not significantly affected by any of the supplements. However, the energy and protein sources had significant efects on disappearance rate of NDF and ADF. The disappearance rate of both NDF and ADF were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in animals fed PP when compared to animals fed CF. Animals fed FM also showed significantly (p < 0.03) higher disappearance rate of ADF than those fed SBM. Animals fed PP showed better digestion in the rumen and total tract. Total flow of NDF and ADF through the duodenum was not significantly affected by the various supplements. The mean rumen pH values (5.8-6.1) were not significantly different among the four different diets. The concentration of rumen ammonia was significantly (p < 0.0001) higher in animals fed SBM (235-266.4 mg N/L) supplement than in animals fed FM (174.9-179.7 mg N/L), while total VFA concentration was not significantly affected by both energy and protein supplements. Mean values of total VFA ranged from 72.5-82.3 mM. Molar proportions of acetate, propionate and butyrate were typical of a roughage type fermentation. Molar proportion of acetate was significantly (p < 0.0001) higher in sheep fed PP when compared to sheep fed CF. Animals fed FM had higher total viable bacterial counts, while animals fed CF showed higher protozoal numbers. Proportions of cellulolytic bacteria were only slightly higher in animals fed SBM or PP.