• Title, Summary, Keyword: fermented soy foods

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THE EFFECT OF FERMENTED FOODS ON THE COLOR AND HARDNESS CHANGE OF DENTURE BASE ACRYLIC RESINS (발효음식이 의치상레진의 색상 및 표면경도 변화에 미치는 영향)

  • Jeon, Yeol-Mae;Lim, Heon-Song;Shin, Soo-Yeon
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.344-355
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    • 2004
  • Statement of problem: For a long time, many of denture base acrylic resins have been used for edentulous and partial edentulous patients because of easy manipulation and good mechanical properties, but its esthetic aspect has not been commented enough. Denture base acrylic resins also has caused esthetic problems due to discoloration or staining as in esthetic restoration. Many researches and reports have treated the problems and accomplished esthetic improvement. But these researches and reports dealt with general food colors or beverages, not with fermented foods. Purpose: This study is designed to assess what fermented foods, such as soy sauce, gochujang, and toenjang that many of Koreans have taken in, influence on the color and hardness variation of denture base acrylic resins. Materials and methods: For the procedure, twelve disks per 4 denture base acrylic resins were fabricated with a thickness of 2mm and 16mm in diameter. Each seven specimen were measured for discoloration with spectrophotometer, while the others, five specimen, for surface hardness change with Barcol hardness tester, over time. Each 12 specimen were immersed into the 4 beakers of fermented foods(soy sauces, gochujangs, toenjangs, deionized water), and $L^{*},a^{*}$, and $b^*$ values were measured for the color difference$({\Delta}E^*)$, on the 1st, 7th, and 28th day with spectrophotometer, with the measurement of surface hardness change. Each data observed was processed statistically. Results: The findings are as follows; Discoloration 1. All of denture base resins was not influenced by the kind of fermented foods, except for $QC20^{(R)}$ 2. Soy sauce and red pepper paste caused more change for denture base resins than deionized water and soy bean paste, except for Perform$^{(R)}$ 3. Most significant change was shown in Lucitone 199$^{(R)}$, whereas Perform$^{(R)}$ results in the least change for all immersed solution, with no statistical significance. Hardness change 1. Barcol hardness values in deposited specimens have been changed low degree, but with significant statistical change according to the kind of food and duration. 2. Lucitone$^{(R)}$ 199 as significantly lower Barcol hardness value than others do. Conclusion: Based on the above results, it suggests that the habitual intake of fermented foods is not helpful for the color stability of denture base acrylic resins because Soy sauce and red pepper paste mainly caused discoloration and surface hardness change. Particularly $Lucitone199^{(R)}$ shows specific discoloration and low surface hardness values. Therefore, it is recommended giving caution patients with denture of $Lucitone199^{(R)}$ especially against the habitual intake of fermented foods like soy sauce and red pepper paste.

Nutritional Quality of Fermented Soy Foods in Thailand

  • Cheong, Hyo-Sook;Choi, Hee-Sun;Kang, Ok-Ju;Manochaiand Benya;Hong, Jeong-Hwa
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.262-266
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    • 2005
  • Soybean has been favored by many Thai people and it has been prepared by numerous different methods. Collected samples are as follows: Thua-nao paste from Chiangrai province, dried Thua-nao for Jatujak Market, Bangkok, 3 types of commercial soybean paste, soybean sauce and 2 types of fermented soybean curd cakes with other ingredients. Moisture contents of fresh and dried Thua-nao were 68.5 and $7.6\%$, respectively; therefore the shelf-life of dried Thua-nao can be extended to 1 year with proper packaging. The remainder of the soy foods had moisture contents of 55.4 to $64.4\%$. Fat contents of fresh and dried Thua-nao were 7.4 and $19.7\%$, respectively, whereas other samples contained less than $3\%$. Dried Thua-nao had the highest CHO (carbohydrates) content $(37.4\%);$ in contrast, soybean sauce contained only $4.5\%$. Calcium content was highest in dried Thua-nao followed by fresh Thua-nao; the other fermented soy foods had less than 44.7 mg/l00 g. Salt was added to samples other than Thua-nao resulting in high Na contents. Free and total daidzein contents of dried Thua-nao were 355 and 676 ug/g; similarly free and total genistein contents were 293 and $616.5\;\mug/g$, respectively.

Plasma pharmacokinetics and urinary excretion of isoflavones after ingestion of soy products with different aglycone/glucoside ratios in South Korean women

  • Chang, Youngeun;Choue, Ryowon
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.7 no.5
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    • pp.393-399
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    • 2013
  • Asian populations are thought to receive significant health benefits from traditional diets rich in soybeans due to high isoflavone contents. However, available epidemiologic data only weakly support this hypothesis. The present study was carried out to assess the pharmacokinetics of isoflavones in South Korean women after ingestion of soy-based foods. Twenty-six healthy female volunteers (20-30 y old) consumed three different soy products (i.e., isogen, soymilk, and fermented soybeans) with different aglycone/glucoside ratios. Plasma and urine isoflavone concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after ingestion of one of the soy products. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using the WinNonlin program. The area under the curve (AUC) for plasma daidzein levels of the soymilk group ($2,101{\pm}352ng{\cdot}h/mL$) was significantly smaller than those of the isogen ($2,628{\pm}573ng{\cdot}h/mL$) and fermented soybean ($2,593{\pm}465ng{\cdot}h/mL$) groups. The maximum plasma concentration ($C_{max}$) of daidzein for the soymilk group ($231{\pm}44$ ng/mL) was significantly higher than those of the isogen ($160{\pm}32$ ng/mL) and fermented soybean ($195{\pm}35$ ng/mL) groups. The half-lives of daidzein and genistein in the soymilk group (5.9 and 5.6 h, respectively) were significantly shorter than those in the individuals given isogen (9.6 and 8.5 h, respectively) or fermented soybean (9.5 and 8.2 h, respectively). The urinary recovery rates of daidzein and genistein were 42% and 17% for the isogen group, 46% and 23% for the fermented soybean group, and 33% and 22% for the soymilk group. In conclusion, our data indicated that soy products containing high levels of isoflavone aglycone are more effective for maintaining plasma isoflavone concentrations. Additional dose-response, durational, and interventional studies are required to evaluate the ability of soy-based foods to increase the bioavailability of isoflavones that positively affect human health.

Development of Methods for Protein Extraction from Three Major Korean Fermented Soy Foods for 2-Dimensional Gel and Mass Spectrometric Analyses

  • Lim, Jin-Kyu
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.51 no.3
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    • pp.88-94
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    • 2008
  • Three different protein extraction methods-phenol extraction, trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitation, and desalting/TCA precipitation-were compared to determine the optimal reproducible high resolution 2-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis for each chungkugjang, doenjang, and kochujang samples. The soluble proteins from Chungkugjang extracted by phenol were separated with high reproducibility and resolution, and gained 1.75- to 3-fold more protein spots on 2-D gel than those from the other methods. On the contrary, the extracted proteins from doenjang and kochujang treated by desalting/TCA precipitation method showed about 1.5- to 3.3-fold more protein spots on 2-D gel. Using the established methods, the changes in the protein profiles of the fermented soy foods were monitored during the fermentation period by 2-DE. One of the major proteins in soy, $\beta$-conglycinin $\alpha$-subuint, and some proteins with unknown functions were localized on 2-D gel as the protease-resistant proteins throughout the fermentation period of doenjang. Changes in the protein profile monitored by the established methods can provide basic information on unfolding the mechanisms of the generation of biofunctional activity in the fermented soy foods.

Overview of Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews about Gastric Cancer Risk and Protective Factors

  • Li, Lun;Ying, Xiang-Ji;Sun, Tian-Tian;Yi, Kang;Tian, Hong-Liang;Sun, Rao;Tian, Jin-Hui;Yang, Ke-Hu
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.2069-2079
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    • 2012
  • Background and Objective: A comprehensive overall review of gastric cancer (GC) risk and protective factors is a high priority, so we conducted the present study. Methods: Systematic searches in common medical electronic databases along with reference tracking were conducted to include all kinds of systematic reviews (SRs) about GC risk and protective factors. Two authors independently selected studies, extracted data, and evaluated the methodological qualities and the quality of evidence using R-AMSTAR and GRADE approaches. Results: Beta-carotene below 20 mg/day, fruit, vegetables, non-fermented soy-foods, whole-grain, and dairy product were GC protective factors, while beta-carotene 20 mg/day or above, pickled vegetables, fermented soy-foods, processed meat 30g/d or above, or salty foods, exposure to alcohol or smoking, occupational exposure to Pb, overweight and obesity, helicobacter pylori infection were GC risk factors. So we suggested screening and treating H. pylori infection, limiting the amount of food containing risk factors (processed meat consumption, beta-carotene, pickled vegetables, fermented soy-foods, salty foods, alcohol), stopping smoking, avoiding excessive weight gain, avoidance of Pb, and increasing the quantity of food containing protective components (fresh fruit and vegetables, non-fermented soy-foods, whole-grain, dairy products). Conclusions: The conclusions and recommendations of our study were limited by including SRs with poor methodological bases and low quality of evidence, so that more research applying checklists about assessing the methodological qualities and reporting are needed for the future.

Assessment of the Human Risk by an Intake of Ethyl Carbamate Present in Major Korean Fermented Foods

  • Noh, I-Woo;Ha, Mi-Sun;Han, Eun-Mee;Jang, In-Sook;An, Youn-Joo;Ha, Sang-Do;Park, Sang-Kyu;Bae, Dong-Ho
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.16 no.12
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    • pp.1961-1967
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    • 2006
  • Levels of ethyl carbamate, a potential carcinogen produced naturally during fermentation, in major Korean fermented foods and alcoholic beverages were determined by GC/MS/SIM, and their average daily intake and excess cancer risk in Korean people were estimated. In GC/MS/SIM analysis n.d.-4.26, 1.40-58.90, n.d.-3.76, n.d.-1.87, and 0.40-10.07 $\mu$g/kg of ethyl carbamate were detected in kimchi, soy sauces, fermented pastes, fermented dairy products, and alcoholic beverages, respectively. The average daily intake of ethyl carbamate and excess cancer risk through major Korean fermented foods and alcoholic beverage consumption were 6.0 ng/kg bw/day and $3.0\times10^{-7}$, respectively for the average Korean person aged 3-64 years, and were mainly contributed by Chinese cabbage kimchi, soy sauces, and Soju.

Changes of Oligosaccharide and Free Amino Acid in Soy Yogurt Fermented with Different Mixed Culture (혼합균주를 이용한 대두유의 발효에 따른 당 및 유리아미노산의 변화)

  • Kim, Cherl-Hyun;Shin, Yong-Kook;Baick, Seung-Chun;Kim, Soo-Kwang
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.739-745
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    • 1999
  • This study was carried out to investigate the oligosaccharide and amino acid utilization by mixed cultures during soy yogurt fermentation. Three types soy yogurt were prepared by fermenting with Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus, Streptococcus thermophilus and Saccharomyces uvarum, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Saccharomyces uvarum. The utilized amount of oligosaccharide and amino acid was determined by HPLC during the fermentation period. The oligosaccharide and amino acid utilization efficiency of S. thermophilus and Sac. uvarum was greater than the other mixed cultures. It was found that Sac. uvarum produced enzymes which can convert oligosaccharide and common sugars in soy milk into glucose, galactose and fructose which can be fermented by L. acidophilus and S. thermophilus, and in turn stimulated acid production and amino acid utilization of the latter.

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Fermented soybeans by Rhizopus oligosporus reduce femoral bone loss in ovariectomized rats

  • Yoo, Hyun-Wook;Chang, Moon-Jeong;Kim, Sun-Hee
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.8 no.5
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    • pp.539-543
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    • 2014
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Soy isoflavones are structurally similar to estrogen and bind to estrogen receptors, suggesting that they exhibit estrogenic activities; therefore, they are referred to as phytoestrogens. Fermentation may affect the bioavailability of isoflavones altering soy isoflavone glycosides in the form of aglycones. Thus, this study investigated the effects of fermented soybeans by Rhizopus oligosporus on bone metabolism in both young rats as a pilot test and in ovariectomized (ovx) old rats as a model of menopause. MATERIALS/METHODS: In the pilot test, a total of 24 seven-week-old female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were fed one of three diets for a period of four weeks: casein, unfermented soybean product, or fermented soybean product by R. oligosporus. In the ovx rat model, 20-week-old SD rats weighing 260-290 g underwent either sham-operation (n = 10) or bilateral ovariectomy (n = 30) and were then fed the AIN-93M diet for one week. Thereafter, rats were fed sham-casein, ovx-casein, ovx-soybean, or ovx-fermented soybean diet for five weeks. After decapitation, femoral bones were isolated and preserved in 9% formalin for assessment of bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and bone-breaking strength (BBS). RESULTS: Ovx rats showed significantly increased weight gain and decreased uterine wet weight. Of particular interest, ovx rats fed fermented soybeans showed increased uterine wet weights compared to control rats. Fermented soybean diet caused a significant increase in plasma 17-${\beta}$ estradiol concentrations in young rats, and 17-${\beta}$ estradiol levels were enhanced in ovx rats to match those of sham-operated ones. Significantly lower femoral BMD and BMC were observed in ovx rats compared to sham-operated controls, whereas bone areas did not differ statistically among the groups. In addition, BBS tended to be increased in ovx rats fed soybeans and fermented soybeans. CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation of fermented soybeans could have preventive and therapeutic effects against osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.

THE EFFECT OF FERMENTED FOODS ON THE COLOR CHANGE OF SOFT DENTURE LINERS (발효음식에 의한 연성 의치상 이장재의 색상 변화에 관한 연구)

  • Cho Seong-Hwan;Lim Heon-Song;Shin Soo-Yeon
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.42 no.5
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    • pp.572-582
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    • 2004
  • Statement of problem: The clinical criteria of soft lining materials are resilience over an extended period, capability of forming a strong bond with denture base materials, dimensional stability, adequate tear strength, and color stability. Many researches and reports dealt with food colorants or denture cleanser, but not with fermented foods. Purpose : This study was designed to assess what fermented foods, such as soy sauce and red pepper paste that many Koreans have eaten, influence on the color stability of soft denture liners. Material and methods: The color differences (${\Delta}E^*$) were measured by spectrophotometer with different immersion time. For the procedure, thirty disk-shape specimens per 4 soft denture linears(Molloplast-$B^{(R)}$, Ufi Gel $SC^{(R)}$, Dura $Base^{(R)}$, Sofreliner $MS^{(R)}$) were fabricated with a thickness of 2mm and 16mm in diameter. Each 10 specimen were immersed into the beakers of fermented foods distilled water, and $L^*$, $a^*$, $b^*$ values were measured for the color difference(${\Delta}E^*$), on the 1st, 7th, and 28th day with spectrophotometer. Result and conclusion : 1. There were significant differences between samples(soy sauces, red pepper pastes, and distilled water) in Sofreliner $MS^{(R)}$ of 1st day after immersion(p<0.05). There were significant differences between samples in Sofieliner $MS^{(R)}$ and Ufi Gel $SC^{(R)}$ of 7th days after immersion(p<0.05). There were significant differences between samples in Molloplast-$B^{(R)}$ of 28th day after immers ion(p<0.05). 2. In red pepper pastes, ${\Delta}E^*$ values of Molloplast-$B^{(R)}$, Ufi Gel $SC^{(R)}$, Sofrelinev $MS^{(R)}$ weve higher than 3.3. Those values were not clinically acceptable. In soy sauces, ${\Delta}E^*$ values of all denture liners were lower than 3.3. ${\Delta}E^*$values of Ufi Gel $SC^{(R)}$ were higher than those of other denture liners 3. Based on the above results , red pepper paste causes more discoloration than soy sauce.