• Title, Summary, Keyword: feminization of poverty

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Feminization of Poverty : its Trends and Causes (빈곤의 여성화(feminization of poverty) : 경향 및 원인)

  • Hong, Baeg-Eui;Kim, Hye-Youn
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.59 no.3
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    • pp.125-146
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate whether "the feminization of poverty" is under process in Korea and what factors are key determinants of these trends. The Korean Labor and Income Panel Study from 1998 to 2005 is used and the sample includes all individuals who aged 18 or more. The results show that the feminization of poverty is still under process since 1998 and the economic status of females is getting worse compared to their counterparts. Regarding the causes of these trends, the level of education and type of employment are significant predictors for explaining the feminization of poverty in cross-sectional data analysis. In the longitudinal analysis, however, the number of persons in households and the number or working persons have significant influences on the feminization of poverty. It is urgently necessary to enact social policies preventing discriminations against females in the labor markets and to introduce social welfare benefits for females based on citizenship. In addition, the welfare benefits for the elderly are also necessary because their economic status is the worst among all age groups.

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Women and Poverty in Korea: the Feminization of Poverty? (한국의 빈곤의 여성화에 대한 실증 분석)

  • Seok, Jae-Eun
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.56 no.2
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    • pp.167-194
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    • 2004
  • This paper examine the gender-poverty gap and the feminization of poverty in Korea with using data from the National Survey Household Income & Expenditure(1996, 2000) and the Urban Survey Household Income & Expenditure(1996-2002) by Korea National Statistical Office. The poverty rate in 2000 was 16.9 percent for female-head families and 7.9 percent for male-head families, which means that female-head families were 2.6 times more likely to be poor than male-head families. With examining impact of economic crisis in 1998 on gender-poverty gap, it show that both the poverty rate of female-head and male-head increase radically in peak of economic crisis, while, in the stage of recovering economy, the poverty rate of male-head families recovered mostly the level before economic crisis, but that of female-head families recover only the 2/3 level before and the 1/3 remain still under poverty. Thus gender-poverty gap appeared bigger during passing through economic crisis. With analyzing on influence factors of poverty, it appear that poverty is influenced by gender itself as well as education level, working condition which is reflected substantially characteristics of gender. Such an analysis results mean that the considering gender dimension is necessary to resolve poverty fundamentally because gender is a point intersection among family, labour market, and social security. Therefore it appears certain that to develop and adopt of women-friendly social policy is effective approach, which could resolve poverty and social problems related to social rights.

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A Study on Pauperization Process of Low-Income Woman Head of Household (저소득 여성가구주의 빈곤화 과정에 대한 연구)

  • Chung, Mi-Suk
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.59 no.4
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    • pp.191-216
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    • 2007
  • This study focuses on the problem of feminization of poverty that is formed within family relations. In order to approach this question, this study analyses the process of becoming poor through the life stories of ten woman are now heads of a household. There are differences among the study participants in the process of becoming a member of a low-income class. I have classified them into two groups depending on the routes they are led into the low-income class; one is the continuation of poverty group, and the other is the new members of the low-income class group. The continuation of poverty group is the case where they have been poor since their childhood and are still poor in their adulthood. The new members of the low-income class group is the case where you have become a low-income class sometime around divorce. The difference of the groups are related to the differences of the ways the power relationships work within a family. Women head of a household are prone to poverty because of the discrimination in formation, distribution and control of resources in their original family and their family formed by marriage. The norm of male breadwinner worked as a discrimination device. But this kind of discrimination device showed differences in their workings according to class. The continuation of poverty group experienced exclusion in the gendered responsibility of supporting the family and maintaining the family, whereas the other group experienced exclusion through the gendered nature of the distribution and control of resources. By showing that the presupposition of discussions on the poverty of woman head of a household is false, these findings challenge the existing view that as long as 'The Family' is maintained women will not be poor.

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A Decomposition of Gender Differences on the Poverty among the Urban Working Households in Korea (우리나라 도시근로자 가구의 남녀 가구주 간 빈곤 격차 요인 분해)

  • Yi, Eun-Hye;Lee, Sang-Eun
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.61 no.4
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    • pp.333-354
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    • 2009
  • This study decomposes the gender differences on poverty to explain the causes of the poverty gap between male- and female-headed households. In order to do this, we start from examining the extent of the poverty gap between maleand female-headed families and then conduct decomposition of poverty differences by gender using the Oaxaca method. This paper uses the (Urban) Family Budget Survey data from 1982 to 2008 and measures poverty using 50% of the median income poverty line. Major findings of this study are as follows: First, in 2008, the coefficient effect explains 70% or more of the total gender-poverty gap. Second, the trend of gender-poverty gap in the period of 1982~2008 shows that the poverty gap by gender increased in the 1980s', decreased in the 1990s', and a re-increased in 2000s'. Third, comparing the decomposition results in 1982, 1989, 1999, 2008, we found that the share of characteristic effect of the total gender poverty gap has been increased gradually over time. It means the characteristics of the female-headed households have become worse than those of the male-headed households in urban working families. At the same time, the still large coefficient effect suggests that the problems such as the discrimination against matriarchs or the lack of social support for them still play important roles among urban working families in Korea.

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Quality of Life of Poor Women - Focused on the Discretionary Time (재량시간(discretionary time)을 중심으로 본 빈곤여성의 삶의 질)

  • Noh, Hye-jin
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare Studies
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.61-87
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    • 2013
  • The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the quality of life of poor women. This study utilized data combined KLIPS with Time Use Survey for an analysis and analyzed time at the intersection of the class and gender. With discretionary time as center, this study investigated poverty status from the quality of life. And in order to make comparison more clearly, object was classified into 4 groups; non-poor male, poor male, non-poor female and poor female. Study results are as follows; First of all, poor women had the shortest discretionary time among all the groups and also had highest poverty rate of living quality. And this study found that deprivation of non-poor female headed householder is serious. Second, analysis of inequality level between and within groups through Theil index indicated that gender influence in poor strata was 3 times higher than that of non-poor strata. This study found that poor women experienced mixed exclusion at the point where gender and class crossed. And this study also has a meaning that an empirical analysis was conducted through above matters on secondary poverty and hidden poverty of poor women which existing researches were unable to discover.

Global Rice Production, Consumption and Trade: Trends and Future Directions

  • Bhandari, Humnath
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.5-5
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    • 2019
  • The objectives of this paper are (i) to analyze past trends and future directions of rice production, consumption and trade across the world and (ii) to discuss emerging challenges and future directions in the global rice industry. Rice is a staple food of over half of the world's 7.7 billion people. It is an important economic, social, political, and cultural commodity in most Asian countries. Rice is the $1^{st}$ most widely consumed, $2^{nd}$ largely produced, and $3^{rd}$ most widely grown food crop in the world. It was cultivated by 144 million farms in over 100 countries with harvested area of over 163 million ha producing about 745 million tons paddy in 2018. About 90% of the total rice is produced in Asia. China and India, the biggest rice producers, account for over half of the world's rice production. Between 1960 and 2018, world rice production increased over threefold from 221 to 745 million tons (2.1% per year) due to area expansion from 120 to 163 million ha (0.5% per year) and paddy yield increase from 1.8 to 4.6 t/ha (1.6% per year). The Green Revolution led massive increase in rice production prevented famines, provided food for millions of people, reduced poverty and hunger, and improved livelihoods of millions of Asians. The future increase in rice production must come from yield increase as the scope for area expansion is limited. Rice is the most widely consumed food crop. The world's average per capita milled rice consumption is 64 kilograms providing 19% of daily calories. Asia accounted for 84% of global consumption followed by Africa (7%), South America (3%), and the Middle East (2%). Asia's per capita rice consumption is 100 kilograms per year providing 28% of daily calories. The global and Asian per capita consumption increased from the 1960s to the 1990s but stable afterward. The per capita rice consumption is expected to decline in Asia but increase outside Asia especially in Africa in the future. The total milled rice consumption was about 490 million tons in 2018 and projected to reach 550 million tons by 2030 and 590 million tons by 2040. Rice is thinly traded in international market because it is a highly protected commodity. Only about 9% of the total production is traded in global rice market. However, the volume of global rice trade has increased over six-fold from 7.5 to 46.5 million tons between the 1960s and 2018. A relatively small number of exporting countries interact with a large number of importing countries. The top five rice exporting countries are India, Thailand, Vietnam, Pakistan, and China accounting for 74% of the global rice export. The top five rice importing countries are China, Philippines, Nigeria, European Union and Saudi Arabia accounting for 26% of the global rice import. Within rice varieties, Japonica rice accounts for the highest share of the global rice trade (about 12%) followed by Basmati rice (about 10%). The high concentration of exports to a few countries makes international rice market vulnerable to supply disruptions in exporting countries, leading to higher world prices of rice. The export price of Thai 5% broken rice increased from 198 US$/ton in 2000 to 421 US$/ton in 2018. The volumes of trade and rice prices in the global market are expected to increase in the future. The major future challenges of the rice industry are increasing demand due to population growth, rising demand in Africa, economic growth and diet diversification, competition for natural resources (land and water), labor scarcity, climate change and natural hazards, poverty and inequality, hunger and malnutrition, urbanization, low income in rice farming, yield saturation, aging of farmers, feminization of agriculture, health and environmental concerns, improving value chains, and shifting donor priorities away from agriculture. At the same time, new opportunities are available due to access to new technologies, increased investment by the private sector, and increased global partnership. More investment in rice research and development is needed to develop and disseminate innovative technologies and practices to overcome problems and ensure food and nutrition security of the future population.

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