• Title, Summary, Keyword: female-head families

Search Result 11, Processing Time 0.028 seconds

Women and Poverty in Korea: the Feminization of Poverty? (한국의 빈곤의 여성화에 대한 실증 분석)

  • Seok, Jae-Eun
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
    • /
    • v.56 no.2
    • /
    • pp.167-194
    • /
    • 2004
  • This paper examine the gender-poverty gap and the feminization of poverty in Korea with using data from the National Survey Household Income & Expenditure(1996, 2000) and the Urban Survey Household Income & Expenditure(1996-2002) by Korea National Statistical Office. The poverty rate in 2000 was 16.9 percent for female-head families and 7.9 percent for male-head families, which means that female-head families were 2.6 times more likely to be poor than male-head families. With examining impact of economic crisis in 1998 on gender-poverty gap, it show that both the poverty rate of female-head and male-head increase radically in peak of economic crisis, while, in the stage of recovering economy, the poverty rate of male-head families recovered mostly the level before economic crisis, but that of female-head families recover only the 2/3 level before and the 1/3 remain still under poverty. Thus gender-poverty gap appeared bigger during passing through economic crisis. With analyzing on influence factors of poverty, it appear that poverty is influenced by gender itself as well as education level, working condition which is reflected substantially characteristics of gender. Such an analysis results mean that the considering gender dimension is necessary to resolve poverty fundamentally because gender is a point intersection among family, labour market, and social security. Therefore it appears certain that to develop and adopt of women-friendly social policy is effective approach, which could resolve poverty and social problems related to social rights.

  • PDF

A Qualitative Study on the Coping Strategies of Poor Female Household Heads (빈곤 여성가장의 대처 전략에 관한 질적 연구)

  • 옥선화;성미애;배희분;이재림
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
    • /
    • v.40 no.6
    • /
    • pp.223-243
    • /
    • 2002
  • Female-headed household is one of the common family type in the changing Korean society. This study explored and described the coping strategies of poor female household heads who were in struggle with economic, physical, and emotional problems. The data was gathered by in-depth interviews with fifteen poor female heads of households. In the process of qualitative interview and analysis, the coping strategy was emerged as an important theme. The major strategies which the poor female heads had adopted were as follows. First strategy was making up their minds to live as heads of households to keep their children in the fence of family. Second was accepting that any husbands would not be helpful in general. Third was developing independence, which meant providing their families on their own labor without expecting the support from social network or welfare system. Forth strategy was giving the present situation a positive definition: it gave them the emotional comfort.

A Study on Needs of the Families of Head Injury Patients (두부 손상환자 가족의 간호요구에 대한 연구)

  • Cho Gyoo-Yeong;Park Hyoung-Sook
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing
    • /
    • v.6 no.3
    • /
    • pp.414-433
    • /
    • 1999
  • The purpose of this study is to identify the needs which are perceived by one of the familiy members who have head injury parients by traffic accidents in the intensive care units. Subjects were 70 families members of head injury patients admitted to 2 general hospitals NICU located Pusan city, 1 general hospital NICU located Ulsan city from December 1. 1998 to February 28. 1999. For this study, 70 family members were interviewed with aid of a Likert scale which was developed by researcher for this study. For development of the survey instrument, literature review and open questionnaire technique with family members and the nurses working in NICU. The 50needs-items were classified into 7 groups according to the homogeneity of the items with the support of literature review. For the content validity, the instrument was reviewed by 1 nursing professor and the internal reliability of this instrument was Cronbach alpha=0.94 which is highly accepted. Data was analyzed by a SPSS computer program. Data analysis included frequency. percentage, mean, standard variance and t-test or ANOVA. The results were as followings : 1. The general characteristics of head injury patients shows that the male was 74.3%, the female was 25.7% and age distribution shows that the fifty-fifty nine years was 30%, the highest. Of religion the buddhism was the most, The diagnosis distribution shows that epidural hematoma was 32.9% and subdural hematoma was 24.3%. The mentalility distribution shows that semicoma was 31.4% and stupor was 31.4%. Hemiplegia was 42.9% 2. The general charaterisrics of the family needs of head injury patients shows that thirty-thirty nine years was 31.4%, the highest. sex distribution shows that the male was 20%, the female was 80%. Of religion the buddism was the most. 3. The family needs of head injury patients was $3.03{\pm}0.42$, needs for the information of a patient's condition was $3.65{\pm}0.48$, the highest. And needs for the information of care and treatment was $3.48{\pm}0.48$, needs to be supplied with comfortable facilities for family was $3.04{\pm}0.66$, needs to be participate in a patient's care was $2.90{\pm}0.55$, needs to be informed about the available resources was $2.83{\pm}0.59$, needs to be supported emotionally for family was $2.79{\pm}0.55$, needs for religious assistance was $2.51{\pm}0.85$. 4. Examining the family needs of head injury patients according to patient's characteristics, mentality, plegia degree and operation were shown be variables to make an effect on the needs for the head injury patients family. At all, according to severity of head. injury, the family needs of head injury patients was high. 5. Examining the family needs of head injury patients according to their general characteristics, we could know that religion, job. income were shown to be variables to make an effect on the family needs. Through the examination it can be seen that the characteristics of head injury patients and the family needs of head injury patients. In conclusion, the family needs of head injury patients was almost same the family needs of ICU patients. Therefore we must involve the family's care of head injury patients and we must provide exact and repeated explanation, education and support the family of head injury patients. As this study was resulted in selecting the families admitted to NICU of some general hospital, we couldn't stretch the result in our favor. Therefore, continuous studies are suggested.

  • PDF

Socioeconomic Characteristics of Poverty by Types of Household with Children: Comparing Male-headed, Female-headed, and Dual-parents Household (유자녀가구 유형별 빈곤의 사회경제적 특성연구: 남성한부모가구, 여성한부모가구, 양부모가구 비교분석)

  • Kim, Hak-Ju
    • Korea journal of population studies
    • /
    • v.29 no.3
    • /
    • pp.73-87
    • /
    • 2006
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the economic deprivation of male-headed or female-headed households. Household having children under the age of 18 are categorized into three types according to the gender of household head: male-headed household, female-headed household, and dual-parents household. The findings from data, for this study came from the Korean Labor Panel Study in 2003. The analysis shows that the household's age, education, residence types, etc are key explanatory variables in determining whether to be in poverty. While the public income transfer is most effective in reducing poverty in female-headed households, the private income source is relatively more useful among male-headed families. Since single-household families are particularly at risk, public policy makers should pay special attentions to developing and expanding welfare-to-work programs which provides work incentives to overcome relative poverty and community networks on child care.

A Study on the Change of NaInGaGa(Female Space) at the Royal Tomb in the Late Joseon Dynasty (조선후기 산릉의 여성공간, 나인가가(內人假家)의 변화에 관한 연구)

  • Shin, Ji-Hye
    • Journal of architectural history
    • /
    • v.21 no.5
    • /
    • pp.7-18
    • /
    • 2012
  • On behalf of the royal women, SangGung(尙宮:The head of female servants in the palace) and NaIns(內人: Female servants caring for royal families in the palace) were dispatched in order to attend a funeral at the royal tomb. The NaInGaGa(內人假家) is the temporary building for SangGung and NaIns in the royal tomb. It is comprised of lodgings for them and also workrooms and warehouses to prepare ritual offering for the dead King or Queen. In the early Joseon dynasty, the NaInGaGa was utilized until a funeral at the royal tomb. Since 1674, NaInGaGa for the 3 years-period lamentation was started constructing separately. At these processes, the plan and placement of NaInGaGa was changed. This study based on the SanReungDoGam-EuiGwae (山陵都監-儀軌: The report on constructing royal tomb). The SanReungDoGam-EuiGwae written since 1800 have illustration about NaInGaGa. The illustration and explanation about NaInGaGa become a important clue that make suppose detailed space of NaInGaGa.

The Odd Pair Family's Health management in rural, Korea -Comparison with the Pair Family- (농촌거주 외짝가족의 건강관리-부부가족과의 비교)

  • Rhie Seung Gyo;Cho Young Sook;Won Hyang Rye
    • The Korean Journal of Community Living Science
    • /
    • v.16 no.1
    • /
    • pp.149-163
    • /
    • 2005
  • Family has emerged as a key concept for health, and it has been identified as one of the most important conditions. The relationship between health habit and its management is different depending on family. The odd pair family, mostly rural lower income class, worry to have poor health because of no spouse and small family size. One thousand eight hundred and seventy(1870) subjects were collected in 9 provinces through the sampling of Probability Proportional to Size (PPS). Questionnaire method was conducted on health checking, bath states, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and the prevalence of farmer's health related problems. The main results were as follows: 1) The characteristics of odd pair families are that the head of household is female(77% ), the size of family is small(1.76 persons), the education level is low(7.5 years for male, 3.1 years for female) and the age group is old (male: 89.78 year old, female: 73.69 year old). 2) For the odd pair family, the frequency of health checking is quite low with one or two times per year(l0.2%) and the rate of no-health checking is much higher(35.8%) .3) Bathing utility is not available 29.6% of the odd pair family and only cold water is supplied at home for the 11.5 % of them. However, for the paired family, 9.8 % of them has no bathing utility and the rate of the family supplied with only cold water is just 7.9%. 4) The bathing frequency score of odd pair family is l.74points for male and 1.25 points for female. 5) The rate of smoking habits for odd pair family is 68.5 % and specially it is 7.6% for female, which is higher comparing with that of pair family. 6) The smoking frequency score of odd pair family is 1.57 points. 7) Alcohol drinking frequency score of odd pair family is 1.79 points for male, and 3.24points for female. 8) Farmers' syndrome(FS) revealed 38.7% of odd pair family and it is lower than that of pair family(57.3%). Special pain of FS was huckle bone and muscle(28.4%) and articular pain(24.l %). The pain rate of huckle bone and muscle(43.l %) and articular pain(33.5%) were higher in a year in odd pair family were lower than those of pair family: farming machine caused accidents(6.5%) and pesticide poisoning(5.7%). l0) The odd pair family use more frequently medical clinic or public health center for the treatment of FS(74.7%) and pesticide poisoning(62.5%) than the pair family for FS(69.0%) and for pesticide poisoning(.53.6%). The score of FS treatment is 5.70 points for odd pair family and it is not significantly different from 5.62 points of the paired family. The result of pesticide poisoning treatment score is as same as that of FS.

  • PDF

A Study on Probability of Home-ownership over the Family Life Cycle -Case of Oaxaca City of Mexico- (가족생활주기상의 주택소유확률에 관한 연구 -멕시코 Oaxact시 의 경우를 중심으로-)

  • 이인수
    • Journal of the Korean housing association
    • /
    • v.9 no.1
    • /
    • pp.33-42
    • /
    • 1998
  • This study has been designed to analyze longterm trend of home-ownership probability over the family life cycle. In this study, 633 female household heads were interviewed on their critical life event such as pregnancy, birth or death of households, marriage, and residential movement between 1987 and 1990 in Oxaca, Mexico. The raw data composed of 100,000 lines were transformed into yearly segmented observation data, proposed by Allison. The results are drawn as follws: 1) There is significant effect of marriage cohort on residential mobility and home ownership: couples who married in 1960s are likely to change their residence at early stage of family life than those who married in 1940s. They also have lower probability of home ownership for 10 years after marriage than the other cohorts. 2) Over all the cohorts, it is consistent tendency that probability of home ownership continuously increases over the entire family life cycle for 40 years. 3) Of the logistic regression analysis of home ownership on household socioeconomic variables, the homeownership was positively related with age of marriage and time since marriage, and was negatively related with education of female head. Over in this study, it is proven that home owenership is ultimate goal of most families, and it is a function of family event variables.

  • PDF

The Elderly Families' Daily Food Cultivation, Preservation in Rural, Korea -Comparison with middle aged families- (농촌거주 노년가족의 일상 식품 생산과 가공 및 저장 -중년가족과의 비교-)

  • Rhie Seung Gyo;Chung Kum Ju;Won Hyang Ryu
    • The Korean Journal of Community Living Science
    • /
    • v.16 no.2
    • /
    • pp.111-120
    • /
    • 2005
  • Recently, the number of elderly people in the rural area of Korea has increased remarkably and their food security has become deteriorated mainly due to the low economic status. To investigate the food security for the elderly people, relevant data were obtained by offering questionnaire to the rural elderly people who were engaging in traditional agricultural production for daily foods. The subjects of 1870 were collected in 9 provinces according to PPS(Probability Proportional to Size). Questionnaire contained the items of dietary habit, food cultivation, Production and Preservation, and the suey was conducted by trained interviewers. SAS (ver 8.1) was used for statistical analyses in which Chi-square tests and General Linear Models were made. Family of the elderly people was $45.4\%$ of the total and the characteristics of elderly families were that age of male head was 82.1 years and that of female was 67.7 years, and that $68.8\%$ of elderly women were working for family income or pocket money. The elderly families' food cultivation state was surveyed and they were pepper$(59.1\%)$, chinese cabbage$(61.91\%)$, and sesame$(48.6\%)$ for their own consumption. But, bean sprout$(6.5\%)$, tofu$(7.7\%)$ and egg$(5.1\%)$ showed low rate of cultivation for the family. The rate of cultivating chinese cabbage$(61.9\%)$, and sesame$(48.6\%)$ was significantly higher than that of middle aged family. At the status of fermented food production for the elderly family, Doenjang$(87.4\%)$ and Gochujang$(86.3\%)$ Kanjang$(84.0\%)$ Kimchi$(92.9\%)$ Jangachi$(27.6\%)$ and Meju$(91.61\%)$maintained higher rate than that of middle aged families' Food preservation of elderly families was low and there are just jam$(5.3\%)$ and bottled products$(1.4\%)$. A little higher rate was observed lot the preserved food such as alcohol$(9.9\%)$ and powder$(9.8\%)$. For the elderly family the score of food cultivation was 4.08/12 points and that of food preservation was 0.62/12 points. The score of fermented food production for elderly family was 10.24/12 points which was significantly different from that of middle aged family (9.58/12 points, p<0.001). This result suggests that for the elderly people food with more protein is needed for production.

  • PDF

The Odd Pair Family's Dietary management in rural, Korea - Comparison with the Pair Family - (농촌거주 외짝가족의 식생활관리 -부부가족과의 비교-)

  • Rhie Seung Gyo;Chung Kum Ju;Won Hyang Rye
    • The Korean Journal of Community Living Science
    • /
    • v.16 no.1
    • /
    • pp.89-103
    • /
    • 2005
  • Recently the rural Korea has been remarkedly changed of family and social value in accordance with the development of industry. The lower economic class made by social economic growth is widespread with increasing aged, specially odd pair family in rural. The purpose of this study was to investigate to help and keep improve health of rural lower economic class, family system by comparing and analyzing the dietary management, between pair and odd pair family, and to get the data helpful the right guidance for rural. The subjects 1870 collected in 9 provinces by sampling with probability proportional to size (PPS). Questionnaire about dietary habit, food cultivation, production and preservation survey was conducted by trained interviewers. The main results were as follows : 1) The characteristics of odd pair families, head of household was female(77%), over 65 years(84.9%), small family(1.76 persons) and lower education(male 7.5 years, female 3.1 years) status. 2) As the states of diets of odd pair family, having breakfast(87.1 %) but one or two kinds of side dishes(31.3 %) only possible to guess lower status of food intake balance. Nutritional supplements(21. 7 %) was lower than that of paired family. 3) The aspects of dietary habit of odd pair family, no instant foods(70.7%), no snack(38.4%) no dine out(69.2%) were common. 4) Dietary habit scores were 7.78 points of odd pair family compared 8.34 points of paired family. 5) Food purchase place of odd pair family was market(44.2%) but super-market(42.7%) of paired family. 6)In odd pair family, seldom traditional dish preparation(62.0%) but prepared winter kimchi(81.9%), comparing seldom traditional dish(38.6%) and winter kimchi(96.4%) in paired family. 7)The food cultivation state was surveyed, pepper( 42.2 %) and chinese cabbage( 43.9 %) were consumed after cultivation, but sesame(59.4%), bean sprout(90.2%), tofu(92.8%) and egg(93.3%) were consumed by purchase in odd pair family.8) Food cultivation score of odd pair family was 2.98/12points significantly lower than 4.50/12 points of paired family(p<0.01). 9) At the status of fermentation food production in odd pair family, Duenjang(72.1 %) and Gochujang(69.7%) Kanjang(68.3%) Kimchi(82.1 %) and Meju(68.3%) were high rate of production, but more frequently producted in pair family. 10) The score of fermentation food production of odd pair family was 8.57/12points but significantly lower than 10.24/12 points of pair family(p<0.0001). 11) Food preservation score 0.48/6 points in odd pair family was not significantly different than that of pair family(1.07/6points).

  • PDF

Korean Traditional Children's Clothes in Modern Times (근대 아동한복 연구)

  • Cho, Hyo-Sook;Choi, Eun-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
    • /
    • v.45 no.1
    • /
    • pp.63-73
    • /
    • 2007
  • Korean children's clothes have unique aesthetic characteristics distinguished from other countries'. Our folk beliefs handed down from ancient times always contained fortune - seeking thoughts and particularly mothers' earnest wishes for the happiness of their children were sublimated into the symbolic beauty of their children's clothes. The present study examined children's clothes in the royal family and among the people for 50 years of the transitional period from the late Joseon Dynasty to modern times, by classifying them into ritual dress for new-born babies, festival dress and everyday dress. Male children's clothes included caps such as Bokgeon(복건), Hogeon(호건) and Gulle(굴레) topcoats such as Durumagi(두루마기), Sagyusam(사규삼) Koija(쾌자) and Jeonbok(전복) and others such as Magoja(마고자), Baeja(배자), Joggi(조끼) and Bajijeogori(바지저고리), Female children's clothes included caps and head ornaments such as Gulle, Jobawi(조바위) and Daenggi(댕기) and others such as Durumagi, Jegori and Chima(치마). What is interesting is that old clothes handed down to the present are mostly boys' and few of them are girls'. This is probably because of the strong preference for boys rather than girls that continued until the end of the 20th century. Ordinary people dressed their new - born babies with simple white clothes until Samchilil (the 21st day) or Baekil (the 100thday) but, for these occasions, the royal family prepared clothes as formal as those for the $1^{st}$ birthday among the public. Rainbow-striped garments were more popular among the public than in the royal family. As rainbow colors were known to Korean people to dispel evil power and bring in fortunes, rainbow - striped garments were essential for the $1^{st}$ birthday and festive days. However, they were seldom used in ordinarytimes, and most boys and girls wore plain jackets and plain topcoats. When children's clothes in noble families were compared with royal family's ones, either handed down to the present or found in old literature, no significant difference was observed in the basic composition of everyday dress. In particular, it was found that Andong Kim's family had dressed their children with very formal dress such as Dopo and Sagyusam. Among children's clothes, the most gorgeous one was that worn on the $1^{st}$ birthday, and those for other occasions or festive days were similar or simpler. Colors, patterns and designs used in decorating children's clothes mostly had the meanings of seeking fortunes for children such as long life, wealth and prosperity.