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Comparisons between fresh and cryopreserved fat injections in facial lipofilling

  • Yang, Hyee Jae;Kang, Sang Yoon
    • Archives of Craniofacial Surgery
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.15-21
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    • 2020
  • Background: Autologous fat is considered an ideal filler material, and the use of cryopreserved fat grafts is promising in terms of flexibility and efficiency. Therefore, cryopreserved fat grafts have become more common in recent years; however, their complications require further consideration. Methods: We evaluated 53 patients who underwent facial lipofilling at our institution to confirm the clinical usefulness and safety of cryopreserved fat. Fresh fat injections with or without cryopreserved fat were administered. At one or more sites, 22 patients had a single fresh fat injection, four patients had two or more fresh fat injections, 16 patients had one fresh fat injection followed by one cryopreserved fat injection, six patients had one fresh fat injection followed by two cryopreserved fat injections, and five patients had two fresh fat injections and one or more cryopreserved fat injections. Results: In total, 281 sets of injection procedures were performed at various sites, of which 170 involved one fresh fat injection, 89 involved one fresh fat injection and one cryopreserved fat injection, and 11 involved one fresh fat injection and two cryopreserved fat injections. One patient experienced self-resolving inflammation as a complication after the second injection in the right cheek. No statistically significant differences were found between the fresh and cryopreserved fat injections. Conclusion: We suggest that cryopreserved fat is a useful and safe resource for multiple fat injections, with advantages including aseptic fat handling and the delicacy of the technique.

Quality Characteristics of Low-fat Ground Pork Patties Containing Milk Co-precipitate

  • Kumar, Manish;Sharma, B.D.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.588-595
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    • 2003
  • The optimum level of fresh granulated low-calcium (0.2%) skim milk co-precipitate, as fat substitute in low-fat ground pork patties was determined on the basis of physico-chemical, cooking and sensory properties. Low-fat ground pork patties (<10% total fat), formulated with 15 per cent water, 4 per cent added fat, 1.5 per cent salt and 4-10 per cent milk co-precipitate, were evaluated for proximate composition, cooking characteristics and compared with control patties with 15 % added fat. The moisture and protein content of raw and cooked low-fat patties were significantly (p<0.05) higher than control. The incorporation of milk co-precipitate in low-fat patties improved cooking yield, fat and moisture retention and reduced shrinkage. The sensory properties of low-fat patties were comparable with control patties. The overall acceptability of low-fat patties formulated with 7% milk co-precipitate was significantly (p<0.05) higher than patties with 10% level and non-significantly (p<0.05) higher than low-fat patties containing 4% milk co-precipitate and control. Instrumental Texture Profiles of developed low-fat patties and control patties were comparable with slight increases in hardness and gumminess of the low-fat product. The developed low-fat ground pork patties (7% milk co-precipitate) had lower TBA values, better microbiological and sensory refrigerated storage stability than high-fat control patties packaged in air permeable films for 21 days.

Reduced-Fat Frankfurters with Varying Types of Meat and Fat

  • Rhee, Ki-Soon;Susan U. Bohanan
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.15-19
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    • 2000
  • This study was conducted to determine sensory and chemical traits of reduced-fat frankfurters made with lean lamb or lean lamb/pork (50%/50%), fat from three different sources(pork fat, lamb fat or high-oleic sunflower oil) and added water products designated as L-P-15, LP-L-15, LP-So-15 and LP-P-15, according to lean meat type, source of added fat and target fat content and to compare such products with a similar reduced-fat product made with lean beef/pork (50%/50%) with pork fat(product designated as BP-P-15) and high-fat products made with lean beef/pork (50%/50%) or lamb/pork (50%/50%) with pork fat (BP-P-30 and LP-P-30). Actual fat contents of reduced-fat and high-fat products formulated for 15% and 30% fat were 17~18% and 28~31%, respectively, after processing. Processing yields were lower for all reduced-fat products than for the high-fat products. Trained sensory panelists rated LP-P-15 less intense in lamb flavor as compared to LP-L-15 and LP-So-15. Off-flavor intensity was positively correlated with lamb-flavor intensity (r=0.80), whereas frankfurter-flavor intensity was negatively correlated with lamb-flavor intensity (-0.88) and off-flavor intensity (r=-0.90). According to consumer panelists, LP-P-15 was as desirable in flavor as BP-P-15 or the two high-fat products (BP-P-30 and LP-P-30), while LP-So-15 and LP-L-15 were not. LP-P-15 and BP-P-15 were not notably different from their high-fat counterparts in juiciness and texture desirability and overall palatability. Regardless of fat content, meat type and fat source, there was little lipid oxidation when vacuum-packaged products were refrigerated for 12 weeks.

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Effects of High Fat Diet on Serum Leptin and Insulin Level and Brown Adipose Tissue UCP 1 Expression in Rats (흰쥐에서 고지방식이가 혈중 렙틴 및 인슐린과 갈색지방조직의 UCP 1 발현에 미치는 영향)

  • 홍경희;강순아;김소혜;조여원
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.34 no.8
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    • pp.865-871
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    • 2001
  • The adipose tissue hormone leptin has been proposed to be involved in the regulation of flood intake and energy expenditure via thermogenesis by uncoupling protein(UCP) in brown adipose tissue(BAT). The objective of the study was to examine the effects of high fat diet on the serum leptin levels, BAT UCPl expression and the body fat mass in rats after weaning. During experimental period of 12 weeks, 4 male Sprague-Dawley rats were killed for the baseline experiment at 4 weeks of age while the remaining rats were fed the two different diets: the control diet AIN-76A(n = 20), high fat(beef tallow) diet(n = 20) ad libitum, which provided 11.7% or 40% of calories as fat, respectively. At 16 weeks of age, the increase in the food efficiency ratio(FER) was related to fat mass in rats on high fat diet. Serum leptin level was increased by age and dietary high fat. There was no difference in serum insulin level between groups until 10 weeks of age, but rats fed high fat diet for 12 weeks showed hyperinsulinemia. The amount of body fat pads was increased significantly in high fat group compared to normal diet group. Visceral fat mass affected acutely by high fat diet, as a result, it was higher in rats fed high fat diet for 2 weeks than normal diet. At 16 weeks of age, BAT and visceral fat mass were significantly high in high fat group. Also, the serum leptin levels reflected the amount of body fat mass. BAT UCPI mRNA expression increased with age and dietary high fat. This study demonstrates that dietary high fat increased serum leptin levels, BAT UCPI expression and body fat mass. Futhermore, in rats fed high fat diets, the increases in leptin and UCPI expression counteracts only in part the excess adiposity and obesity.

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Product Characteristics of Comminuted Sausages as Affected by Various Fat and Moisture Combinations

  • Chin, Koo Bok;Lee, Hye Lan;Chun, Soon Sil
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.538-542
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    • 2004
  • Comminuted sausages with reduced fat (25-0%) and increased moisture (19-44%) combinations were manufactured, and their chemical composition, and physico-chemical, textural and sensory properties were determined for the selection of the most palatable sausage treatment. The moisture and fat contents of the comminuted sausages varied from 55-79% and 26.4-2.14%, respectively, whereas, the protein content was relatively constant at 13.5-14.5%. Expressible moisture (EM, %) decreased with increased fat addition, and the high-fat control sausage (~25% fat) had lower EM than those with lower than 15% fat addition. Increased fat level also increased Hunter L values (lightness) of sausage samples taken from the core, and differences in lightness were observed between 15 and 25% fat level at the initial mixture. Sausages without fat addition had different textural characteristics from high-fat control sausages in most texture profile analysis (TPA) values. However, no differences in TPA values were observed among treatments with added fat (<25%) in the formulation. Results of the sensory evaluation showed that the most appropriate fat content of comminuted sausages to have better sensory properties ranged from 15-20% of added fat at the initial mixture. These results also indicated that decreased fat and increased moisture contents produce sausages with higher EM and lower lightness. Comminuted sausages without fat addition had different textural characteristics from the high-fat control.

Effects of ADMIRE Algorithms on Fat Measurements Using Computed Tomography (CT) (CT를 이용한 지방측정에 ADMIRE 알고리즘이 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Chang Wook;Lee, Sang Heon;Im, In Chul;Lee, Hyo Yeong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.465-472
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    • 2019
  • To investigate the effects of iterative reconstruction algorithms on fat measurements using computed tomography (CT), we comparatively and quantitatively analyzed the ratios of visceral, subcutaneous, and visceral-subcutaneous fat areas as well as the variations of HU and noise of visceral and subcutaneous fat using ADMIRE strength and attempted to identify any difference between them. Experimental results showed that no statistically significant difference existed among the visceral, subcutaneous, and visceral-subcutaneous fat area ratios HU of visceral fat area and HU of subcutaneous fat area when applying ADMIRE as compared with existing conventional filtered back projection algorithms. However, as the ADMIRE strength increases, the noise of visceral and subcutaneous fat decreases by up to 12.1% and 19.2%, respectively. In conclusion, iterative reconstruction algorithms have no effect on the visceral, subcutaneous, and visceral-subcutaneous fat area ratios, which are indicators of fat measurement using CT.

Characteristic of back fat and quality of longissimus dorsi muscle from soft fat pork carcasses

  • Lim, Daewoon;Song, Minho;Lee, Juri;Lee, Chulwoo;Lee, Jaechung;Lee, Wangyeol;Seo, Jihee;Jung, Samooel
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.581-588
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    • 2016
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the accuracy of visual discrimination of soft fat pork carcasses when subjecting carcasses to quality grade evaluations. In addition, the quality of the longissimus dorsi muscle from soft fat carcasses was investigated. Iodine values of back fat from soft fat carcasses evaluated by visual discrimination were significantly higher than those from firm fat carcass (p < 0.05). However, those values were lower than the standard for soft fat (iodine value = 70). There were no significant differences in linoleic acid content, b-values, and L-values (p < 0.05) of back fat between firm and soft fat carcasses evaluated by visual discrimination. Color of longissimus dorsi muscle from soft fat carcasses (iodine value higher than 70) was not different from that of firm fat carcass (iodine value lower than 70). Except for linoleic acid, there were no significant differences in any fatty acid contents between longissimus dorsi muscles from firm fat and soft fat carcasses. Monounsaturated fatty acid content of longissimus dorsi muscles from soft fat carcasses was significantly lower than those of firm fat carcass (p < 0.05). However polyunsaturated fatty acid content was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in longissimus dorsi muscles from soft fat carcasses. In conclusion, visual discrimination results for soft fat pork carcass were inaccurate. Therefore, other indicators should be required to evaluate soft fat pork carcasses. In contrast, the quality of longissimus dorsi muscle from soft fat carcasses was superior in terms of fatty acid composition compared with that of firm fat carcasses.

Manufacture and Evaluation of Low-Eat Meat Products(A review) (저지방 육제품의 제조 및 평가)

  • 진구복
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.363-372
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    • 2002
  • Reducing the fat content of processed meat products can be performed by (1) using leaner raw meat materials (2) inducing non-meat ingredients that serve to replace a portion or all of the fat, and (3) applying new ingredient combinations, technologies or processing procedures that decrease the fat and cholesterol content of meat products. Low-fat meat products were manufactured with Int replacers which were food ingredients that had the functional and sensory properties of fat without contributing fat calories, resulting in lower fat(<3%) content. Added water, non-meat proteins, carbohydrates, such as starch and hydrocolloids(gums) and vegetable oils have been used as typical fat replacers to be used in meat products. In addition, fat substitutes included structural lipids, sucrose polyester and ingredient combinations. Formulations for the manufacture of low-fat meat products in combined with new technologies have focused on the use of fat replacer combinations that contributes a minimum of calories and not detrimental to flavor, juiciness, mouthfeel or textural traits expected more traditional products. In conclusion, some combinations of fat replacements that mimics the flavor, mouthfeel and textural characteristics of fat offer potential for further development of low-fat meat products to have similar characteristics of regular-fat counterparts.

Body Fat and Dietary Factors in Female High School Dancers (무용 전공 여고생들의 체지방 비율과 관련 식사 변인에 대한 조사)

  • 김현희
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.767-776
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    • 1998
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the percentage of body fat by three different methods and to investigate the relationship between food preference and intake and percentage of body fat in female high school dancers. Height, weight , girth circumference, and near infrared body fat(%) on were measured 112 subjects BMI body fat (%) , girth circumference body fat (%) , and anthropometric indices were also calculated . Dietary data was collected by questionnaire. All data was analyzed by frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation, correlation, and crosstabulation; analysis, The results are summarized as follows ; 1) Average age of the subjects was 16.5 height was 161.0cm, weight was 50.7kg , near infra-red body fat was 27.0% BMI body fat was 21.9% , and girth circumference body fat 20.9%. 2) Near infra-red body fat (%), BMI body fat(%) , BMI , Rohrer index , and % ideal weight showed the most significant correlations with upper arm girth. The differences in the height among subject physiques classified by body fat(%) were non-significant, but the differences in height by BMI, Rohrer index, and % ideal weight were significant. 3) The preference values of fatty foods such as meat, milk, and fish were shown to increase with the percentage of body fat, The subjects who had higher percentage of body fat preferred foods cooked in oil. In contrast, the students with higher percentage of body fat were thought to have lower food intake and between meals frequencies. It was shown in this study that higher preference values for animal fatty foods and foods containing more cooking oil induced significant increases in body fat and weight.

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The Research about Distribution of Abdominal Fat in Obese Premenopausal Korean Women (폐경전 한국인 비만여성에서 복부 지방의 분획별 특성에 대한 임상연구)

  • Lee, A-Ra;Chung, Won-Suk;Song, Mi-Yeon
    • Journal of Korean Medicine for Obesity Research
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.25-35
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    • 2008
  • Objectives This study was performed to find out the characters about distribution of abdominal fat(especially superficial and deep subcutaneous fat) in obese premenopausal Korean women. Methods 39 obese premenopausal women were recruited in 2008. Anthropometry and body impedance analysis have been done and abdominal fat distribution had been assessed by computed tomography scan at the level of L4-5. Blood test and questionnaires about depression, eating attitude and physical activity were underwent. Result Abdominal total fat area, subcutaneous fat area including superficial and deep were significantly correlated with anthropometry and BIA result while visceral fat was correlated only with age and waist circumference. In blood profile, only visceral fat area was correlated with HDL cholesterol and triglyceride. And there were no correlation among questionnaires and abdominal fat. There were no difference between superficial and deep subcutaneous fat. Conclusion Abdominal subcutaneous fat including superficial and deep did not have any correlation with heart risk factor. superficial and deep subcutaneous fat had no differences with each other and they did not show any correlation with visceral fat in obese perimenopausal Korean women.

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