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Comparative study on efficacies and ingredient contents of different solvent extracts of Insampaedok-san (인삼패독산의 추출용매에 따른 성분함량 및 효능연구)

  • Lim, Hye-Sun;Ha, Hyekyung;Seo, Chang-Seob;Jin, Seong Eun;Kim, Yeji;Jeon, Woo-Young;Yoo, Sae-Room;Shin, In-Sik;Kim, Jung-Hoon;Kim, Seong-Sil;Shin, Na Ra;Lee, Mee-Young;Jeong, Soo-Jin;Kim, Ohn Soon;Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.115-122
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    • 2012
  • Objectives : This study evaluated activities and ingredient contents concerning extracts according to extraction solvents of Insampaedok-san (IS, Renshen bai du-san). Methods : The herbal constituents of IS were extracted with water and 70% ethanol at $100^{\circ}C$ for 2 hr. Using the HPLC system, the six ingredient contents of different solvent extracts of IS were analyzed. The nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin $E_2$ ($PGE_2$) production and proinflammatory cytokines were measured in RAW264.7 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC/CCL22) and regulated on activation normal T-cell expression and secreted (RANTES/CCL5) production were measured in HaCaT and BEAS-2B cells stimulated tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$ (TNF-${\alpha}$) and interferon-${\gamma}$ (IFN-${\gamma}$). The activities of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) and leptin level were measured in 3T3-L1 cells. Results : The calibration curves showed good linearity ($r^2$=1.0000) for different concentration ranges. The contents of liquiritin, naringin, hesperidin, neohesperirin and glycyrrizin in 70% ethanol extracts of IS were relatively higher than that of water extract, however the content of ferulic acid in 70% ethanol and water extract of IS were similar. The extraction solvents of water and 70% ethanol were evaluated inhibitory effect on the production of NO, $PGE_2$, TNF-${\alpha}$ and IL-6 in RAW 264.7 cells. Their extractions were inhibitory effect on production of MDC/CCL22 and RANTES/CCL5 in HaCaT cell and BEAS-2B cell, respectively. In addition, evaluated reduced on GPDH activity and leptin level in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell. Conclusions : Our results suggest that IS extracts were inhibitory effects of disease such as inflammation, allergies and obesity.

Exploration of optimum conditions for production of saccharogenic mixed grain beverages and assessment of anti-diabetic activity (잡곡당화음료 제조 최적 조건 탐색 및 항당뇨 활성 평가)

  • Lee, Jae Sung;Kang, Yun Hwan;Kim, Kyoung Kon;Yun, Yeong Kyeong;Lim, Jun Gu;Kim, Tae Woo;Kim, Dae Jung;Won, Sang Yeon;Bae, Moo Hoan;Choi, Han Seok;Choe, Myeon
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.12-22
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: This study was conducted to establish the production conditions through optimization of the production process of beverages using Aspergillus oryzae CF1001, and to analyze volatile compounds and antidiabetic activity. Methods: The optimum condition was selected using the response surface methodology (RSM), through a regression analysis with the following independent variables gelatinization temperature (GT, $X_1$), saccharogenic time (ST, $X_2$), and dependent variable; ${\Delta}E$ value (y). The condition with the lowest ${\Delta}E$ value occurred with combined 45 min ST and $50^{\circ}C$ GT. The volatile compounds were analyzed quantitatively by GC-MS. Results: Assessment of antidiabetic activity of saccharogenic mixed grain beverage (SMGB) was determined by measurement of ${\alpha}$-glucosidase inhibition activity, and glucose uptake activity and glucose metabolic protein expression by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analysis. Results of volatile compounds analysis, 62 kinds of volatile compounds were detected in SMGB. Palmitic acid (9.534% ratio), benzaldehyde (8.948% ratio), benzyl ethyl ether (8.792% ratio), ethyl alcohol (8.35% ratio), and 2-amyl furan (4.826% ratio) were abundant in SMGB. We confirmed that ${\alpha}$-glucosidase inhibition activity, glucose uptake activity, and glucose-metabolic proteins were upregulated by SMGB treatment with concentration dependent manner. Conclusion: Saccharogenic mixed grain beverage (SMGB) showed potential antidiabetic activity. Further studies will be needed in order to improve the taste and functionality of SMGB.

A Study on the Textuality of China's Wuyi-Gugok, the Origin of Gugok-Wonlim -Focus on the Tradition Process to Korea - (구곡원림의 원류, 중국 무이구곡(武夷九曲)의 텍스트성 -국내 전승(傳承) 과정을 중심으로 -)

  • Rho, Jae-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.36 no.6
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    • pp.66-80
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    • 2009
  • This paper attempts to investigate how the cultural phenomena associated with 'Wuyi-Doga(武夷棹歌)' and 'Wuyi-Gugok (武夷九曲)' was introduced to Joseon. The icon and code of 'Gugok' cultural text which was observed in the process of transmitting the culture through repetition and imitation were examined. With regard to research methodology, an 'analysis and discussion framework' was designed based on the literature review, field survey and the seven textuality criteria proposed by Dressier. Then the textuality of 'Wuyi-Gugok' was analyzed in terms of the dependent relation of text, the relationship between the creator and user, repetition, imitation and the spread process. Since ZhouHee(朱熙)'s 'Wuyi-Doga' and 'Wuyi-Gugok' were introduced to Joseon through literature and paintings, they became a part of the cultural Phenomena with unprecedented popularity. As a result, a great number of imitations can be found. In addition, governors would even take care of political affairs in a scenic mountain valley as described in this literature. Regardless of the writer's intentiot 'Gugok' settled in Joseon as new culture in harmony with Taoism and Sung COnfucianism. In other words, Joseon's Gugok-Wonlim(九曲園林) accepted the nature-appreciation aesthetic consciousness in 'Wuyi-Doga' and 'Wuyi-Gugok' on the basis of Taoism and Sung Confucianism. In terms of the text-based dependent relation only, however, the geographical coherence was somewhat loosened while the Gugok Culture that was dependent on Taoism or elegance in life dominated the internal structure of the textuality. Meantime, the internal factors that dominated the textuality of 'Wdyi-Gugok' were interpreted as 1) 'Aesthetics of Bending, Water Whirls', 2) 'Territoriality Expression Carve letters,' 3) 'Cultural Landscape seeing through the Speculation of Meaning,' 4) 'The Pursuit of Oddness and Presentationism' and 5) 'Transcendental Landscape of Taoism and Topos.'

A Study on the Abstract Types of the Contemporary Landscape Design (현대조경디자인의 추상유형에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Jun-Yon;Lee, Haeung-Yul;Bang, Kwang-Ja
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.36 no.6
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2009
  • This study focuses on Abstract Types in Contemporary Landscape Design. The formation and artistry of contemporary landscape design reveals many areas which Previously have not been able to be expressed in scenic landscape thanks to the deviation of the genre in contemporary landscape and the hybridization that has occurred among architecture, landscape and art genres. The focus of this study is basic research concerning "the abstract", which is used as a creative artistic theory in a variety of art fields such as landscape, architecture and painting. Through a theoretical establishment of "the abstract", its process of change, and the discovery of its contemporary principles, the relationship between each art field in landscapes and the formation of the abstract, abstract language, and abstract properties have been studied. The use of the abstract in contemporary landscape design can be classified in three ways: Inductive abstract representing conceptual transcendental symbols not logically but rather through intuition and transcendental cognition to display the inner expressions, ideas and minds of the artists. Second, a deductive abstract represents an expansive, logical model for the simplification of objects, distortion, exaggeration based on knowledge and logical reasoning about objective fact based on traditional realism. The complexity of the abstract is a concept that is bound to both the deductive & inductive abstract. As a major trend, the concept of "The abstract" in contemporary landscape has been putting forth ever-deeper roots. New trends like abstract works and landscape architecture reflecting the artist's inner expression, in particular, will provide fertile soil for landscape in the future. Further research about the concept of "the abstract" will also be necessary in the time to come.

The Inflow of the Creative-Class and Forming of Cultural Landscape on the Kyunglidan-Gil (경리단길 창조계급의 유입과정과 문화경관 형성요인)

  • Yang, Hee eun;Son, Yong-Hoon
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.41 no.6
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    • pp.158-170
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    • 2013
  • With the recent 'Creative economy' and 'Cultural prosperity' coming to the fore as a new code to build up a city or a region, it is necessary to focus on strengthening the regional creative capacity as well as developing spontaneous regional culture. In such trend this research aims to explore the Kyunglidan-gil, Seoul, Korea in which creative-class are appearing autogenously in clusters and forming new cultural landscape, to identify the factors of their accumulation and changing aspect of cultural landscape. This study has the following purposes: First, Investigating the historical context of the Kyunglidan-gil's landscape. Second, considering the process of the creative-class being flowed into the Kyunglidan-gil as the subject leading to the modification of the region. Third, their activity was analyzed to consider the unique aspect of forming the cultural landscape at the Kyunglidan-gil. Regarding why the creative-class should flow in, results of the study drew five factors including region in issue compared to inexpensive rents, coexistence with nature, quiet atmosphere seeming isolated from the urban confusion, location possible to test and share individual materials one likes, and a site with synergy effect of activity through the network with acquaintances. Also, five characteristics of cultural landscape forming by the people's activity were drawn - space of communication for increasing creativity, temporary and flexible spatial use, expression of one's identity and taste, distinguishing, and positive use of the existing facilities. Like this, by exposing the 'creative-class', a subject of the leader in changing process of the Kyunglidan-gil, this research identified the aspect of forming cultural landscape.

The Effects of Monoamine Oxidase A CA Repeat Polymorphism on Behavioral Trait and Clinical Characteristics in Korean Male Alcoholics (단가아민 산화제 A CA 반복 유전자 다형성이 한국 알코올의존 남자환자의 행동특성과 임상양상에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jung-Sik;Yang, Byung-Hwan;Lee, Kyung-Mee;Kim, Hong-Kwan;Kim, Yong-In;Chai, Young-Gyu
    • Korean Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.64-73
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    • 2000
  • There are several candidate genes in genetic study of alcoholism. Among them, allelic associations have been reported between MAOA CA repeat polymorphism and alcohol dependence, recently. And also, several studies have been investigated genotype-phenotype relationships between MAOA CA repeat polymorphism and clinical manifestations. The authors tried to identify differences in allelic frequency of MAOA CA repeat polymorphism between alcohol dependence and controls, and in behavioral trait and clinical characteristics according to MAOA CA repeat polymorphism. We also tried to investigate genotype-phenotype relationships between MAOA CA repeat polymorphism and behavioral trait such as aggression. We examined 49 male patients with alcohol dependence(DSM-IV) who had been admitted in Yong-In Mental Hospital from June 1st 1998 to October 31th 1998. We performed semistructured interview for demographic and clinical characteristics. Self-report questionnaire for BDHI(Buss-Durkey Hostility Inventory) was given to all subject at least 4weeks later after admission. Using polymerase chain reaction and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, MAOA CA repeat polymorphism were observed in 52 male controls and 49 male patients with alcohol dependence. We devided alcoholic patients into two groups according to allelic length of MAOA CA repeat polymorphism ; alcoholics with short alleles(${\leq}$119bp, N=20) and alcoholics with long alleles(${\geq}$123bp, N=29). T-test, ${\chi}^2$-test and Fisher exact probability test were used for statistical analysis. There were no significant differences in frequency of each allele and short and long alleles of MAOA CA repeat polymorphism between alcoholics and controls. But there were significant differences in clinical symptoms and behavioral trait between alcoholics with short and long alleles. In clinical symptoms, alcoholics with long alleles used alcohol more frequently during one month before admission, had much more maximum amount of beer drinking and reported withdrawal seizure more frequently than with short alleles. In contrary, alcoholics with short alleles expressed depressed mood and guilty feeling more frequently and wanted complete abstinence as a treatment goal more frequently than with long alleles. In behavioral trait, alcoholics with long alleles had higher total aggression score and showed much more self-assertive attitude(subscale of expression of aggression) than with short alleles. Allelic length of MAOA CA repeat polymorphism was correlated with self-assertive attitude and accounted for 9% of the variance of self-assertive attitude. And also, predictable variables of allelic length of MAOA CA repeat polymorphism were drinking frequency and self-assertive attitude. Our findings suggest that MAOA CA repeat polymorphism may provide some behavior modifying role especially in self-assertive attitude and indirect symptom modifying role in Korean male alcoholics.

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A Study of the Japanese Colonial Era Rock-Carved Seated Avalokiteśvara Statue at Ganghwa Bomunsa Temple (일제강점기 강화 보문사 마애관음보살좌상 연구)

  • Lee, Jumin
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.53 no.3
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    • pp.62-79
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    • 2020
  • The rock-carved seated Avalokiteśvara statue at Ganghwa Bomunsa Temple is a giant rock-carved Buddhist statue that was built in 1928 during the Japanese colonial era. Although it is a year-recorded Buddhist statue that occupies a prominent place in modern Korean Buddhist sculpture history, it has not been the subject of in-depth discussion due to weak research on modern Buddhist sculptures. In this study, to examine the various significant aspects of the rock-carved Seated Avalokiteśvara statue at Bomunsa Temple as a modern Buddhist sculpture, I have managed to determine its construction year, artificers, and patrons by deciphering the inscription around the rock-carved statue; in addition I have researched the effects of the rock shapes and landforms on the formation of the Buddhist statue by comparing and analyzing the points of view of both artificers and worshipers. I have also identified the specific circumstances of the time of construction from interviews with the descendants of artificers. A monk from Geumgangsan Mountain, Lee Hwaeung, took the role of sponsor and chief painter to construct the rock-carved seated Avalokiteśvara statue at Bomunsa temple. In the beginning of its construction in 1928, more than 100 donators jointly sponsored the construction of the statue. Gansong Jeon Hyoungphil sponsored alone at the time of the place of worship's expansion in 1938. Bomunsa Temple has been regarded as one of the top-three sacred places of Avalokiteśvara Bodhisattva together with Naksansa Temple in Yang Yang and Boriam in Nam Hae, due to the construction of the rock-carved statue. It took about three months to construct the statue. Lee Hwaeung drew a rough sketch and then Un Songhag and five masons from Ganghwa Island took part in the carving process. We can observe the line drawing technique around the rock-carved statue because the statue was carved based on the rough sketch of the monk painter. The aspect of Lee Hwaeung as a painter is revealed; therefore, we can identify the clue of painting pattern leading to Seogongchulyou- Hwaunghyoungjin- Ilonghyegag. The rock-carved seated Avalokiteśvara statue at Bomunsa Temple is a typical Avalokiteśvara that wears a jeweled crown and holds Kundica. It makes a strong impression as it has a big square-shaped face and a short neck and is unsophisticated in general. The artificers solved the issue of visual distortion of the rock-carved statue caused by carving on a 10-meter high and 40-degree sloping rock by controlling motion to its maximum, omitting detailed expression by emphasizing symmetry, and adjusting the head-to-body proportion to be almost one-to-one. In this study, especially, I presume the unified form of sacred sculptures and Buddhist altars, without making a Buddhist altar like the rock-carved seated Avalokiteśvara statue at Bomunsa Temple, to be a key characteristic of modern Buddhist sculptures. Furthermore, I make newly clear that the six letters of Sanskrit carved on nimbus, which had been interpreted as a Six-Syllable Mantra, are a combination with Jeongbeopgye and Sabang Mantras. In addition, three iron rings driven on eaves rock were used as a reference point, and after construction they were used as a decoration for the Bodhisattva with hanging wind chimes.

The Functional and Genetic Defects of IFN-${\gamma}$ Receptor in the Patients with Tuberculosis (결핵환자에서 IFN-${\gamma}$ 수용체의 기능적 및 유전적 이상에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Gye-Young;Hwang, You-Jin;Lim, Young-Hee;An, Chang-Hyeok;Park, Jeong-Woong;Jeong, Seong-Hwan
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.52 no.5
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    • pp.497-505
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    • 2002
  • Background : INF-${\gamma}$ plays an important role in the host response to a mycobacterial infection. A complete IFN-${\gamma}$ receptor 1 deficiency is a life threatening condition because it renders patients highly susceptible to a mycobacterial infection. Several mutations in the IFN-${\gamma}$ receptor and STAT1 gene have been identified in the rare mycobacterial infections. These mutations have partial function of the IFN-${\gamma}$ receptor and similar pathologic features to clinical tuberculosis. Materials and Methods : The function of the IFN-${\gamma}$ receptor was evaluated in the patients with clinical tuberculosis. In addition, the DNA coding sequence of the IFNgR1 and STAT1 gene was also analyzed in disseminated tuberculosis patients who might have a defective IFN-${\gamma}$ receptor. Results : The cell surface expression levels of HLA-DR and CD64 in the PMBC after being stimulation with IFN-${\gamma}$ (100IU/ml, 1000IU/ml) were increased in both controls and patients. However, the rate of increase in both groups was similar. The production of TNF-${\alpha}$ in the response to stimulation with LPS was higher in the both groups ($850.7{\pm}687.8$ vs. $836.7{\pm}564.3$ pg/ml). Pretreatment with IFN-${\gamma}$ prior to LPS stimulation resulted in further increase in TNF-${\alpha}$ production between both groups ($2203.5{\pm}242.5$ vs. $2227.5{\pm}560.4$ pg/ml). However, the rate of the increase in TNF-${\alpha}$ production in the both groups was similar. The known mutations in the IFNgR1 and STAT1 coding sequences were not found in the genomic DNA of patients with disseminated tuberculosis. Conclusion : The functional and genetic defects of the IFN-${\gamma}$ receptor were not identified in clinical tuberculosis. This suggests the defective IFN-${\gamma}$ receptor that predispoe patients to a BCG or NTM infection can not alone account for the cases of clinical tuberculosis.

Genetic Alteration of Tumor Suppressor Gene and Microsatellite in Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer (비소세포폐암에서 종양억제유전자와 극소위성 변이에 관한 연구)

  • Shin, Tae-Rim;Hong, Young-Sook;Kim, Jhin-Gook;Chang, Jung-Hyun
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.453-465
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    • 2000
  • Background : Lung carcinogenesis is a multistage process involving alterations in multiple genes and diverse pathway. Mutational activation of oncogenes and inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, and subsequent increased genetic instability are the major genetic events. The p53 gene and FHIT gene as tumor suppressor genes contribute to the pathogenesis of lung cancer, evidenced by mutation, microsatellite instability(MI) and loss of heterozygosity(LOH). Methods : We analysed genetic mutations of p53 and FHIT gene in 29 surgical specimens of nonsmall cell lung cancer using PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism, DNA sequencing and RT-PCR. MI and LOH were analyzed in loci of D3S1285, D9S171, and TP53. Results : In 2 cases, point mutation of p53 gene was observed on exon 5. MI of 3 times and LOH of 14 times were observed in at least one locus. In terms of the location of microsatellite, D3S1285 as a marker of FH1T was observed in 5 cases out of 26 specimens; D9S171 as a marker of p16 in 5 out of 17; and TP53 as a marker of p53 in 7 out of 27. In view of histologic type, squamous cell carcinoma presented higher frequency of microsatellite alteration, compared to others. Mutation of FHIT gene was observed in 11 cases and 6 cases of those were point mutation as a silent substitution on exon 8. FHIT mRNA expression exhibited deletion on exon 6 to 9 in 4 cases among 15 specimens, presenting beta-actin normally. Conclusion : Our results show comparable frequency of genetic alteration in nonsmall cell lung cancer to previous studies of Western countries. Microsatellite analysis might have a role as a tumor marker especially in squamous cell carcinoma. Understanding molecular abnormalities involved in the pathogenesis could potentially lead to prevention, earlier diagnosis and the development of novel investigational approaches to the treatment of lung cancer.

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Prognostic Value of p53 Overexpression in Patients with Pathologic Stage I Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (제 1기 비소세포폐암 환자에서 p53 과발현과 예후의 관계)

  • Um, Sang-Won;Kim, Hojoong;Kwon, O Jung;Han, Joungho;Shim, Young Mog
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.65 no.6
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    • pp.487-494
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    • 2008
  • Background: Chromosome 17p allele losses and mutations of p53 gene are the most common genetic abnormalities in lung cancer. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the factors associated with p53 protein overexpression and to evaluate its prognostic value in patients with pathologic stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: This is a retrospective review for the patients who underwent surgical resection at Samsung Medical Center between Jan 2003 and Jun 2004. Immunohistochemical staining for p53 protein was performed on tumor tissues from patients with lung cancer. The p53 overexpression was evaluated in relation to age, sex, smoking history, histology and pathologic stage by univariate and multivariate analyses. The disease-free survival (DFS), disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier methods and the differences in DFS, DSS and OS were assessed by using the log-rank tests. Results: A total of 125 patients were included in the analysis and a median frequency of p53 expression in tumor tissue was 10%. The p53 overexpression (${\geq}10%$) was more common in squamous cell carcinoma (66%) than in adenocarcinoma (38%, p=0.002). The p53 overexpression was more common in pathologic stage IB (59%) than in IA (38%, p=0.002). Patients with p53-overexpressing tumor (27 years) smoked more years compared with those without it (20 years, p=0.032). Smoking history ${\geq}25$ pack-years was more common in patients with p53 overexpression (58%) than in those without it (38%, p=0.024). In the multivariate analysis, only histology was significantly associated with p53 overexpression. However, there were no significant differences of DFS, DSS and OS in relation to p53 status. Conclusion: The p53 overexpression was associated with histology, pathologic stage and smoking history in patients with pathologic stage I NSCLC. However, the p53 overexpression was not associated with patient's survival.