• Title, Summary, Keyword: exposure rate

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Estimating Exchange Rate Exposure over Various Return Horizons: Focusing on Major Countries in East Asia

  • Lee, Jeong Wook;Ahn, Sunghee;Kang, Sammo
    • East Asian Economic Review
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.469-491
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    • 2016
  • In this paper, we estimate the exchange rate exposure, indicating the effect of exchange rate movements on firm values, for a sample of 1,400 firms in seven East Asian countries. The exposure estimates based on various exchange rate variables, return horizons and a control variable are compared. A key result from our analysis is that the long term effect of exchange rate movements on firm values is greater than the short term effect. And we find very similar results from using other exchange rate variables such as the U.S. dollar exchange rate, etc. Second, we add exchange rate volatility as a control variable and find that the extent of exposure is not much changed. Third, we examine the changes in exposure to exchange rate volatility with an increase in return horizon. Consequently the ratio of firms with significant exposures increases with the return horizons. Interestingly, the increase of exposure with the return horizons is faster for exposure to volatility than for exposure to exchange rate itself. Taken as a whole, our findings suggest that the socalled "exposure puzzle" may be a matter of the methodology used to measure exposure.

Monitoring Method for an Ambient Gamma Exposure Rate and Its Measurement Analysis

  • Lee, Mo-Sung;Woo, Jong-Kwan
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.197-201
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    • 2006
  • Daily and seasonal variations of the ambient gamma ray exposure rates were measured by using a pressurized ion chamber from January 2003 to December 2005 in the CheongJu Regional Radiation Monitoring Post and the patterns of the distributions were studied. The annual average of the daily variation of the exposure rate was $\sim0.17{\mu}R/h$. The exposure rate was found to be maximum during 8:00 am to 9:00 am and minimum during 8:00 pm to 10:00 pm. For the annual data, the exposure rate was the minimum during the month of February. The exposure rate increased from February to mid-October (except during the period from May to July with no change) and decreased from October to February. The seasonal variation was found to be about $1{\mu}R/h$. Most of the measured values (96%) of the exposure rates fell under the normal distribution with a deviation of less than 4.8% and the remaining 4% had large fluctuations caused mainly by the rainfalls.

Noise Exposure Levels of Workplaces Exposed to Noise and Rate of Exceedance of Exposure Limits (소음 노출 사업장의 소음 노출수준과 노출기준 초과율 현황)

  • Kim, KyooSang;Sung, Jungmin;Kim, Eun-A
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.185-195
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    • 2020
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze noise exposure levels and the rate of exceedance of exposure limits in workplaces from a 2015 measurement of working environments according to area, industry, and scale of workplace and to determine changes compared to the past. Methods: Among the 408,875 measurements of noise in working environments from 27,030 workplaces in 2015, 16,359 workplaces that were linked to special health examination data were selected as the subjects of this study. The eight-hour corrected measurements and geometric mean values of the individual noise measurements of the workplaces were used to calculate noise exposure levels and the exceedance rate of exposure limits. Results: The average noise exposure level of the overall workplaces making up the subjects of this study was 83.6 dBA, and the exceedance rate of exposure limits was 15.1%. At least half of the noise measurements exceeded the exposure limits in 13.7% of the workplaces. Noise exposure levels were higher in the manufacturing industry and in smaller-scale workplaces. The exceedance rate of noise exposure limits was higher in the mining and manufacturing industries and in smaller-scale workplaces. Conclusions: Noise exposure has shown improvements compared to the past, but the exceedance rate of exposure limits was still high, and more than half of the workers were being exposed to noise of 85 dBA or higher. Therefore, it is necessary to make more active improvements in working environments in terms of noise exposure.

Calculation of Man-made Radiation Exposure Rate from NaI Spectrum (NaI 스펙트럼으로부터 인공방사선 조사선량의 계산)

  • Lee, M.S.
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.113-117
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    • 2001
  • The energy band method for NaI spectrum calculates only the exposure rate due to natural radiation because it calculates exposure rate using energy spectrum of $1300{\sim}3000keV$. However, the total energy method includes in its calculation the exposure rate due to man-made radiation because it uses the energy spectrum of $150{\sim}3400keV$. Therefore, the resulting difference of extracting the exposure rate calculated by the energy band method from the exposure rate calculated by the total energy method is apparently the exposure rate due to man-made radiation. In this study, we measured the NaI spectrum during the period of significant changes of the exposure rate in the area without a man-made radiation. As the results, we found the exposure rates calculated by those two methods are equal within the statistical variation of ${\pm}0.3{\mu}R\;h^{-1}$. Consequently, if the difference between the exposure rates calculated by the two methods exists, it may be due to the man-made radiation exposure rate.

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Initial Stage of Atmospheric Corrosion of Carbon and Weathering Steels in Thailand Climate

  • Nii, K.;Bhamornsut, C.;Chotimongkol, L.;Vutivat, E.;Nakkhuntod, R.;Jeenkhajohn, P.;Suphonlai, S.
    • Corrosion Science and Technology
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    • v.2 no.4
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    • pp.183-188
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    • 2003
  • Corrosion of carbon and weathering steels were evaluated under 3 environmental exposures in Thailand (urban, rural and marine) for a year. The seasonal study was designed to determine different corrosion mechanisms by 6 months of dry season and 6 months of rainy season in a year. The sheltered exposure racks were used to determine the washing effect of min. At each site, climatic and pollutants analyses were carried out. The present study showed that the difference in corrosion rates of carbon and weathering steels was not so distinguished in both rural (AIT) and urban (TISTR) environments. The corrosion rate of weathering steel was somewhat lower than that of carbon steel and the decreasing tendency of corrosion rate with time was slightly higher for weathering steel than for carbon steel. In marine (Rayong) environment, the corrosion rate was higher and the effect of wet and dry seasons was observed. The corrosion rate in 6 dry months was higher for direct exposure than for sheltered exposure. However, in 6 rainy months. the corrosion rate of sheltered exposure was higher than that of direct exposure. In direct exposure for I year, that is, the first 6 dry months and the next 6 rainy months, the corrosion rate decreased with time. but in sheltered exposure, the corrosion rate did not decrease with time. instead, increased in the next 6 rainy months. This indicated that the protect ive layer formed in the first 6 dry months could be destroyed by high deposition of chloride to r sheltered exposure in the next 6 rainy months; whereas the rust layer for direct exposure could be kept sound due to washing effect in rainy season, even though the deposition rate of chloride was almost the same for direct and sheltered exposures. In marine environment, the weathering steel showed higher corrosion resistance than carbon steel but its corrosion rate was higher than those in other environments.

Foreign Investors Response to the Foreign Exchange Rate Risk in the Korean Stock Markets (한국 주식시장에서 환위험에 대한 외국인 투자자의 반응)

  • Park, Jong-Won;Kwon, Taek-Ho;Lee, Woo-Baik
    • The Korean Journal of Financial Management
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.53-78
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    • 2008
  • Foreign investors who invest in the Korean stock markets are exposed to two kinds of foreign exchange rate risk, the economic exposure and the translation exposure. The former is the foreign exchange rate exposure in return generating process of the assets invested and the latter is the foreign exchange rate exposure in the translation of domestic return into foreign investors' currency. Domestic investors, however, are exposed only to foreign exchange rate exposure in the asset invested. This different situation on foreign exchange rate exposure between foreign investors and domestic investors can induce different response to exchange rate change by investor groups. Previous studies on foreign exchange rate exposure of Korean firms reported that quite a few Korean firms are exposed to foreign exchange risks and suggested to manage the foreign exchange risks. Also, many studies on the market segmentation showed that a market can be practically segmented according to the characteristics of investor groups. These studies support the hypothesis that the Korean stock market can be practically segmented by the foreign investors' attitude to the foreign exchange rate exposure. This study examines the response of both foreign investors and domestic investors to the foreign exchange rate exposures in Korean stock markets. Test results show that foreign investors increase their sell transactions when the foreign exchange rate exposure of the previous day is negative. This result can be possible when foreign investors attempt to actively manage the decrease in value of their assets due to rising of exchange rate. Analysis on the sell order data is also supportive to this interpretation. Foreign investors also increase their buy transactions when the foreign exchange rate exposure of the previous day is negative. This result can be possible when foreign investors use actively the relation between the increase in asset value and the translation gain due to declining of exchange rate. Analyses on buy order data, however, do not show the same result as the analyses on transaction data. This difference may come from the difference of information contained in transaction data and order data. In summary, the result of the paper supports the hypothesis that foreign investors response differently to foreign exchange rate exposure compared with domestic, Korean investors. Two groups do not show different response when exchange rate exposure is positive, i.e., as foreign exchange rate is increase (decrease), the asset value is increase (decrease). However, foreign investors' response is different from that of domestic investors when exchange rate exposure is negative, i.e., as foreign exchange rate is increase (decrease), the asset value is decrease (increase). These results mean that foreign investors and domestic investors are placed in different situations related to foreign exchange rate exposure, and these differences are reflected in the Korean stock markets. And domestic investors need to consider foreign investors' different attitude to the foreign exchange rate exposure when they analysis foreign investors' trading behavior.

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Comparative Estimation of Exposure Level and Health Risk Assessment of Highly Produced Pesticides to Agriculture Operators by Using Default Dermal Absorption Rate or Actual Measurement Values

  • Kim, Su-Hyeon;Lee, Chang-Hun;Kim, Ki-Hun;Jeong, Sang-Hee
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.199-206
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    • 2016
  • Pesticides are widely used to prevent loss of agricultural production but extensive exposure can induce health problems to pesticide operators. This study was performed to evaluate the health risk of highly produced pesticides used in fruit growing farm land by comparison of estimated exposure level with AOEL using KO-POEM program. AOEL was driven based on NOAEL of each pesticide evaluated by JMPR, EFSA or KRDA. In calculation of exposure level, types of formulation, dilution factors, spraying duration and motor type and exposure protection device were allocated according to actual condition of use. Dermal absorption rate was differently applied among EFSA default values (25% or 75%), general default value (10%) or real test result values to know the plausibility of default values and safety of pesticide to operators in outline. Twenty pesticide ingredients (fungicides and insecticides) were produced more than 30 tons per year, which were mancozeb, chlorothalonil, imidaclopirid and etc in order. Dermal absorption rates obtained from studies were various from 0.07 to 81% but mostly under 10%. The estimated exposure levels showed big differences more than 10 times higher when using EFSA default rate and up to 5 times higher when using general rate of 10% comparing using rates of test results. Mancozeb, chlorthalonil, diazinon and chlorpyrifos presented still higher exposure level than AOEL even when using test absorption rate from study, which suggests that re-evaluation of AOEL or dermal exposure absorption rate or strict management are required for health protection of operators who use those four pesticides in farm land.

Assessment for Ingredients and Amount of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure for Indoor Environment in an Institution for the Aged of Downtown (도심지역 노인복지시설 실내 환경에 대한 RF 전자파 노출량의 정성.정량 평가에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Jung-Hun;Kim, Nam;Hong, Seung-Cheol;Kim, Yoon-Shin;Choi, Sung-Ho
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.268-274
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    • 2006
  • In this study in order to evaluate the growth of RF propagation exposure rate generated according to the enhancement of its use, it is proposed for the ground to be able to examine and to contemplate the correlation between the human health and RF propagation exposure rate by measuring and analyzing the RF exposure source and exposure rate in an indoor environment. As a result of research, it is analyzed that the main exposure source of critically making effect in indoor environment is the frequency hand if radio broadcasting, mobile communication, wireless LAN, digital broadcasting, home appliance, etc., including the TV broadcasting. Among these, it is shown that the TV broadcasting and mobile communication band are the highest. And it is the concluded that RF exposure rate of the environmental sensitive equipment, like an institution for the aged, has lower possibility to exceed the human RF protection criteria by this evaluation.

Fracture toughness of high performance concrete subjected to elevated temperatures Part 2 The effects of heating rate, exposure time and cooling rate

  • Zhang, Binsheng;Cullen, Martin;Kilpatrick, Tony
    • Advances in concrete construction
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    • v.5 no.5
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    • pp.513-537
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    • 2017
  • In this study, the fracture toughness $K_{IC}$ of high performance concrete (HPC) was investigated by conducting three-point bending tests on a total of 240 notched beams of $500mm{\times}100mm{\times}100mm$ subjected to heating temperatures up to $450^{\circ}C$ with exposure times up to 16 hours and various heating and cooling rates. For a heating rate of $3^{\circ}C/min$, $K_{IC}$ for the hot concrete sustained a monotonic decrease trend with the increasing heating temperature and exposure time, from $1.389MN/m^{1.5}$ at room temperature to $0.942MN/m^{1.5}$ at $450^{\circ}C$ for 4-hour exposure time, $0.906MN/m^{1.5}$ for 8-hour exposure time and $0.866MN/m^{1.5}$ for 16-hour exposure time. For the cold concrete, $K_{IC}$ sustained a two-stage decrease trend, dropping slowly with the heating temperature up to $150^{\circ}C$ and then rapidly down to $0.869MN/m^{1.5}$ at $450^{\circ}C$ for 4-hour exposure time, $0.812MN/m^{1.5}$ for 8-hour exposure time and $0.771MN/m^{1.5}$ for 16-hour exposure time. In general, the $K_{IC}$ values for the hot concrete up to $200^{\circ}C$ were larger than those for the cold concrete, and an inverse trend was observed thereafter. The increase in heating rate slightly decreased $K_{IC}$, and at $450^{\circ}C$ $K_{IC}$ decreased from $0.893MN/m^{1.5}$ for $1^{\circ}C/min$ to $0.839MN/m^{1.5}$ for $10^{\circ}C/min$ for the hot concrete and from $0.792MN/m^{1.5}$ for $1^{\circ}C/min$ to $0.743MN/m^{1.5}$ for $10^{\circ}C/min$ for the cold concrete after an exposure time of 16 hours. The increase in cooling rate also slightly decreased $K_{IC}$, and at $450^{\circ}C$ $K_{IC}$ decreased from $0.771MN/m^{1.5}$ for slow cooling to $0.739MN/m^{1.5}$ for fast cooling after an exposure time of 16 hours. The fracture energy-based fracture toughness $K_{IC}$' was also assessed, and similar decrease trends with the heating temperature and exposure time existed for both hot and cold concretes. The relationships of two fracture toughness parameters with the weight loss and the modulus of rapture were also evaluated.

Effect of the early exposure of cover screws on the survival rate of implants (덮개 나사 조기 노출이 임플란트의 생존율에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Yong-Gun;Lee, Jae-Kwan;Chang, Beom-Seok;Um, Heung-Sik
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.879-889
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    • 2006
  • The early exposure of cover screws is a common complication of 2-stage implant technique. The exposure of cover screws between stage I and IT surgery may cause inflammation in the soft tissues surrounding the implants, and lead to peri-implantitis or marginal bone loss. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the early exposure of cover screws on implants placed using 2-stage technique. Two hundred and nineteen implants in 77 patients were examined for cumulative survival rate, radiographic marginal bone level change, cause and frequency of the early exposure. The results were as follows: 1. Twenty-five implants showed early exposure of cover screws with a frequency of 11.4%. 2. Cumulative survival rate of the implants with early cover screw exposure was 88.0%, and that of the implants without cover screw exposure was 96,9%. 3. At the time of stage IT surgery and 1 year after loading, the marginal bone loss was greater around the implants with early exposure of cover screws than around the implants without cover screw exposure(p <0.05), 4, There was no statistically significant difference in the frequency of the early exposure according to the implant diameter, gender, and smoking(p >0,05).