• Title, Summary, Keyword: exposure

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A Study on the Mixed Organic Solvent Dose and Subjective Symptoms of Direct and Indirect Bonding workers in Shoes Manufacturing Industrial (신발제조업체의 접착제 사용에 따른 직접·간접폭로 근로자들의 복합유기용제 폭로량과 자각증상 비교)

  • Byun, Jeong-Sik;Kim, Jeong-Yun;Cho, Young-Chae;Kim, Dong-Hyun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.48-58
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    • 1995
  • This study was performed to find out the exposure level of mixed organic solvents, excretion of urinary hippuricacid and subjective symptoms according to the exposure of organic solvents of female workers who works on 5 shoes manufacturing industries in Taejon City from 24, september to 20, october 1993. The studied groups were divided into 3 groups that were consist of direct exposure group(48 workers), indirect exposure group(49 workers) and non-exposure group(68 workers) to the organic solvents. The exposure levels of toluene of direct exposure group which $89.86{\pm}56.20ppm$ had higher than that of indirect exposure group which had $40.23{\pm}47.21ppm$. In the exposure level of mixed organic solvent(R-value), direct exposure group was $2.84{\pm}1.53$ and exceeded approximatly 3 times the R-value. Whereas, indirect exposure group was not exceeded the R-value as $0.80{\pm}0.61$. In the excretion level of urinary hippuric acid, direct exposure group was $1.78{\pm}1.25g/l$, indirect exposure group was $1.22{\pm}0.93g/l$ and non-exposure group was $0.51{\pm}0.18g/l$ respectively. Therefore both direct exposure group and indirect exposure group were significantly higher than non-exposure group(P<0.01). In the correlation between toluene levels and urinary hippuric acid level, the direct exposure group had positive correlation(R=0.8309, P<0.01), also indirect exposure group had positive correlation(R=0.5859, P<0.05) and also in the correlation between the R value of mixed organic solvents and the urinary hippuric acid levels, the direct exposure group had positive correlation(R=0.4492, P<0.05), and indirect exposure group had ositive correlation(R=0.7911, P<0.01). In the complain rates of the worker's subjective symptoms at work, both direct exposure group and indirect exposure group were higher than non-exposure group(P<0.05, P<0.01). But the sujective symptoms of "floating sensation" of direct exposure group had significantly higher than indirect exposure group. In the percent of subjective symptoms complaints during the worker's daily life, both direct exposure group and indirect exposure group had generally more statistical significance than nonexposure group(P<0.01), direct exposure group had not statistical significant difference from indirect exposure group. As the results mentioned above, it has been analysed that the indirect at the adjacent manufaturing process are exposed to the considerable amount of solvent. Therefore, I think that there should be the betterment of surrounding through the complete working environment management to the occurrence source of the organic solvent, the changes of health management system to the indirect-exposed workers, and the systematic management of the special medical examination and the like.

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Occupational Exposure Assessment for Benzene Using Exposure Models (ECETOC TRA and Stoffenmanager) and Applicability Evaluation of Exposure Models in K-REACH (노출 모델의 화평법 적용성: ECETOC TRA와 Stoffenmanager Tier 1 노출 모델을 활용한 벤젠의 작업자 노출 평가)

  • Moon, Joonsik;Ock, Jeongwon;Jung, Uk-Hyun;Ra, Jin-Sung;Kim, Ki-Tae
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.44 no.5
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    • pp.460-467
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    • 2018
  • Objectives: The objectives of this study are to estimate the inhalation exposure level of benzene for workers using Tier 1 exposure models ECETOC TRA (European Center for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals Target Risk Assessment) and Stoffenmanager, and to investigate their reliability for exposure assessment in K-REACH. Methods: Two exposure scenarios, 'manufacture of benzene' and 'use as solvents,' were developed for assessment of workers' exposure to benzene. The Process Category (PROC) for ECETOC TRA was collected from the European Chemical Agency (ECHA) registration dossier, and the Activity for Stoffenmanager was converted from PROC using translation of exposure models (TREXMO). The information related to exposure, such as working duration, Respiratory Protective Equipment (RPE), Local Exhaust Ventilation (LEV), and Risk Management Measure (RMM) were classified into high, medium, and low exposure conditions. The risk was determined by the ratio of the estimated exposure and occupational exposure limits of benzene. Results: Under high exposure conditions, the worker exposure level calculated from all PROCs and Activities exceeded the risk level, with the exception of PROC 1 and Activity 1. In the medium exposure condition, PROC 8a, 8b, and 9 and Activity 3, 7, and 8 all exceeded the risk, whereas in the low condition, all PROCs and Activities were determined to be safe. As a result, action corresponding with the low exposure condition is required to reduce the risk of exposure among workers in workplaces where benzene is manufactured or used as a solvent. In addition, the predicted exposure levels derived from the exposure models were lower than measured levels. The exposure levels estimated from Stoffenmanager were more conservative than those from ECETOC TRA. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the feasibility of exposure models for exposure assessment through the example of occupational inhalation exposure assessment for benzene. For more active utilization of exposure models in K-REACH, the exact application of collected information and accurate interpretation of obtained results are necessary.

Characterization of Task-weighted Agricultural Dust Exposure of Vineyard Workers

  • Lee, Ki-Young
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.264-270
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    • 2010
  • Agricultural workers are often exposed to high levels of dust during field operations. A systematic exposure assessment of annual task-weighted exposure has not been thoroughly examined. The occupational dust exposure in two wine grape vineyards was measured. Exposure levels to total and respirable dust were determined for a 1-year cycle of work. An operation profile including the frequency of tasks was established. The means of total and respirable dust exposure were $1.08\;mg/m^3$ and $0.07\;mg/m^3$, respectively. Based on the exposure for each task and the task frequency, task-weighted mean exposures to total and respirable dust were estimated as $1.115\;mg/m^3$ and $0.079\;mg/m^3$, respectively. The task-weighted exposure was significantly represented by three operations and could be attributed to the exposure frequency rather than the exposure intensity of operations. The measurement of a few of the most frequent tasks may be an alternative method of estimating task-weighted exposure. Agricultural dust exposure can be significantly reduced by targeting those tasks most important to task-weighted dust exposure.

OccIDEAS: An Innovative Tool to Assess Past Asbestos Exposure in the Australian Mesothelioma Registry

  • MacFarlane, Ewan;Benke, Geza;Sim, Malcolm R.;Fritschi, Lin
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.71-76
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    • 2012
  • Malignant mesothelioma is an uncommon but rapidly fatal disease for which the principal aetiological agent is exposure to asbestos. Mesothelioma is of particular significance in Australia where asbestos use was very widespread from the 1950s until the 1980s. Exposure to asbestos includes occupational exposure associated with working with asbestos or in workplaces where asbestos is used and also 'take-home' exposure of family members of asbestos exposed workers. Asbestos exposure may also be nonoccupational, occurring as a consequence of using asbestos products in non-occupational contexts and passive exposure is also possible, such as exposure to asbestos products in the built environment or proximity to an environmental source of exposure, for example an asbestos production plant. The extremely long latency period for this disease makes exposure assessment problematic in the context of a mesothelioma registry. OccIDEAS, a recently developed online tool for retrospective exposure assessment, has been adapted for use in the Australian Mesothelioma Registry (AMR) to enable systematic retrospective exposure assessment of consenting cases. Twelve occupational questionnaire modules and one non-occupational module have been developed for the AMR, which form the basis of structured interviews using OccIDEAS, which also stores collected data and provides a framework for generating metrics of exposure.

Model Algorithms for Estimates of Inhalation Exposure and Comparison between Exposure Estimates from Each Model (흡입 노출 모델 알고리즘의 구성과 시나리오 노출량 비교)

  • Park, Jihoon;Yoon, Chungsik
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.358-367
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    • 2019
  • Objectives: This study aimed to review model algorithms and input parameters applied to some exposure models and to compare the simulated estimates using an exposure scenario from each model. Methods: A total of five exposure models which can estimate inhalation exposure were selected; the Korea Ministry of Environment(KMOE) exposure model, European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals Targeted Risk Assessment(ECETOC TRA), SprayExpo, and ConsExpo model. Algorithms and input parameters for exposure estimation were reviewed and the exposure scenario was used for comparing the modeled estimates. Results: Algorithms in each model commonly consist of the function combining physicochemical properties, use characteristics, user exposure factors, and environmental factors. The outputs including air concentration ($mg/m^3$) and inhaled dose(mg/kg/day) are estimated applying input parameters with the common factors to the algorithm. In particular, the input parameters needed to estimate are complicated among the models and models need more individual input parameters in addition to common factors. In case of CEM, it can be obtained more detailed exposure estimates separating user's breathing zone(near-field) and those at influencing zone(far-field) by two-box model. The modeled exposure estimates using the exposure scenario were similar between the models; they were ranged from 0.82 to $1.38mg/m^3$ for concentration and from 0.015 to 0.180 mg/kg/day for inhaled dose, respectively. Conclusions: Modeling technique can be used for a useful tool in the process of exposure assessment if the exposure data are scarce, but it is necessary to consider proper input parameters and exposure scenario which can affect the real exposure conditions.

Estimating Human Exposure to Benzo(a)pyrene through Multimedia/Multiroute Exposure Scenario (다매체/다경로 노출을 고려한 benzo(a)pyrene의 총 인체 노출량 예측)

  • Moon Ji Young;Yang Ji Yeon;Lim Young Wook;Park Seong Eun;Shin Dong Chun
    • Environmental health and toxicology
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.255-269
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    • 2003
  • The objective of this study was to estimate human exposure to benzo (a)pyrene through multimedia/multi-pathway exposure scenario. The human exposure scenario for benzo(a)pyrene was consisted of 12 multiple exposure pathways, and the multipathway human exposure model based on this scenario constituted. In this study, the multipathway human exposure model was used to estimate the concentrations in the exposure contact media, human intake factors and lifetime average daily dose (LAD $D_{model}$) of benzo(a)pyrene in the environment. Sensitivity analysis was performed to identify the important parameters and Monte-Carlo simulation was undertaken to examine the uncertainty of the model. The total LAD $D_{model}$ was estimated to be 5.52${\times}$10$^{-7}$ mg/kg-day (2.06${\times}$10$^{-7}$ -8.65${\times}$10$^{-7}$ mg/kg-day) using the multipathway human exposure model. The inhalation dose accounted for 78% of the total LADD, whereas ingestion and dermal contact intake accounted for 20.2% and 1.8% of the total exposure, respectively. Based on the sensitivity analysis, the most significant contributing input parameter was benzo (a)pyrene concentration of ambient air. Consequently, exposure via inhalation in outdoor/indoor air was the highest compared with the exposure via other medium/pathways.

Consideration of Nano-Measurement Strategy (나노물질의 측정전략의 주요 쟁점)

  • Yoon, Chung-Sik
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.73-79
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    • 2011
  • The growing interest in nanotechnology has resulted in increasing concern and a number of published environmental and workplace measurements for assessing occupational exposure to engineered nanomaterials. However, the amount of previous exposure data remains limited. Furthermore the data available was collected with extensive variation in terms of exposure measurement strategy, which limits the ability to pool the data in the future. In response, this paper reviewed several pertinent issues related to exposure measurement strategy to suggest a harmonized measurement strategy which would make exposure data more useful in the future, e.g. correlation between exposure metrics, relationship between activity and exposure, task-based or shift-based assessment, background concentration, limitation of personal exposure monitoring and other determinants of exposure/modeling. An improved sampling strategy for nanomaterial exposure assessment should be considered in order to maximize the use of the data from various real time monitoring instruments.

Radiation Exposure Analysis of Female Nuclear Medicine Radiation Workers (여성 핵의학 방사선종사자의 관련 피폭요인 분석)

  • Lee, Juyoung;Kim, Ji-Hyeon;Park, Hoon-Hee
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.86-93
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    • 2017
  • Purpose In this study, radiation workers who work in nuclear medicine department were analyzed to find the cause of differences of radiation exposure from General Characteristic, Knowledge, Recognition and Conduct, especially females working on nuclear medicine radiation, in order to pave the way for positive defense against radiation exposure. Materials and Methods The subjects were 106 radiation workers who were divided into two groups of sixty-four males and forty-two females answered questions about their General Characteristic, Knowledge, Recognition, Conduct, and radiation exposure dose which was measured by TLD (Thermo Luminescence Dosimeter). Results The results of the analysis revealed that as the higher score of knowledge and conduct was shown, the radiation exposure decreased in female groups, and as the higher score of conduct was shown, the radiation exposure decreased in male groups. In the correlation analysis of female groups, the non-experienced in pregnancy showed decreasing amount of radiation exposure as the score of knowledge and conduct was higher and the experienced in pregnancy showed decreasing amount of radiation exposure as the score of recognition and conduct was higher. In the regression analysis on related factors of radiation exposure dose of nuclear medicine radiation workers, the gender caused the meaningful result and the amount of radiation exposure of female groups compared to male groups. In the regression analysis on related factors of radiation exposure dose of female groups, the factor of conduct showed a meaningful result and the amount of radiation exposure of the experienced in pregnancy was lower compared to the non-experienced. Conclusion The conclusion of this study revealed that radiation exposure of female groups was lower than that of male groups. Therefore, male groups need to more actively defend themselves against radiation exposure. Among the female groups, the experienced in pregnancy who have an active defense tendency showed a lower radiation exposure. Thus, those who have never been pregnant need to have a more active defensive conduct for the future possibility of pregnancy.

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Overview of the Development of the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook

  • Jang, Jae-Yeon;Jo, Soo-Nam;Kim, So-Yeon;Myung, Hyung-Nam
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2014
  • A set of exposure factors that reflects the characteristics of individual behavior capable of influencing exposure is essential for risk and exposure assessment. In 2007, the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook was, therefore, issued, driven by the need to develop reliable exposure factors representing the Korean population. The purpose of this study was to overview the development process of the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook and major recommended exposure values for the Korean population to allow information exchanges and comparison of recommended values among nations. The researchers reviewed the domestic data that could be used in the development of exposure factors, confirmed a knowledge gap, and set a priority of development by phases. A methodology to measure exposure factors was established to develop measuring techniques and test their validity. Data were processed or a survey was conducted according to the availability of data. The study thus produced recommended values for 24 exposure factors grouped by general exposure factors, food ingestion factors, and activity factors by setting up a database of exposure factors and carrying out statistical analysis. The study has significantly contributed to reducing the potential uncertainty of the risk and exposure assessment derived by the application of foreign data or research findings lacking representativeness or grounds by developing a set of exposure factors reflecting the characteristics of the Korean people. It will be necessary to conduct revisions in light of the changing statistical values of national data and the exposure factors based on Korean characteristics.

Review of Exposure Assessment to Obtain Exposure Factors of Consumer Products (소비 생활용품의 노출계수 조사 방법의 고찰)

  • Park, Ji Young;Lee, Kiyoung;Shin, Ho-Sang;Yang, Wonho
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.532-540
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    • 2013
  • Background: Exposure factors for consumer products have been developed since the 1980s. Such exposure factors are important in risk assessment. Since the exposure/use patterns of consumer products in a country may reflect its respective cultural, meteorological, and socio-economic circumstances, unique Korean exposure factors for consumer products are needed. Such exposure factors are required for newly-enacted chemical regulations in Korea. For this review, published papers and survey reports on exposure factors of consumer products were examined for their assessment methodologies. Results: Investigation into exposure factors for consumer products used a variety of methods: home visit, online, telephone, and mail surveys using questionnaires; face to face interviews; modeling using a constructed database; and direct measurement. To collect more accurate exposure information or to check the reliability of the sampling method, some studies were repeated using the same questionnaire, in-home observation, direct measurement of usage, and videotaping. In Korea, nationwide exposure surveys were conducted five times over five years to obtain Korean exposure factors. However, with the exception of the $5^{th}$-year study, the surveys were online questionnaires and only the $5^{th}$-year study validated the accuracy of exposure information by re-visits and direct measurement. Conclusion: Accurate exposure factors are an essential part of risk assessment to assure safe use of consumer products. For better and safer management of consumer products, accurate exposure factors in Korea should be assessed for various exposure pathways.