• Title, Summary, Keyword: experimental substructure

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Shaking Table Testing Method Considering the Dynamic Soil-Structure Interaction (건물과 지반의 동적상호작용을 고려한 진동대 실험법에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Sung-Kyung;Lee, Sang-Hyun;Chung, Lang
    • Proceedings of the Korean Geotechical Society Conference
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    • pp.184-191
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    • 2010
  • This paper proposes the shaking table testing method for replicating the dynamic behavior of soil-structure interaction (SSI) system, without any physical soil model and only using superstructure model. Applying original SSI system to the substructure method produces two substructures; superstructure and soil model corresponding to experimental and numerical substructures, respectively. Interaction force acting on interface between the two substructures is observed from measuring the accelerations of superstructure, and the interface acceleration or velocity, which is the needed motion for replicating the dynamic behavior of original SSI system, is calculated from the numerical substructure reflecting the dynamic soil stiffness of soil model. Superstructure is excited by the shaking table with the motion of interface acceleration or velocity. Analyzing experimental results in time and frequency domains show the applicability the proposed methodologies to the shaking table test considering dynamic soil-structure interaction.

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Compensation techniques for experimental errors in real-time hybrid simulation using shake tables

  • Nakata, Narutoshi;Stehman, Matthew
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.1055-1079
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    • 2014
  • Substructure shake table testing is a class of real-time hybrid simulation (RTHS). It combines shake table tests of substructures with real-time computational simulation of the remaining part of the structure to assess dynamic response of the entire structure. Unlike in the conventional hybrid simulation, substructure shake table testing imposes acceleration compatibilities at substructure boundaries. However, acceleration tracking of shake tables is extremely challenging, and it is not possible to produce perfect acceleration tracking without time delay. If responses of the experimental substructure have high correlation with ground accelerations, response errors are inevitably induced by the erroneous input acceleration. Feeding the erroneous responses into the RTHS procedure will deteriorate the simulation results. This study presents a set of techniques to enable reliable substructure shake table testing. The developed techniques include compensation techniques for errors induced by imperfect input acceleration of shake tables, model-based actuator delay compensation with state observer, and force correction to eliminate process and measurement noises. These techniques are experimentally investigated through RTHS using a uni-axial shake table and three-story steel frame structure at the Johns Hopkins University. The simulation results showed that substructure shake table testing with the developed compensation techniques provides an accurate and reliable means to simulate the dynamic responses of the entire structure under earthquake excitations.

Spatial substructure hybrid simulation tests of high-strength steel composite Y-eccentrically braced frames

  • Li, Tengfei;Su, Mingzhou;Sui, Yan
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.715-732
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    • 2020
  • High-strength steel composite Y-eccentrically braced frame (Y-HSS-EBF) is a novel structural system. In this study, the spatial substructure hybrid simulation test (SHST) method is used to further study the seismic performance of Y-HSS-EBF. Firstly, based on the cyclic loading tests of two single-story single-span Y-HSS-EBF planar specimens, a finite element model in OpenSees was verified to provide a reference for the numerical substructure analysis model for the later SHST. Then, the SHST was carried out on the OpenFresco test platform. A three-story spatial Y-HSS-EBF model was taken as the prototype, the top story was taken as the experimental substructure, and the remaining two stories were taken as the numerical substructure to be simulated in OpenSees. According to the test results, the validity of the SHST was verified, and the main seismic performance indexes of the SHST model were analyzed. The results show that, the SHST based on the OpenFresco platform has good stability and accuracy, and the results of the SHST agree well with the global numerical model of the structure. Under strong seismic action, the plastic deformation of Y-HSS-EBF mainly occurs in the shear link, and the beam, beam-columns and braces can basically remain in the elastic state, which is conducive to post-earthquake repair.

Development, implementation and verification of a user configurable platform for real-time hybrid simulation

  • Ashasi-Sorkhabi, Ali;Mercan, Oya
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.1151-1172
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    • 2014
  • This paper presents a user programmable computational/control platform developed to conduct real-time hybrid simulation (RTHS). The architecture of this platform is based on the integration of a real-time controller and a field programmable gate array (FPGA).This not only enables the user to apply user-defined control laws to control the experimental substructures, but also provides ample computational resources to run the integration algorithm and analytical substructure state determination in real-time. In this platform the need for SCRAMNet as the communication device between real-time and servo-control workstations has been eliminated which was a critical component in several former RTHS platforms. The accuracy of the servo-hydraulic actuator displacement control, where the control tasks get executed on the FPGA was verified using single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) and 2 degrees-of-freedom (2DOF) experimental substructures. Finally, the functionality of the proposed system as a robust and reliable RTHS platform for performance evaluation of structural systems was validated by conducting real-time hybrid simulation of a three story nonlinear structure with SDOF and 2DOF experimental substructures. Also, tracking indicators were employed to assess the accuracy of the results.

Parametric Study on Geogrid-Reinforced Track Substructure

  • Oh, Jeongho
    • International Journal of Railway
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.59-63
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the effectiveness of geogrid for conventional ballasted track and asphalt concrete underlayment track using PLAXIS finite element program. Geogrid element was modeled at various locations that include subballast/subgrade, subballast/ballast interfaces, middle of the ballast, and one-third depth of the ballast. The results revealed that the effectiveness of geogrid reinforcement appeared to be larger for ballasted track structure compared to asphalt concrete underlayment track. Particularly, in case of installing geogrid at one-third depth of ballast layer in a conventional ballasted track, the most effectiveness of geogrid reinforcement was achieved. The influence of geogrid axial stiffness on track substructure response was not clear to conclude. Further validations using a discrete element method along with experimental investigation are considered as a future study. The effect of asphalt concrete layer modulus was evaluated. The results exhibited that higher layer modulus seems to be effective in controlling displacement and strain of track substructure. However it also yields slightly higher stresses within track substructure. It infers that further validations are required to come up with optimum asphalt concrete mixture design to meet economical and functional criteria.

Substructure flow analysis and experiments of high speed train for researching the mechanism of ballast dispersion (자갈비산 메커니즘 규명을 위한 고속철도차량 하부 유동장 수치 해석 및 시험)

  • Kwon Hyeok-Bin;Park Choon-Soo;Kang Hyung-Min;Lee Dong-Ho;Lee Do-Hyung
    • Proceedings of the KSR Conference
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    • pp.275-280
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    • 2003
  • The Korean high speed train is designed to run at very high speed such as 350km/h. At this time, ballast in roadbed is dispersed by high speed air flow and this hits the substructure of the train. It becomes the factor of damaging the train. To investigate the main factor and possibility of ballast dispersion, the substructure flow is measured by Kiel-Probe Array System at G7 train experiment. And the wind tunnel experiment is performed with ballast in our research. Also CFD analysis is performed by assuming that the flow field is 2D and using simple shaped cross-tie and flat substructure of the train. By comparing the experimental results and CFD analysis, the accuracy of the analysis is checked. They will become the basic research data for the analysis and optimization of train substructure to prevent the ballast dispersion.

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Substructure based structural damage detection with limited input and output measurements

  • Lei, Y.;Liu, C.;Jiang, Y.Q.;Mao, Y.K.
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.619-640
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    • 2013
  • It is highly desirable to explore efficient algorithms for detecting structural damage of large size structural systems with limited input and output measurements. In this paper, a new structural damage detection algorithm based on substructure approach is proposed for large size structural systems with limited input and output measurements. Inter-connection effect between adjacent substructures is treated as 'additional unknown inputs' to substructures. Extended state vector of each substructure and its unknown excitations are estimated by sequential extended Kalman estimator and least-squares estimation, respectively. It is shown that the 'additional unknown inputs' can be estimated by the algorithm without the measurements on the substructure interface DOFs, which is superior to previous substructural identification approaches. Also, structural parameters and unknown excitation are estimated in a sequential manner, which simplifies the identification problem compared with other existing work. Structural damage can be detected from the degradation of the identified substructural element stiffness values. The performances of the proposed algorithm are demonstrated by several numerical examples and a lab experiment. Measurement noise effect is considered. Both the simulation results and experimental data validate that the proposed algorithm is viable for structural damage detection of large size structural systems with limited input and output measurements.

Development and Application of Cone Penetrometer with Impact Penetration Rod for Evaluation of Track Substructure (철도궤도 하부구조물 평가를 위한 타격식 관입 롯드가 체결된 콘 관입기의 개발 및 적용)

  • Hong, Wontaek;Byun, Yonghoon;Kim, Sangyeob;Choi, Chanyong;Lee, Jongsub
    • Journal of the Korean Geoenvironmental Society
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.45-52
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    • 2015
  • To minimize the cost of maintenance, repair and over-design of track substructure, an accurate evaluation of strength and stiffness of the track substructure is necessary. In this study, a cone penetrometer with impact penetration rod (CPI) is developed for the evaluation of track substructure. For applicability test, the chamber and field tests were performed. As the experimental results of the CPI, dynamic cone penetration endex (DCPI), cone tip resistance ($q_c$), friction resistance ($f_s$) and friction ratio (Fr) were obtained. In the chamber test, the experimental results show reasonable values for the simulated track substructure. In the field test, the CPI clearly detects the interface between the ballast and the subgrade. Also, discontinuous layers are detected in the subgrade. It is expected that the developed CPI may be an effective tool for the evaluation of track substructure by evaluating the ballast layer by dynamic penetration and the subgrade by static penetration of the inner rod.

A Suggestion of Method to Remove Bias Error of the FRF Obtained by FFT Analyzer - Application of TFS - (계측기에서 얻어진 주파수 응답 함수의 오차 제거 방안 - 전달함수 합성법에의 응용 -)

  • 김승엽;정의봉;서영수
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Noise and Vibration Engineering Conference
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    • pp.408-413
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    • 2003
  • The frequency response function(FRF) of each substructure is used for the transfer function synthesis method(TFS). The dynamic characteristics of the full system are obtained by synthesizing FRFs of each substructure. The validation of TFS depends on accuracy for FRF of each substructure. Impact hammer testing Is widely used to obtain the modal characteristics of structures However. the FRF obtained from impact hammer testing contains bias errors, such as finite record length error and leakage error of which characteristic depends on data acquisition time which we call record length. In this paper, a method to remove hose errors is proposed so as to enhance results of TFS. Numerical and experimental examples show that the FRF of full structure can be predicted nearly exactly by the method proposed in this paper.

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