• Title/Summary/Keyword: exotic weed

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Studies on Ecological Characteristics and Control of Exotic Weeds 1. Distribution and ecological characteristics of exotic weeds in forage crop field (주요 외래잡초의 생태적 특성 및 방제에 관한 연구 1. 조사료 포장에 발생하는 주요 외래잡초의 분포 및 생태적 특성)

  • 박근제;윤세형;이종경;김영진
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.97-102
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    • 2001
  • This study was carried out to survey the weed distributions in 6 areas(Suwon, Seonghwan, Seosan, Taekwanryeong, Namwon and Yeongam) and to investigate the ecological characteristics of exotic weeds from 1997 to 1999. Total 44 species in 15 families of exotic weds were observed in grassland and forage crop field. Among them 4 species in 1 family were monocotyledonous and 40 species in 14 families were dicotyledonous weeds. Most common species among exotic weeds examined in this study were Rumex acetosella, Rumex crispus. Chenopodium album, Abutilon theophrasti, Amaranthus retroflexus, Polygonum orientale etc. Inedible weeds with hairs, prickles, fetor or poison were Solanum carolinense Xanthium strumarium, Datura stramnium, Erechtites hieracifolia, Anthemis cotula, Phytolaca americana etc. The relative density of Phytolaca americana increased with decreament of soil pH and content of available phosphate, and that of Solanum carolinense increased with decreament of soil pH and increament of available phosphate. Most of exotic weed seeds germinated well under light condition with $25~30^{\circ}C$, and some of those were hard or dormant seed.

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Exotic Weed Image Recognition System Based on ResNeXt Model (ResNeXt 모델 기반의 외래잡초 영상 판별 시스템)

  • Kim, Min-Soo;Lee, Gi Yong;Kim, Hyoung-Gook
    • Journal of Korea Multimedia Society
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.745-752
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    • 2021
  • In this paper, we propose a system that recognizes weed images using a classifier based on ResNeXt model. On the server of the proposed system, the ResNeXt model extracts the fine features of the weed images sent from the user and classifies it as one of the most similar weeds out of 21 species. And the classification result is delivered to the client and displayed on the smartphone screen through the application. The experimental results show that the proposed weed recognition system based on ResNeXt model is superior to existing methods and can be effectively applied in the real-world agriculture field.

Distribution of Exotic Weeds on Upland Crop Field in Gyeonggi-do (경기도 밭의 외래잡초 분포)

  • Kim, Chang-Seok;Lee, In-Yong;Lee, Jeong-Ran;Hong, Sun-Hee;Oh, Young-Ju
    • Weed & Turfgrass Science
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.284-291
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    • 2014
  • We surveyed the distribution of exotic weeds in the 350 upland crop fields of Gyeonggi-do. The exotic weeds were summarized as 78 taxa including 19 families, 52 genera, 74 species and 4 varieties. Among the total exotic weeds, the summer annuals were 48.7%, the winter annuals 28.2%, and the perennials 23.1%. Compositae was dominant family (32%), followed by Gramineae (8%), Polygonaceae (8%) and Malvaceae (7%). Dominant exotic weeds in northern Gyeonggi-do were Amaranthus lividus, Ambrosia trifida, Chenopodium album, Bidens frondosa and Erigeron Canadensis, and in southern Gyeonggi-do were Chenopodium album, Erigeron Canadensis, Erigeron annuus, Taraxacum officinale and Galinsoga ciliate. The most dominant exotic weeds in the Gyeonggi-do were Chenopodium album, followed by Amaranthus blitum, Erigeron canadensis. Canonical correspondence analysis for investigation of correlation between exotic weeds occurred in northern and southern Gyeonggi-do showed that the exotic weeds in northern Gyeonggi-do were more diverse then in southern Gyeonggi-do. This information could be useful for establishment of exotic weed control methods in Gyeonggi-do.

Spreading and Distribution of Exotic Weed Ammannia coccinea in Korea (외래잡초 미국좀부처꽃(Ammannia coccinea)의 확산과 생육지 특성)

  • Hwang, Sunmin;Kil, Jihyon;Kim, Youngha;Kim, Seungryul
    • Weed & Turfgrass Science
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.292-298
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    • 2014
  • Purple ammannia (Ammannia coccinea Rottb.) is an exotic weed originated from North America. It was known to be a noxious weed in a rice paddy field for the competition with rice. We investigated its distribution and habitat types in Korea to obtain basic data for the management plan of this species. Although purple ammannia is currently not a dominant species in natural habitats, its nationwide distribution was found in our study. We categorized the types of its habitats as margins of rice paddies, abandoned paddy fields, riverine wetlands and reservoirs. Particularly, purple ammannia plants were frequently located along banks of irrigation channels that ran through rice paddies and surrounding wetlands. Because they mainly occurred along the direction of water flow, we considered that the plants have spread along water courses. A total of 69 vascular plant taxa was identified at the habitats of purple ammannia. The largest group of life form among purple ammannia population was therophytes, which indicates that purple ammannia mostly grow in the disturbed habitats.

Distribution of Exotic Weeds on Crop Fields in Jeju-do (제주도 밭의 외래잡초 분포)

  • Kim, Chang-Seok;Chung, Young-Jae;Lee, In-Yong;Lee, Jeong-ran;Song, Hee-Kun;Oh, Young-Ju
    • Weed & Turfgrass Science
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.236-242
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    • 2015
  • We surveyed the distribution of exotic weeds in the 141 crop fields of Jeju island. The exotic weeds were summarized as 66 taxa including 18 families, 50 genera, 64 species and 2 varieties. In winter crop fields there were 45 species of exotic seeds in 18 families, in summer crop fields 50 species in 16 families, and in perennial crop fields 39 species in 17 families. Total exotic weeds were classified to 39.4% of summer annuals, 36.4% of winter annuals, 7.6% of summer and winter annuals, and 16.7% of perennials. The ratio of summer annuals were high in the summer crop fields. Compositae was dominant family, followed by Gramineae, Malvaceae and Solanaceae. Malvaceae did not appear in perennial crop fields. Dominant exotic weeds in winter crop fields were Chenopodium album, Amaranthus viridis, Senecio vulgaris and Coronopus didymus, in summer crop fields, Chenopodium album, Amaranthus viridis, Senecio vulgaris and Sonchus oleraceus and in perennial crop fields, Conyza sumatrensis, Gnaphalium calviceps and Senecio vulgaris. The dominant exotic weeds in the crop fields of Jeju island were Chenopodium album, followed by Amaranthus viridis, Senecio vulgaris, and Conyza sumatrensis. This information could be useful for establishment of exotic weed control methods in Jeju island.

Differences in Emergence and Growth of an Exotic Weed Quamoclit coccinea Moench under Different Environment Conditions (환경조건에 따른 외래잡초 둥근잎유홍초의 출현과 생육 차이)

  • Jang, Se Ji;Lee, In-Yong;Kuk, Yong In
    • Weed & Turfgrass Science
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.111-119
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    • 2018
  • This study was carried out to investigate the differences in germination and growth of Quamoclit coccinea Moench under various temperatures, seeding depths, and levels of shading and soil moisture for effective weed management. Seed dormancy of Q. coccinea Moench was over 1 year; best results were obtained when seeds were soaked in sulfuric acid for 15 minutes in order to break the dormancy. Germination rates of Q. coccinea Moench ranged from 69 to 73% at $25-35^{\circ}C$ and 26% at $15^{\circ}C$. The germination rates ranged from 70-84% at 2, 3, 5, 7, and 8 cm of seeding depths. In addition, the germination rates were 7% and 13% at 12 cm and 15 cm of seeding depths, respectively, and showed normal growth at the both seeding depths. Q. coccinea Moench showed a high germination rate regardless of shading levels, but shoot fresh weight varied depending on the level of shading as follows: 20%>no shading=shading 35%>shading 50%>shading 75%=shading 90%. Q. coccinea Moench did not germinate when soil had a saturation rate of either 30% or 100%. However, 60-83% of seeds germinated with optimal growth when soil had saturation rates of 60% and 80%.

Studies on Ecological Characteristics and Control of Exotic Weeds 2. Introduction route and control of exotic weeds in forage crop field (주요 외래잡초의 생태적 특성 및 방제에 관한 연구 2. 조사료 포장에 발생하는 주요 외래잡초의 유입경로 및 방제)

  • 박근제;윤세형;이종경;김영진
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.103-108
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    • 2001
  • This study was carried out to investigate the introduced route of exotic weeds and the effects of herbicide treatment. Herbicide trial was arranged as a completely randomized block design with treatment 1(\circled1 Dicamba $1\ell$/ha, \circled2 Mecoprop $5\ell$/ha, \circled3 Bentazone $3\ell$.ha, \circled4 Glyphosate $4\ell$/ha and \circled5 Pyrazosulfuron-ethyl 2kg/ha), and treatment 2(\circled1 Dicamba $2\ell$/ha, \circled2 Dicamba $4\ell$/ha, \circled3 Glyphosate $6\ell$/ha, \circled4 Glyphosate 4+Dicamba $1\ell$/ha and \circled5 Glyphosate 4+dicamba $2\ell$/ha) against 10 exotic weed species, and conducted in Suwon, Seosan and Yeongam from 1997 to 1999. Exotic weeds have been mostly introduced within imported cereals for concentrate feed or within seeds for forage production. Most of exotic weeds in forage crop field were controlled more than 95% by herbicide, but it was desirable that the control of exotic weeds was abreast of chemical and ecological method.

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Characterization and evaluation of response to heat and chilling stress in exotic weeds using chlorophyll a fluorescence OJIP transient

  • Sohn, Soo In;Lee, Yong Ho;Hong, Sun Hee;Kim, Chang Seok;Kim, Myung Hyun;Na, Chae Sun;Oh, Young Ju
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.450-460
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    • 2020
  • The occurrence of exotic weeds and their influx into farmlands due to climate change poses many problems. Therefore, it is necessary to generate a prediction model for the occurrence pattern of these exotic weeds based on scientific evidence and devise prevention measures. The photosynthetic apparatus is known as the most temperature-sensitive component of a plant cell and its initial response to temperature stress is to inhibit the activation of photosystem II. This study investigated the potential of OJIP transients in assessing temperature stress in exotic weeds. The four exotic weeds currently flowing into Korean farmlands include Amaranthus spinosus, Conyza bonariensis, Crassocephalum crepidioides, and Amaranthus viridis. These weeds were treated at 5℃, 10℃, 15℃, 20℃, 25℃, 30℃, 35℃, and 40℃ and the OJIP curves and JIP parameters were measured and analyzed. The results showed that heat and chilling stress affected the photosystem II(PSII) electron transport of A. spinosus, whereas C. crepidioides and A. viridis were more affected by high-temperature stress than by low-temperature stress. Lastly, C. bonariensis showed resistance to both high and low-temperature stress. The results of this study suggest that OJIP transients and JIP parameters can be used to analyze damage to the photosynthetic apparatus by temperature stress and that they can serve as sensitive indicators for the occurrence pattern of exotic weeds.

Occurrence of Weed Flora and Their Yield Loss in Angelica gigas Upland Fields of Minor Crop in Korea (소면적 재배작물인 당귀밭에 발생하는 잡초현황과 잡초에 의한 피해)

  • Lee, In-Yong;Kim, Chang-Seok;Lee, Jeongran;Seo, Young Jin;Kim, Jong-Su;Seo, Hyun-A;Jang, Hyung-Mok
    • Weed & Turfgrass Science
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.65-70
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    • 2016
  • Investigation on weed flora in Angelica gigas upland fields was conducted to understand the current status of the weed flora and establish the control measures. Investigation was conducted twice, July and October in 2015. From this investigation, 105 species of 37 families including 27 exotics were identified and classified into 53 species of annuals, 24 species of biennials and 28 species of perennials. Dominance was the highest with Digitaria ciliaris, followed by Portulaca loeracea, Chenopodium album, Cyperus iria, Conyza canadensis, Galinsoga ciliata etc. in order. Chenopodium album was the highest in importance analysis and the followings were in order of Conyza canadensis, Galinsoga ciliata, Amaranthus lividus, Taraxacum offcinale etc. The yield of A. gigas was reduced 49.6% in no weeding plots comparing in weed managed plots.

Occurrence of Weed Flora in Lycium chinense Upland Field of Minor Crop in Korea (소면적 재배작물 구기자밭에 발생하는 잡초현황)

  • Lee, In-Yong;Kim, Chang-Seok;Lee, Jeongran;Seo, Hyun-A;Kwon, Bong-Jae;Jang, Hyung-Mok
    • Weed & Turfgrass Science
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.60-64
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    • 2016
  • Investigation on weed flora in Lycium chinense upland fields was conducted to understand the current status of weed flora and establish the control measures. Investigation was conducted twice, May and June on 2015. From this investigation, 91 species of 30 families including 27 exotics were identified into 36 species of annuals, 28 species of biennials and 27 species of perennials. Dominance was the highest with Portulaca loeracea followed by Digitaria ciliaris, Stellaria media, Oxalis corniculata, Acalypha australis, Chenopodium album, Cyperus iria etc. in order. Chenopodium album was the highest in importance analysis and the followings were in order of Conyza canadensis, Conyza bonariensis, Senecio vulgaris, Amaranthus lividus, Sonchus asper etc.