• Title, Summary, Keyword: etiologic factors

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Prevalence Rate and Etiologic Risk Factors of Atopic Dermatitis in the Preschool Children in Changwon (창원시 학동 전기 소아들의 아토피 피부염 유병률과 그 원인에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Jong-Keun;Lee, Ho-Sung;Ha, Jin-Sil;Park, Dong-Jin;Paik, Do-Hyun;Ha, Kwon-Chul
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.169-177
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    • 2009
  • In the past decade there has been increasing concern about the atopic dermatitis (AD) associated with environmental diseases. AD has been increased in the last decade and known as one of the multifactoral diseases, which has the genetic background and environmental factors at the same time. The purposes of this study were to investigate the prevalence rate and etiologic risk factors of atopic dermatitis in preschool children in Changwon, which is a one of the Korean cities and has a large industrial complex. We reviewed and analyzed the statistical data, obtained from Korea National Health Insurance Corporation, related to prevalence rate by age and administrative district. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey, based on ISAAC (International Study of Allergy and Asthma in Childhood), was conducted on random samples of preschool children (5 to 8 years old) of large sized kindergartens in Changwon. The lifetime and last one years prevalence of AD in preschool children in Changwon was increased from 1998 to 2008. The prevalence rate of AD in the preschool children in Changwon city was 9.6%. The prevalence rate in boys was 9.7% and that in girls was 9.4%. The one year prevalence of AD was ranked as middle among other provincial cities in Korea in 2008. This study showed that the prevalence rate of the atopic disease in Changwon was 9% in 2008, which was increased especially compare to 2000. More active governmental approaches for control and prevention of atopic dermatitis for children are recommended. Further studies are needed for more accurate estimation of the prevalence of AD in Korea including different regional and age population.

The Diagnosis and Treatment of Anterior Openbite Malocclusion (전치부 개방교합의 진단과 치료)

  • Chang, Young-Il;Moon, Seong-Cheol
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.893-904
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    • 1998
  • There are varieties of severe malocclusions, which can be treated orthodontically, but with a great deal of effort. Anterior openbite, in particular, is one malocclusion thought to be more difficult to treat, and therefore, most of them have to be corrected by means of surgical intervention. To solve these problems, numerous studies pertinent to treatment modalities have been introduced with controversies on the effectiveness of treatment. Suggested treatment modalities for anterior openbite are based directly or indirectly on the neuromuscular and morphological features and on the etiologic and/or the environmental factors. Even though the vertical relationship of the face is increased due to the growth variation, the normal occlusal relationship can be achieved by the adequate dentoalveolar compensatory mechanism, but in the case of inadequate or negative dentoalveolar compensation, openbite is likely to be present. If the skeletal dysplasia is too severe to be solved by orthodontic treatment alone, combined treatment with surgery should be done to restore the function and the esthetics of the orofacial complex. In many cases, however, orthodontic alteration of the dentition pertinent to the given skeletal pattern with the proper diagnosis and treatment planning can bring satisfactory results. The treatment changes with the Multiloop Edgewise Archwire(MEAW) therapy occurred mainly in the dentoalveolar region and showed a considerable similarity to the natural dentoalveolar compensatory mechanism. In other words, the MEAW technique allows orthodontists to produce the natural dentoalveolar compensation orthodontically. Even if an openbite is corrected by the orthodontic dentoalveolar compensation suitable for the skeletal pattern, relapse may still occur by the persisting etiologic factors which originally prohibited the natural dentoalveolar compensation. The etiologic factors should be determined at the time of initial diagnosis and should be controlled during treatment and retention.

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A STUDY ON THE ETIOLOGIC FACTORS OF EARLY CHILDHOOD CARIES IN 18-MONTH OLD INFANTS (18개월 유아 조기 우식의 원인 고찰)

  • Lee, Chang-Han;Kim, Jae-Moon;Kim, Shin;Jeong, Tae-Sung
    • THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.174-184
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    • 2005
  • For the purpose of investigating the etiologic factors of early childhood caries in 18-month old infants which is an important period in pediatric dentistry, 234 infants of 18-month age and their first care-givers (mothers in most cases) who visited Ilsin Christian Hospital in Busan for the baby-care counseling and vaccination were examined. The oral examination was performed on the infants and their care-givers were individually interviewed about various items, and the data was statistically processed to yield the results as follows : 1. The prevalence rate of early childhood caries was 27.4%. 2. The percentage of the eldest child, the education level of the mother and monthly income were revealed lower in caries group infants. 3. The percentage of prolonged breast-feeding and the frequency of daily nursing was higher in early childhood caries group. 4. In early childhood caries group, the between-meal snacks were tend to be provided irregularly without predetermined time, and sugar containing snacks such as chocolates and candies were ranked in higher order whereas the fruits and milks were in lower ranks. 5. In early childhood caries group, the percentage of those performing the oral hygienic care was lower and the timing to start the toothbrushing was comparatively later. From the above results, it can be concluded that prolonged breast-feeding, poor snack habits and lower socioeconomic status act an important role in early childhood caries in 18-month old infants.

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Significance of p16 Positive Expression in Oropharyngeal Cancers

  • Bixofis, Regiane B.;Sassi, Laurindo Moacir;Patussi, Cleverson;Jung, Juliana E.;Ioshii, Sergio O.;Schussel, Juliana L.
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.23
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    • pp.10289-10292
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    • 2015
  • Background: The involvement of HPV in oral and oropharyngeal carcinogenesis was first proposed in 2004, based on epithelial HPV tropism and detection of HPV genotypes in oral squamous cell carcinoma samples. While 60-70% of oropharynx tumors may be HPV-positive, only 10 to 19% of tumors of the oral cavity, larynx and hypopharynx appear to have HPV infection. The aim of the study was to evaluate HPV infection associated with oropharyngeal cancer. Materials and Methods: Seventy-eight cases were selected for p16 immunoexpression reactions, and demographic data were collected for comparisons. Results: Most patients were over 60 years old, and 64.1% were smokers. Immunohistochemistry results showed that 86.3% of cases stained positive for p16 protein. Conclusion: The oropharyngeal cancer profile at Erasto Gaertner Hospital presented a high index of smokers over 60 years as well a high number of p16+ tumors, for what we can not determinate the main etiologic factor, but can be aware of the number of patients that presented HPV infection. Since prevention is still the best way to deal with cancer disease, it is important to analyze the interaction of these two etiologic factors and how to detect lesions at an early stage.

상악 매복 견치의 교정학적 고찰

  • Seo, Jeong-Hun
    • The journal of the Korean dental association
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.59-70
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    • 1987
  • Orthodontists, in evaluating maxillary impactd canines, must take into consideration the etiology of the problem. First, the possible etiologic factors must be eliminated. Thus some cases can be treated with orthodontic treatment alone without surgical trauma following window opening etc. Now, two cases are reported, which were treated without surgical intervention. Sometimes, impacted canine can be included in a plan for tooth removal due to its severe impaction and displacement. In such case, first premolar can be substituted for canine. One case which was treated by substituting maxillary first premolar for maxillary impacted canine is reported.

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Nutritional concerns in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease

  • Kim, Yong Joo
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.59 no.6
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    • pp.247-251
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    • 2016
  • The pathophysiology and fundamental etiologic mechanism of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is not well understood even though therapeutic regimens and drugs are rapidly evolutionary. IBD has complicated connections with genetic, immunologic, gut microbial, environmental, and nutritional factors. It is not clearly well known to the physicians how to feed, what nutrients are more helpful, and what food to be avoided. This review discusses the issues of growth and important nutritional concerns in the management of IBD in childhood.

Antibodies to Heat Shock Protein 70kDa and 90kDa in the Patients with Schizophrenia, and Their Relationship with Clinical Variables

  • Kim, Jung Jin;Lee, Soo Jung;Toh, Kyu Young;Lee, Chang Uk;Lee, Chul;Paik, In Ho
    • Korean Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.202-208
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    • 1999
  • Schizophrenia has many clinical expressions and probably different etiologic factors. Infections, autoimmune mechanism and related neurodevelopmental abnormalities have been suggested as possible etiologic factors of schizophrenia. It has been reported that immunoreactivity to heat shock proteins, which play a protective role against environmental stresses in a cell, might be related to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Therefore, we examined the immunoreactivity to heat shock protein 70kDa and 90kDa(HSP70 and 90) in 91 patients with schizophrenia and 83 normal controls. Ig G antibodies to HSP70 and 90 of sera were quantitated by ELISA. The optical density(OD) was measured by an automated microplate reader at a wavelength of 490nm. The amounts of antibodies to HSPs were expressed as arbitrary units(AU)/ml related to a standard serum. The limit for elevated antibody titers(anti-HSPs positive or negative) was set at two standard deviations added to the mean of the normal controls. Twenty nine(31.9%) of the 91 patients showed anti-HSP70 positive and 19(20.9%) of those showed anti-HSP90 positive. On the other hand, only 1(1.4%) of the normal controls and 4(4.8%) of those showed anti-HSP70 positive and anti-HSP90 positive, respectively. The titers of anti-HSP70 positive were related with BPRS scores, while those of anti-HSP90 positive were not. There were no relationship between antibody titers and clinical variables including age at onset, duration of illness, family history of schizophrenia or number of admission. The titers of anti-HSP70 positive were significantly associated with anti-HSP90 positive. Our results suggest the presence of abnormal immune reactivity involving HSP70 and HSP90 in a subset of patients with schizophrenia.

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Supernumerary Teeth in Monozygotic Twins (일란성 쌍생아들에서 관찰된 과잉치)

  • Kim, Sohyun;Kim, Young-Jin;Kim, Hyun-Jung;Nam, Soon-Hyeun
    • THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.203-208
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    • 2013
  • Although the first case of supernumerary teeth had been documented almost 20 centuries ago, the etiology of supernumerary teeth still remains unclear. The prevalence of supernumerary teeth in the general Asian population is between 2.7% and 3.4%. The pathogenesis of supernumerary teeth has been attributed to phylogenetic reversion(atavism), splitting of the tooth bud(dichotomy theory), locally induced hyperactivity of the dental lamina and a combination of genetic and environmental factors(unified etiologic explanation). This report describes 3 cases of monozygotic twins with mesiodens who visited the pediatric dental clinic of Kyungpook national university hospital, and this is significant to support genetic factors involoved in the development of supernumerary teeth.

Comparison of Clinical and Psychological Characteristics between Self-Reported Bruxism and Clinically Detected Bruxism by Wear Facet on Splint

  • Shim, Young-Joo;Kang, Jin-Kyu;Lee, You-Mee;Lim, Hyun-Dae
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.140-145
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: Bruxism is commonly considered a major risk factor for temporomandibular disorders (TMD), and the psychosocial factors had been one of the etiologic factor of bruxism. But there are still unsolved issues on the relationship between sleep bruxism and TMD and the etiologic factors of bruxism. This study is aim to evaluate the clinical and psychosocial characteristics according to diagnostic grade of bruxism in TMD patients. Methods: Three hundred subjects were enrolled who were under the stabilization splint therapy for TMD. Recently international consensus proposed a diagnostic grading system of "possible", "probable", and "definite" sleep or awake bruxism for clinical and research purpose. According to their suggestion, we classified these subjects as self-reported bruxism (SRB) and wear facet bruxism (WFB). We investigated the clinical characteristics (sex, age, chief complaint, pain duration, visual analogue scale), sum of tenderness (temporomandibular joint, masticatory muscles, cervical muscles), diagnosis of TMD according to research diagnostic criteria (the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders, RDC/TMD), headache, subjective sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, PSQI), and psychosocial characteristics (Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, SCL-90-R) in enrolled subjects. We compared the clinical and psychosocial characteristics between these bruxism groups. Results: There were no significant correlation between self-reported and WFB (p=0.13). SRB subjects more reported pain as a chief complain than subject who did not report bruxism (p=0.014). The mean score of global PSQI was significantly higher in SRB than in did not report positively subjects (p=0.045). The mean score of anxiety and phobic anxiety was significantly higher in SRB than in did not reported positively subjects (p=0.045, p=0.041). Conclusions: Although bruxism is regarded as risk factor of TMD, this study showed inconsistent result between SRB and clinically detected bruxism by wear facet on slpint. We suggest that the clinician should consider with extreme caution when they assess SRB.

Malignant Mesothelioma in Eastern Asia

  • Bianchi, Claudio;Bianchi, Tommaso
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.10
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    • pp.4849-4853
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    • 2012
  • Relatively low numbers of malignant mesotheliomas have been reported from Eastern Asia. In order to explore the causes of this fact, the available data on mesothelioma incidence/mortality in five countries (Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore) were reviewed. Data on the industrial histories of the above countries were also examined. Mesothelioma incidence was low, despite a history of high shipbuilding and port activities, in which heavy exposure to asbestos generally has occurred. Underestimation of mesothelioma could partly explain the above discrepancy. Moreover, in some areas a sufficient latency period for mesothelioma development may have not yet elapsed, due to recent industrialization. However, other possibilities have to be considered. The cancer epidemiology in Eastern Asia differs deeply from that seen in Western countries, an indication of differences in etiologic factors of cancer as well as in co-factors. In addition, the oncogenic spectrum of asbestos is wide, and not completely defined. In a very different milieu from that of Western countries, asbestos could preferentially hit targets other than serosal membranes.