• Title, Summary, Keyword: ethylene carbonate (EC)

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Electrochemical Characteristics and Physical Properties of Poly(ethylene oxide)-Li based Polymer Electrolyte (Poly(ethylene oxide)-Li계 고분자 전해질의 전기화학적 특성 및 물리적 성질)

  • Kim, Hyung-Sun;Cho, Byung-Won;Yun, Kyung-Suk;Chun, Hai-Soo
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.433-442
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    • 1996
  • Electrochemical characteristics and physical properties of polymer electrolyte which immobilized lithium salts such as $LiClO_4$ and $LiCF_3SO_3$ and plasticizers such as ethylene carbonate(EC) and propylene carbonate(PC) in high molecular weight poly(ethylene oxide)[PEO] polymer was investigated. PEO-Li based polymer electrolyte with plasticizers showed ionic conductivity of $10^{-4}S/cm$ at room temperature and high electrochemical stability up to 4.5 V(vs. $Li^+/Li$), so it can be applied to lithium secondary battery. The crystallinity of PEO decreased with the addition of lithium salts and plasticizers, especially $LiClO_4$ and PC showed more effective than and $LiCF_3SO_3$ and EC. Glass transition temperature($T_g$) of polymer electrolyte increased with increasing lithium salt concentration whereas melting temperature ($T_m$) decreased. Polymer electrolyte with plasticizers crystallized at $6^{\circ}C$.

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Polymer-supported Zinc Tetrahalide Catalysts for the Coupling Reactions of CO2 and Epoxides

  • Lee, Bo-Ra;Ko, Nan-Hee;Ahn, Byoung-Sung;Cheong, Min-Serk;Kim, Hoon-Sik;Lee, Je-Seung
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.28 no.11
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    • pp.2025-2028
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    • 2007
  • Homogeneous zinc tetrahalide complexes, highly active catalysts for the coupling reactions of alkylene oxide and CO2 produce alkylene carbonates, were heterogenized due to their tendency to decompose produced alkylene carbonates during the distillation process. Heterogenization of homogeneous zinc tetrahalide complexes was achieved by polymerizing 1-alkyl-3-vinylimidazolium zinc tetrahalides. These polymerized zinc tetrahalide catalysts displayed similar activities to their corresponding monomeric analogues for the coupling reactions of carbon dioxide with ethylene oxide (EO) or propylene oxide (PO) to produce ethylene carbonate (EC) or propylene carbonate (PC). TGA studies showed that the polymer-supported zinc tetrahalide catalysts are thermally stable up to 320 oC. The catalyst recycle test showed that the supported catalysts could be reused over six times. After removal of the polymer-supported catalyst through a simple filtration, EC was able to be isolated without decomposition.

Synthesis of Styrenated Phenol Alkoxylate from Styrenated Phenol with Ethylene Carbonate over KOH/La2O3 Catalyst (KOH/La2O3 촉매상에서 Styrenated Phenol과 Ethylene Carbonate의 반응으로부터 Styrenated Phenol Alkoxylate의 합성)

  • Lee, Seungmin;Son, Seokhwan;Jung, Sunghun;Kwak, Wonbong;Shin, Eun Ju;Ahn, Hogeun;Chung, Minchul
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.62-66
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    • 2018
  • Styrenated phenol alkoxylates (SP-A) were prepared from styrenated phenol (SP) and ethylene oxide (EO) under a homogeneous base catalyst. However, to use EO that is difficult to handle, a high-pressure reaction device capable of controlling the reaction process should be used. Additionally, when a homogeneous base catalyst is used, a neutralization process is required to remove residual bases after the reaction, and it is also difficult to separate the catalyst and the product. Therefore, in this study, we report the results of SP-A prepared from the reaction of SP and EC using only heterogeneous base catalysts. The heterogeneous base catalyst was obtained by supporting KOH on $La_2O_3$ and calcintion. Using EC instead of EO, it was possible to produce SP-A under the atmospheric rather than high-pressure reaction condition. Average molecular weights of synthesized SP-A varied greatly depending on reaction conditions. The average molecular weight of SP-A prepared using the $KOH/La_2O_3$ catalyst could be controlled arbitrarily by controlling the reaction temperature and added catalyst and EC amounts.

Density Functional Studies of Ring-Opening Reactions of Li+-(ethylene carbonate) and Li+-(vinylene carbonate)

  • Han, Young-Kyu;Lee, Sang-Uck
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.43-46
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    • 2005
  • Reaction energies were determined for reductive ring-opening reactions of Li$^+$-coordinated ethylene carbonate (EC) and vinylene carbonate (VC) by a density functional method. We have also explored the ring-opening of Li$^+$-EC and Li$^+$-VC by reaction with a nucleophile (CH$_3$O$^-$.) thermodynamically. Our thermodynamic calculations led us to conclude that the possible reaction products are CH$_3$OCH$_2$CH$_2$OCO$_2$Li (O$_2$-C$_3$ cleavage) for Li$^+$-EC +CH$_3$O$^-$., and CH$_3$OCHCHOCO$_2$Li (O$_2$-C$_3$ cleavage) and CH$_3$OCO$_2$CHCHOLi (C$_1$-O$_2$ cleavage) for Li$^+$-VC +CH$_3$O$^-$.. The opening of VC would occur at the C$_1$-O$_2$ side by a kinetic reason, although the opening at the O$_2$-C$_3$ side is more favorable thermodynamically.

Effect of ZnCl2 Co-catalyst in the Synthesis of Dimethyl Carbonate from Ethylene Carbonate and Methanol by Using Base Catalysts (염기 촉매를 이용한 디메틸카보네이트 합성에서 ZnCl2 조촉매의 영향)

  • Kim, Dong-Woo;Park, Moon-Seok;Kim, Moon-Il;Park, Dae-Won
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.50 no.2
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    • pp.217-222
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    • 2012
  • The synthesis of dimethyl carbonate(DMC) is a promising reaction for the use of naturally abundant carbon dioxide. DMC has gained considerable interest owing to its versatile chemical reactivity and unique properties such as high oxygen content, low toxicity, and excellent biodegradability. In this study, the synthesis of DMC through the transesterification of ethylene carbonate(EC) with methanol was investigated by using ionic liquid and metal oxide catalysts. The screening test of different catalysts revealed that choline hydroxide ([Choline][OH]) and 1-n-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium hydroxide([BMIm][OH]) had better catalytic performance than metal salts catalysts such as MgO, ZnO and CaO. The effects of reaction parameters such as reaction temperature, MeOH/EC mole ratio, and carbon dioxide pressure on the reactivity of [Choline][OH] catalyst were discussed. High temperature and high MeOH/EC mole ratio were favorable for high conversion of EC. However, the yield of DMC showed a maximum when carbon dioxide pressure was 1.34 MPa, and then it decreased for higher carbon dioxide pressure. Zinc chloride($ZnCl_2$) was used as co-catalyst with the ionic liquid catalyst. The mixed catalyst showed a synergy effect on the EC conversion and DMC yield probably due to the acid-base properties of the catalysts.

Effect of Vinyl Ethylene Carbonate on Electrochemical Characteristics for Activated Carbon/Li4Ti5O12 Capacitors (활성탄/리튬티탄산화물 커패시터의 전기화학적 특성에 미치는 비닐에틸렌카보네이트의 영향)

  • Kwon, Yong-Kab;Choi, Ho-Suk;Lee, Joong-Kee
    • Journal of the Korean Electrochemical Society
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.190-197
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    • 2012
  • We employed the vinyl ethylene carbonate (VEC) as an electrolyte additive and investigated the effect of the electrolyte additive on the electrochemical performance in hybrid capacitor. The activated carbon was adopted as cathode material, and the $Li_4Ti_5O_{12}$ oxide was used as anode material. The electrolyte was prepared with the $LiPF_6$ salt in the mixed solvent of ethylene carbonate (EC), dimethyl carbonate (DMC), and ethyl methyl carbonate(EMC). We evaluated the electrochemical performance of the hybrid capacitor with increasing the amount of the VEC electrolyte additive, which is known as the remover of oxygen functional group and the stabilizer of the electrode by reducing the surface of electrode, and obtained the superior performance data especially at the addition of the VEC electrolyte additive of around 0.7 vol%. On the contrary, the addition of the VEC more than 0.7 vol% in the electrolyte leads to the degradation in electrochemical performance of hybrid capacitor, suggesting the increase of the side reaction from the excessive VEC additive. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that the addition of the VEC suppressed the formation of LiF component, which is known as the insulator, on the surface of electrode. The optimized addition of VEC exhibited the improved capacity retention around 82.7% whereas the bare capacitors without VEC additive showed the 43.2% of capacity retention after 2500 cycling test.

Characteristics of Lithium Metal Secondary Battery Using PAN Gel-electrolyte Mixed with TiO2 Ceramic Filler (TiO2 Ceramic Filler가 혼합된 젤상의 PAN 고분자 전해질을 이용한 리튬금속 이차전지의 특성)

  • Lim, Hyo-Sung;Kim, Hyung-Sun;Cho, Byung-Won;Lee, Tae-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Electrochemical Society
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.106-110
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    • 2002
  • Gel-type polyacrylonitrile(PAN) polymer electrolytes have been prepared using ethylene carbonate(EC), propylene carbonate(PC) and dimethyl carbonate(DMC) plasticizer, $LiPF_6$ salt and $TiO_2$ ceramic filler. Electrochemical properties, such as electrochemical stability, ionic conductivity and compatibility with lithium metal and mechanical properly of polymer electrolytes were investigated. Charge/discharge performance of lithium secondary battery using these polymer electrolytes were investigated. The maximum load that the polymer electrolyte resists increased about two times as a result of adding $TiO_2$ in the polymer electrolyte containing EC and PC. Polymer electrolyte containing EC, PC and $TiO_2$ also showed ionic conductivity of $2\times10^{-3} S/cm$ at room temperature and electrochemical stability window up to 와 4.5V. Polymer electrolyte containing EC, PC, and $TiO_2$ showed the most stable interfacial resistance of $130\Omega$ during 20 days in the impedance spectra of the cells which were constructed by lithium metals as electrodes. Lithium metal secondary battery which employed $LiCoO_2$ cathode, lithium metal anode and $TiO_2$-dispersed polymer electrolyte showed $90\%$ of charge/discharge efficiency at the 1C rate of discharge.

A Basic Study on Non-aqueous Electrolysis of Neodymium for Room-temperature Metallurgy (상온제련을 위한 네오디뮴의 비수계 전해 기초연구)

  • Park, Jesik;Lee, Churl Kyoung
    • Resources Recycling
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.29-35
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    • 2018
  • In this study, the electrochemical redox behavior of neodymium in non-aqueous electrolytes was investigated to confirm the possibility of neodymium metallurgy at room temperature. The non-aqueous electrolytes include ionic liquids such as $[C_4mim]PF_6$, $[C_4mim]Cl$, and $[P_{66614}]PF_6$, ethanol which are highly soluble in neodymium salts, and mixed electrolytes based on carbonate with highly electrochemical stability. The electrochemical redox properties of neodymium were better than those of other electrolytes in the case of the mixed electrolyte based on ethylene carbonate (EC)/di-ethylene carbonate (DEC). Ethanol was added to improve the physical properties of the mixed electrolyte. Thorough the analysis about ionic conductivity of EC/DEC ratio, ethanol content and $NdCl_3$ concentration, the best electrolyte composition was 50 vol% content of ethanol and 0.5 M of $NdCl_3$. Using cyclic voltametry and linear sweep voltametry, a current peak estimated at -3.8 V (vs. Pt-QRE) was observed as a limiting current of neodymium reduction. Potentiostatic electrolysis for 18 hours at room temperature at -6 V (vs. Pt-QRE) confirmed that metallic neodymium was electrodeposited.

Improvement of Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Poly(ethylene glycol) and Cyanoresin Based Polymer Electrolytes

  • Oh Kyung-Wha;Choi Ji-Hyoung;Kim Seong-Hun
    • Fibers and Polymers
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.89-94
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    • 2006
  • Ionic conductivity and mechanical properties of a mixed polymer matrix consisting of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and cyanoresin type M (CRM) with various lithium salts and plasticizer were examined. The CRM used was a copolymer of cyanoethyl pullulan and cyanoethyl poly(vinyl alcohol) with a molar ratio of 1:1, mixed plasticizer was ethylene carbonate (EC) and propylene carbonate (PC) at a volume ratio of 1:1. The conductive behavior of polymer electrolytes in the temperature range of $298{\sim}338\;K$ was investigated. The $PEG/LiClO_4$ complexes exhibited the highest ionic conductivity of ${\sim}10^{-5}S/cm$ at $25^{\circ}C$ with the salt concentration of 1.5 M. In addition, the plasticized $PEG/LiClO_4$ complexes exhibited improvement of ionic conductivity. However, their complexes showed decreased mechanical properties. The improvement of ionic conductivity and mechanical properties could be obtained from the polymer electrolytes by using CRM. The highest ionic conductivity of PEG/CRM/$LiClO_4$/(EC-PC) was $5.33{\time}10^{-4}S/cm$ at $25^{\circ}C$.

Characterization of a New Poly(acrylonitrile-itaconate) based Gel-electrolyte (새로운 poly(acrylonitrile-itaconate)공중합체를 기초로 한 젤-전해질의 특성)

  • Choi B. K.;Kim S. H.;Gong M. S.
    • Journal of the Korean Electrochemical Society
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.169-172
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    • 2000
  • A new gel polymer electrolyte based on the modified polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polyacrylonitrile-co-bis[2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl]itaconate (abbreviated as PANI) copolymer was synthesized in expectation of enhanced trapping ability of liquid electrolytes. PAN and PANI blend was complexed with organic solvents, ethylene carbonate (EC) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC), and $LiClO_4$ salt. The highest room temperature conductivity of $2\times10^{-3}\;Scm^{-1}$ was found for a film of 25PAN+10PANl+50EC/DMC+$15LiClO_4$. The solvent-rich crystalline part decreases due to the blending of PANI and therefore number of charge carriers increases giving higher ionic conductivity. The addition of PAM as a host polymer in the PAN-based gels has beneficial effects such as higher ionic conductivity, better thermal characteristics, better miscibility with solvent, wider electrochemical stability, and better interfacial stability with lithium electrode, though it exhibits slightly less mechanical rigidity.