• Title, Summary, Keyword: ethylene

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Regulation of Ethylene Biosynthesis by Phytohormones in Etiolated Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Seedlings

  • Lee, Han Yong;Yoon, Gyeong Mee
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.311-319
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    • 2018
  • The gaseous hormone ethylene influences many aspects of plant growth, development, and responses to a variety of stresses. The biosynthesis of ethylene is tightly regulated by various internal and external stimuli, and the primary target of the regulation is the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (ACS), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step of ethylene biosynthesis. We have previously demonstrated that the regulation of ethylene biosynthesis is a common feature of most of the phytohormones in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings via the modulation of the protein stability of ACS. Here, we show that various phytohormones also regulate ethylene biosynthesis from etiolated rice seedlings in a similar manner to those in Arabidopsis. Cytokinin, brassinosteroids, and gibberellic acid increase ethylene biosynthesis without changing the transcript levels of neither OsACS nor ACC oxidases (OsACO), a family of enzymes catalyzing the final step of the ethylene biosynthetic pathway. Likewise, salicylic acid and abscisic acid do not alter the gene expression of OsACS, but both hormones downregulate the transcript levels of a subset of ACO genes, resulting in a decrease in ethylene biosynthesis. In addition, we show that the treatment of the phytohormones results in distinct etiolated seedling phenotypes, some of which resemble ethylene-responsive phenotypes, while others display ethylene-independent morphologies, indicating a complicated hormone crosstalk in rice. Together, our study brings a new insight into crosstalk between ethylene biosynthesis and other phytohormones, and provides evidence that rice ethylene biosynthesis could be regulated by the post-transcriptional regulation of ACS proteins.

Influence of Ethylene on Flowering and Senescence of Carnation Flowers and Treatment of Preservative Solution for Reducing Their Ethylene Production (Ethylene이 Carnation의 개화(開化)와 노화(老化)에 미치는 영향(影響) 및 절화(切花)의 Ethylene 발생억제(發生抑制)를 위(爲)한 보존용액(保存溶液)의 효과(效果))

  • Lee, Jong Suk
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.33-37
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    • 1980
  • To clarify the influence of ethylene on flowering and senescence of carnation flowers and the treatment of the floral preservative solution for reducing their ethylene production, bud-cut carnations (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv. Coral) were sprayed with/without 500 ppm ethephon [(2-chloroethyl) phosphonic acid] and then held in distilled water or preservative solution (5% sucrose+50 ppm $AgNO_3$+300 ppm 8-hydroxyquinoline). 1. Ethylene inhibited to bloom carnation flowers because of causing sleepiness. 2. Carnation flowers were led to senescence after a lot of ethylene was produced by them. Therefore, ethylene seems to act as a trigger of senescence in carnation flowers. 3. The features of senescence in carnation flowers were different in accordance with the amount of ethylene produced by the flowers. 4. Exposure to ethylene decreased fresh weight, flower diameter, and water uptake of carnations. 5. The floral preservative extended vase life markedly by inhibiting ethylene production of cut flowers. The flowers exposed to lots of ethylene, however, were not restored even though they were held in the preservative solution.

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Ethylene Evolution of Wheat and Barley Cultivars Differed in Plant Type and Growing Condition (맥류의 초형 및 재배조건에 따른 ETHYLENE의 생성량)

  • ;Y. Ota
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.46-49
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    • 1984
  • Ethylene evolution of leaves was measured in the samples of barley and wheat grown in the various conditions and treatments. The older and stepped leaf of barley had tended to the tendency to contain more ethylene than the younger and sound leaf. Relatively high concentration of ethylene was evolved in the samples which the detecting time was delayed and so was in the samples incubated at high temperature. The higher evolution of ethylene was determined by the barley plant grown in the field and with compost application compared to the samples grown in the pot and with composite fertilizer application, however the flooding treatment resulted in decreasing ethylene evolution comparing to untreated barley and wheat. The prostrate type and higher chrolophyll content leaves of wheat appeared to produce more ethylene than erect and lower chrolophyll leaves did.

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Effect of Plant Growth Regulator Treatments on the Growth and Lateral Root Formation in Soybean Sprouts - 2. Effect of Plant Growth Regulator Treatment on the Ethylene Evolution in Soybean Sprouts (생장조절물질(生長調節物質) 처리(處理)가 콩나물의 생육(生育) 및 세근발생(細根發生)에 미치는 영향(影響) - II. 생장조절물질(生長調節物質) 처리(處理)가 콩나물의 ethylene 발생(發生)에 미치는 효과)

  • Kang, C.K.;Lee, J.M.;Saka, H.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.90-96
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    • 1989
  • This experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of plant growth regulator treatments on the ethylene evolution in soybean sprouts. Major results can be summarized as follows. 1. IAA showed no significant effect on the ethylene evolution in soybean sprouts. 2. BA increased significantly ethylene evolution while kinetin, zeatin, zeatin riboside were less effective on the ethylene production in soybean sprouts. 3. As the BA concentration was increased, the ethylene evolution was increased. 4. BA increased ethylene production more effectively at earlier stages while 4PU-30 was more effective for ethylene production rather continuously. 5. The order of effectiveness of cytokinins and auxin on the ethylene evolution was as follows : BA 25 ppm>BA 25ppm+IAA 25ppm${\geq}$4PU-30 25ppm>IAA 25ppm>control. 6. It can be concluded that BA was the most effective in inhibiting lateral roots, among the cytokinins tested, and resulted in the biggest diameter of hypocotyl by the ethylene evolution stimulated by BA treatment.

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Ethylene Biosynthesis of an Alkalophilic Bacillus sp. Alk-7 (알카리성 Bacillus sp. Alk-7에 의한 Ethylene 생합성과 그 경로)

  • Bae, Moo;Kim, Mi-Ye
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.195-199
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    • 1998
  • AH alkalophilic Bacillus SP. AIk-7, isolated from soil, produced ethylene. The characteristics of this microorganism is the ability to grow well under the alkaline condition, at pH 10.3. This strain is similar to Bacillus alkalophilus in terms of morphological, physiological and biological characteristics. In observation of relationship of cell growth and ethylene production according to incubation times, the ethylene synthesis mostly occur from the late exponential phase to the death phase of growth. The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of various substrates on the biosynthesis of ethylene in the intact cell and the cell-free system by the Bacillus sp. AIk-7. In both intact cell and cell-free extract, optimum conditions for ethylene production was achieved at pH 10.3 and 3$0^{\circ}C$. Ethylene was effectively produced from L-Met and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). In this case, ACC as the substrate on ethylene production were two fold higher than L-met at each concentration of substrates. On the other hand, the cell-free ethylene-forming system was used as a tool for the elucidation of the biochemical reaction involved in the formation of ethylene by Bacillus sp. AIk-7. Ethylene production in the cell-free system required the presence of manganese and cobalt ion to be stimulated a little. The result obtained in this work suggests that L-met and ACC may be a precursor more directly related to bacterial ethylene production than any other substrates tested.

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Regulation of Ethylene Biosynthesis in Phytochrome Mutants of the Arabidopsis Root (Arabidopsis 피토크롬 돌연변이체에서 ethylene 생합성 조절 작용)

  • Park, Ji-Hye;Kim, Soon-Young
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.559-564
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    • 2012
  • In order to investigate the effect of phytochromes on the regulation of ethylene biosynthesis, we measured the ethylene production and the activities of enzymes involved in ethylene biosynthesis using phytochrome mutants such as $phyA$, $phyB$, and $phyAB$ of Arabidopsis. The ethylene production was decreased in mutants grown in white light. In particular, double mutants showed a 37% decrease compared to the wild type in ethylene production. When Arabidopsis roots were grown in the dark, mutants did not show a decrease in ethylene production; however, production was significantly decreased in the double mutant grown in red light. Only $phyB$ did not show the decrease in the ethylene production in far-red light. Unlike the ACO activities, the ACS activities of mutants showed the same pattern as the ethylene production under several light conditions. The results of ACS activities confirmed the expression of the ACS gene by RT-PCR analysis. The decrease of ethylene production in mutants was due to the lower activity of ACC synthase, which converts the S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), the precursor of ethylene. These results suggested that both phytochrome A and B play an important role in the regulation of ethylene biosynthesis in Arabidopsis roots in the conversion step of AdoMet to ACC, which is regulated by ACS.

Towards the Development of Long-Life Crops by Genetic Engineering of Ethylene Sensitivity

  • Ezura, Hiroshi
    • Korean Journal of Plant Tissue Culture
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.345-352
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    • 2000
  • Food production is a major role of agriculture. It has been projected that the world population continues to increase by the middle of the 21st century, and the population growth results in raising a serious problem of food shortage. Thus we have to increase food as possible. A considerable amount of crops have been abandoned due to short-life after postharvest. Ethylene is a factor responsible for the postharvest loss in crops, especially horticultural crops. If we can reduce ethylene production or sensitivity by genetic engineering, we can develop, so called,“long-life crop”conferring long postharvest lives. During last two decades, intensive research for molecular dissection of ethylene biosynthesis has been carried out, and the researchers have succeeded in engineering ethylene productivity in some crops. On the other hand, after the successful isolation of Arabidopsis ethylene receptor gene ETR1, the homolog genes have been isolated in various plant species. Currently the characterization of these genes and alteration of ethylene sensitivity using the genes are in progress. This review summarizes current progress in the analysis of these genes, and discusses genetic engineering of ethylene sensitivity using these genes.

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Decomposition of Ethylene Glycol by Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation (촉매습식산화에 의한 Ethylene Glycol의 분해)

  • 안상준;최장승;이동근
    • Textile Coloration and Finishing
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.264-271
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    • 2001
  • Catalytic wet oxidation of ethylene glycol as refractory compound was studied in a batch slurry reactor using lwt% $Pt/A1_2O_3$, lwt% $Pt/TiO_2,\;Mn/CeO_2$(1:1) and 5wt% $Mn/Al_2O_3$. Experiments were conducted to investigate theeffects of temperature, initial ethylene glycol concentration, catalyst dosage and PH on the ethylene glycol decomposition. When compared with the uncatalyzed reaction, the use of catalysts could increase the rate of ethylene glycol decomposition. The lwt% $Pt/A1_2O_3$ catalyst was preferable to the other catalysts for the destructive oxidation of ethylene glycol. The reaction rate was first order with respect to initial concentration of ethylene glycol. In acidic condition the removal efficiency of ethylene glycol was good, but there was a significant leaching of platinum. Small amount of acetic acid, oxalic acid, masonic acid and formic acid as intermediates were detected during catalytic wet air oxidation of ethylene glycol.

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Role of S-Adenosylemthionine as an Intermediate in Relation between Polyamine and Ethylene Biosynthesis in Suspension-Cultured Tobacco Cells (담배 현탁배양 세포에 있어 Polyamine 과 Ethylene 생합성시 중간산물로서 S-Adenosylmethionine의 역할)

  • 박기영
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.87-96
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    • 1990
  • The role of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) as an intermediate in interrelation between polyamine and ethylene biosynthesis was studied in suspension cultures of Nicotiana tabacum L. Exogenous SAM stimulated the polyamine and ethylene biosynthesis in 4 day-cultured cells, which were in active cell divisions, and 10 day cultured cells, which went on with active cell elongation and senescence. SAM-induced ethylene production was more effective in 10 day-cultured cells than in 4 day-cultured cells, but SAM-induced polyamine biosynthesis was more effective in 4 day-cultured cells than in 10 day-cultured cells. Polyamine contents were increased by the blockage of ethylene biosynthetic pathway in the conversion of SAM to ethylene via 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylinc acid (ACC) with aminooxyacetic acid (AOA). Also, ethylene production was increased by the inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis such as methylglyoxal bis-(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG), dicyclohexylamine (DCHA), $\alpha$-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA) and $\alpha$-difluoromethylorinithine (DFMO). These results suggest that there may be interrelations between polyamine and ethylene biosynthesis for the competition of SAM and the inherent mechanism of switch on-off in polyamine and ethylene biosynthetic activity with the progress of cell growth and senescence.

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Procedures for Analyzing Ethylene by Gas Chromatograph (Gas Chromatograph를 이용한 에틸렌 분석 기술)

  • 이승구
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.34 no.s01
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    • pp.33-39
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    • 1989
  • Ethylene gas classified as one of five major plant hormones plays an important role in various plant metabolism. The precise analysis of ethylene production of plants or plant parts is a valuable research procedure because knowledge of ethylene production facilitates measures of the physiological activity within the tissue. This paper describes procedures for analyzing ethylene from plant tissues by gas chromatography and discusses problems associated with extracting gas samples either by introducing a vacuum to plant samples or by using a hypodermic syringe. Introduced are a continuous flow system for efficient analysis and an automated system for sampling, analyzing, calculating and recording ethylene production data.

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