• Title, Summary, Keyword: ethnicity

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Semantic Modeling for SNPs Associated with Ethnic Disparities in HapMap Samples

  • Kim, HyoYoung;Yoo, Won Gi;Park, Junhyung;Kim, Heebal;Kang, Byeong-Chul
    • Genomics & Informatics
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.35-41
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    • 2014
  • Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been emerging out of the efforts to research human diseases and ethnic disparities. A semantic network is needed for in-depth understanding of the impacts of SNPs, because phenotypes are modulated by complex networks, including biochemical and physiological pathways. We identified ethnicity-specific SNPs by eliminating overlapped SNPs from HapMap samples, and the ethnicity-specific SNPs were mapped to the UCSC RefGene lists. Ethnicity-specific genes were identified as follows: 22 genes in the USA (CEU) individuals, 25 genes in the Japanese (JPT) individuals, and 332 genes in the African (YRI) individuals. To analyze the biologically functional implications for ethnicity-specific SNPs, we focused on constructing a semantic network model. Entities for the network represented by "Gene," "Pathway," "Disease," "Chemical," "Drug," "ClinicalTrials," "SNP," and relationships between entity-entity were obtained through curation. Our semantic modeling for ethnicity-specific SNPs showed interesting results in the three categories, including three diseases ("AIDS-associated nephropathy," "Hypertension," and "Pelvic infection"), one drug ("Methylphenidate"), and five pathways ("Hemostasis," "Systemic lupus erythematosus," "Prostate cancer," "Hepatitis C virus," and "Rheumatoid arthritis"). We found ethnicity-specific genes using the semantic modeling, and the majority of our findings was consistent with the previous studies - that an understanding of genetic variability explained ethnicity-specific disparities.

Roles of Ethnicity in Survival of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients in Malaysia

  • Azmawati, M.N.;Krisnan, R.
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.12
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    • pp.6023-6026
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    • 2012
  • The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Malaysia for the year 2001 was 2.8 per 100,000 people. The mortality rate is increasing. A retrospective cohort study measuring the survival of HCC patients who received treatment in Selayang Hospital was conducted from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2006. The main objectives of the study were to measure the survival of the patients and to understand the influencing factors, especially ethnicity. The subjects were newly diagnosed cases of HCC by CT scan and histopathological assessment who underwent futher investigations and treatments in Hospital Selayang (inception cohort). The survival time was measured from the date of diagnosis until the subjects died, or failed to follow-up at the end of the study period (31 December 2007). A total of 299 patients were selected with 95 patients dying, the majority among Chinese (39.1%). Subgroup analysis according to ethnicity proved significantly that Chinese patients who had smaller tumor, less number of nodules, low AFP level, Child Pugh Class A and received surgical treatment had a better median survival rate compared to other ethnic groups. Malay (cHR: 1.3, 95%CI; 0.89-1.85) and Indian (cHR: 1.3, 95%CI; 0.74-2.26) patients had a poor survival compared to Chinese patients, but not in the final model. Therefore ethnicity may play a role in survival of HCC patients, but not as a main hazard prognostic factor.

Influence of Ethnicity on Survival of Breast Cancer Patients in Turkey

  • Kuzhan, Abdurahman;Adli, Mustafa;Buyukhatipoglu, Hakan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.21
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    • pp.9199-9202
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    • 2014
  • Background: Kurdish women with breast cancer have more unfavorable prognostic factors than their Turkish and Arab counterparts. However, the effects of these factors on breast cancer survival among these ethnic groups remain unclear. We therefore investigated the impact of ethnicity on survival in breast cancer patients in Turkey. Materials and Methods: Ethnicity, age, stage at diagnosis, tumor characteristics, treatments given (surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormone therapy), and survival times were recorded. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to estimate the overall survival times and survival plots. Log-rank test was used to compare the survival curves.Results: Of the 723 breast cancer patients included in the study, 496 (68.7%) were Turkish, 189 (26.2%) were Kurdish, 37 (5.1%) were Arabic and 1 was Armenian. Kurdish women with breast cancer had larger tumor sizes and higher rates of hormone receptor negative tumors than Turkish and Arab patients. Mean follow-up time was 118.4 [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 95.4-141.3] months, and it was 129.9 (95% CI: 93.7-166.2), 124.2 (95% CI: 108.4-140.1) and 103.1 (95% CI: 85.9-120.4) months for Turkish, Arabic and Kurdish patients, respectively. Conclusions: Kurdish ethnicity is associated with higher rates of hormone receptor negative and triple-negative tumors and with worse survival. Clinical and epidemiological research is warranted to elucidate reasons underlying overall survival, variations in tumor biology, differences in treatment responsiveness, and effects of social factors among ethnic groups in Turkey.

Investigation of Dietary Behaviors According to Residence Status and Ethnicity of University Students in Yanbian, China (중국 연변지역 대학생들의 거주형태와 민족에 따른 식생활 연구)

  • Choe, Ja-Young;Cho, Mi-Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.38-48
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to examine dietary behaviors according to residence status and ethnicity of university students in Yanbian, China. For the subjects, 334 university students (Male=141, Female=193) answered a questionnaire about perception of weight control, dietary patterns, health habits, residence status, and ethnicity. Perception of weight, meal frequency, favorite kind of food, meal finishing time, skipping breakfast, type of breakfast, snack frequency, late-night snack frequency, exercise frequency, regular life, and sleeping time were all significantly associated with residence status. Motivation of weight control, meal frequency, regularity of meal time, meal volume, favorite kind of food, exercise time, and regular life were all significantly associated with ethnicity. University students who lived with their parents perceived their weight more properly, exhibited a more positive dietary pattern, and lived a more regular life than those students who lived in a dormitory with their friends. Chinese students exhibited a more regular dietary pattern and lived a more regular life than the Korean-Chinese students. As a result, both environmental and inherent factors are related with the dietary behaviors of university students in Yanbian, China. These data could be used to help university students in Yanbian, China attain a healthy diet.

Dental maturity of Saudi children: Role of ethnicity in age determination

  • Baghdadi, Ziad D.
    • Imaging Science in Dentistry
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.267-272
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: Demirjian's dental maturity scores and curves have been widely used for human age determination. Several authors have reported considerable differences between the true and estimated age based on the Demirjian curves, which have been accounted for by ethnicity. The purpose of the current study was to assess the role of ethnicity-specific dental maturation curves in age estimation of Saudi children. Materials and Methods: A sample of 452 healthy Saudi children aged 4 to 14 years were aged based on the original French-Canadian Demirjian curves and several modified Demirjian curves specified for certain ethnic groups: Saudi, Kuwaiti, Polish, Dutch, Pakistani, and Belgian. One-way ANOVA and a post hoc Scheff$\acute{e}$'s test were used to assess the differences between chronological age and dental age estimated by the different curves (P<0.05). Results: The curves designed for Dutch, Polish, Saudi, and Belgian (5th percentile) populations had a significantly lower error in estimating age than the original French-Canadian and Belgian (50th percentile) curves. The optimal curve for males was the Saudi one, with a mean absolute difference between estimated age and chronological age of 8.6 months. For females, the optimal curve was the Polish one, with a mean absolute difference of 7.4 months. It was revealed that accurate age determination was not related to certain ethnicity-specific curves. Conclusion: We conclude that ethnicity might play a role in age determination, but not a principal one.

Generational Differences in Ethnicity Maintenance of Korean-Chinese Ethnic Minority

  • Cho, Bok-Hee;Lee, Joo-Yeon
    • International Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.95-107
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    • 2007
  • The present study examined generational differences in ethnicity maintenance among Korean-Chinese to understand the impact of recent social change on a Korean-Chinese ethnic community in China. A total of 1355 Korean-Chinese (557 parents and 798 children), who live in Shenyang, China, participated in this study. The subjects were asked about their language use during daily conversations and cultural activities. They were also asked about their ethnic identity and perceptions of social distance from Chinese people. The results reveal that the Korean-Chinese parent generation is more likely to maintain its ethnic language, while the child generation is more likely to maintain its ethnic culture. Second, more parents than children considered themselves as 'Korean-Chinese' rather than 'Chinese'. Third, members of the child generation show less social distance from Chinese people than do the parent generation. These results show a strong tendency towards ethnicity maintenance among Korean Chinese as well as recent changes in the community. This study argues for the importance of school education and school environment in maintaining the ethnic language and culture of Korean-Chinese children.

Ethnicity and Urban Ethnic Places in American Cities: Fading Away or Resilient\ulcorner (북미도시의 민족성과 민족집단장소 이론의 지리학적 함의: 동화론 비판을 중심으로)

  • Youngmin Lee
    • Journal of the Korean Geographical Society
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    • v.36 no.5
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    • pp.527-538
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    • 2001
  • Viewed from the framework of world system, international migration is connected sometimes to unequal power relations by prejudice and discrimination in destination areas, or to equal power relations by intentional effort for harmonious multiculturalism. According to the existing ethnic relation theory, assimiationism, it is natural that ethnicity is fading away as the foreign immigrants of different ethnic background have long limed in a destination area, and thus the relative urban ethnic places are weakened and finally dissapeared. Through the various examples particularly on the United States, however, ethnicity would not be easily fading-away but be sustained for long time. Also, the characteristics of ethnicity or ethnic place are sometimes reivented or reconstructed as the various situation of multiculturalism is affected by postmodernism. Whether it is the thing made by ethnic segregation or by ethnic congregation, ethnicity and ethnic place are evidently a kind of affluent resources of culture and economy in the destination areas.

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The impact of lineup procedure, ethnicity and gender on face recognition (라인업 절차, 종족 및 성별이 얼굴 인식에 미치는 영향)

  • Jung, Woo-Hyun;Lee, Yl-Woo
    • Science of Emotion and Sensibility
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.307-316
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    • 2012
  • Two experiments were conducted to test effects of ethnicity and gender of face stimuli and lineup procedure on face recognition. In experiment 1, all stimuli were frontal male pictures of Southeast Asian and Northeast Asian. It was tested that whether accuracy of face recognition improve when ethnicity of participant and stimulus was identical (own-ethnicity advantage). In experiment 2, the 'own-gender advantage' was tested using images of Northeast Asian's frontal male and female faces. All participants were Northeast Asian. The results showed that the own-ethnicity advantage or the effect of line-up procedure was not found, but accuracy of face recognition was high when target face was Southeast Asian. Interestingly, the own-gender advantages was observed in only case of female participants. It was discussed that face recognition could be affected by attention.

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Cross cultural studies in a case of ethnicity: Green marketing (민족에 영향을 미치는 다문화 현상분석: 그린마케팅 관점)

  • Huh, Moo-yul
    • Journal of Digital Convergence
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    • v.14 no.12
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    • pp.477-487
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this current paper was to investigate into the trends and effects of green marketing in India and China with relations to ethnicity and cross cultural aspects. These two countries are fast developing and looks promising in terms of economic power but lack the green marketing consciousness compared to other well developed countries. Many measures are being taken by various industries for the promotion of green awareness in these countries. The two countries are fast developing in the area of green marketing. Green marketing should improve its methods utilizing the cultural differences that is evident from previous research. In the near future, more active green marketing targeting and informing consumers of environmental benefits will be needed by taking ethnicity into consideration for further heightening of overall environmental awareness and initiative.

Racial/Ethnic Residential Segregation : A Case Study of Asian Immigrants in Chicago illinois PMSA (인종.민족별 거주지 분화 이론에 대한 고찰과 평가 -미국 시카고 아시아인을 사례로-)

  • Chung, Su-Yeul
    • Journal of the Korean Geographical Society
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.511-525
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    • 2008
  • Residential segregation is often considered to be one of the social problems that intensify urban inequality This study reviews three different frameworks about the causes of residential segregation and tests their validity in the real world. The review focuses on racial/ethnic residential segregation in U.S. cities since it has been blamed for persistent socio-economic gap among racial/ethnic groups. The three different segregation frameworks include 'spatial assimilation' that attributes segregation to low degree of assimilation and acculturation, 'place stratification' to discriminatory practices in the housing and mortgage markets such as steering, blockbusting, and redlining, and 'resurgent ethnicity' to racial/ethnic preference in residential choice, particularly in-group attraction. As an effort to test their validity, the paper examined residential pattern changes of the four major Asian nationality groups through 1990s and found that their residences got decentralized but re-cluster in some selected suburbs. This supports 'resurgent ethnicity' largely and 'spatial assimilation' only partly.