• Title, Summary, Keyword: ethnic variation

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Genetic Variation in a DNA Double Strand Break Repair Gene in Saudi Population: A Comparative Study with Worldwide Ethnic Groups

  • Areeshi, Mohammed Yahya
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.12
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    • pp.7091-7094
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    • 2013
  • DNA repair capacity is crucial in maintaining cellular functions and homeostasis. However, it can be altered based on DNA sequence variations in DNA repair genes and this may lead to the development of many diseases including malignancies. Identification of genetic polymorphisms responsible for reduced DNA repair capacity is necessary for better prevention. Homologous recombination (HR), a major double strand break repair pathway, plays a critical role in maintaining the genome stability. The present study was performed to determine the frequency of the HR gene XRCC3 Exon 7 (C18067T, rs861539) polymorphisms in Saudi Arabian population in comparison with epidemiological studies by "MEDLINE" search to equate with global populations. The variant allelic (T) frequency of XRCC3 (C>T) was found to be 39%. Our results suggest that frequency of XRCC3 (C>T) DNA repair gene exhibits distinctive patterns compared with the Saudi Arabian population and this might be attributed to ethnic variation. The present findings may help in high-risk screening of humans exposed to environmental carcinogens and cancer predisposition in different ethnic groups.

GSTM1 and GSTT1 Allele Frequencies among Various Indian and non-Indian Ethnic Groups

  • Senthilkumar, K.P.;Thirumurugan, R.
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.12
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    • pp.6263-6267
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    • 2012
  • Background: Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) is an important phase II xenobiotic compound metabolizing enzyme family, involved in tolerance to a particular drug or susceptibility to a diseasec. This study focused the GSTM1 and T1 null allele frequency in the Gujarat population with a comparison across other Inter- and Intra-Indian ethnic groups to predict variation in the possible susceptible status. Methods: DNA was isolated by a salting out method and GSTM1 and T1 homozygous null genotypes were detected by multiplex polymerase chain reaction in 504 unrelated individuals. The genotype distribution of null alleles was compared with Indian and non Indian ethnics reported earlier in the literature using Fisher's test. Results: The frequencies of the homozygous null genotypes of GSTM1 and GSTT1 were 20% (95%CI 16.7-23.9) and 35.5% (95%CI 31.4-39.9) respectively. GSTM1 null frequency did not deviate from most other Indian ethnic groups but differed from the majority of those of non Indian ethnicity studied. The frequency of homozygous null type of GSTT1 was significantly higher and deviated from all Indian groups and a few of non Indian ethnicity. Conclusions: Gujarat ethnicity, possibly the most susceptible for GSTT1 dependent drug disposition and diseases regarding effects of pollution. Further, the results have implications for GSTT1 dependent drugs used for treatment, a serious problem which needs to be solved by physicians and clinical researchers.

Dopamine Transporter Gene Polymorphism in ADHD (주의력결핍 과잉운동장애에서 도파민 수송체 유전자 다형성)

  • Shin, Dongwon
    • Korean Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.8-14
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    • 2002
  • Patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) have symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity. Symptoms of ADHD are responsive to medications such as methylphenidate, dextroamphetamine, pemoline, and bupropion. The functional change of the dopamine transporter is related to the therapeutic effect of these drugs. This can be one reason for the dopamine transporter to be emphasized in the research field of ADHD. ADHD has a genetic tendency. Since dopamine transporter gene(DAT1) knock out mice were reported to be several times more active than normal mice in a novel situation, lights has been shed on DAT1 as a candidate gene for ADHD. Though there have been several studies which reported an association between DAT1 and ADHD, the association between DAT1 and ADHD is not conclusive. Since Vandenbergh reported the DAT1 polymorphism with variable number of tandem repeats(VNTR), and the racial differences in allelic frequencies of the DAT1, wide ethnic variation in the distribution of the DAT1 polymorphism had been confirmed. Wide ethnic variation in the distribution of the DAT1 suggested that there might be ethnic difference in the association between DAT1 and ADHD. Before applying previous findings to Koreans, verification might be needed for Korean patients with ADHD.

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A Cephalometric Analysis of Korean Adult Normal Occlusion (두부X-선 규격사진의 계측에 의한 한국인 성인 정상교합자의 악안면두개골격의 분석)

  • Lee, Ki-Soo;Chung, Kyu-Rhim
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.199-213
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    • 1987
  • Upon analyzing the literature, it becomes apparent that norms for orthodontic diagnosis were from normal occlusion with pleasing face, and that the form and size of craniofacial skeleton were different between racial or ethnic groups. Therefore, this study was intended to establish Korean adult norms be useful for diagnosing the cases and to compare those to other ethnic or racial groups. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken of ninety-one Korean adults with normal occlusion showing pleasing face consisted in forty-three males and forty-eight females. The subjects ranged in age from seventeen to twenty-six years. The tracings involved measurements that were analyzed with a digitizer. The findings of this study can be summarized as follows, 1. Norms of Korean adult males, females, and combined sexes were established. 2 It was found that in the form and shape of craniofacial skeleton, there were no significant differences between males and females, but in the size males were larger than females 3. There were a great variation between ethnic or racial groups in the measurements of craniofacial skeleton 4 The size of Korean cranial base was smaller than the American Caucasian. 5 The maxilla and mandible of Korean were less protruded than those of the other ethnic groups 6 The dental pattern of Korean were more proclined than that of the American Caucasian and less protruded than that of the American Negro and the North Indian.

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Characteristics of Pattern Design from Dries Van Noten Collection (드리스 반 노텐의 컬렉션에 나타난 문양디자인 특성)

  • Kim, Chanju;Ro, Mikyung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.63 no.5
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    • pp.115-131
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    • 2013
  • Dries Van Noten, one of the Antwerp Six, focused on recreating traditional attire from each region to complex contemporary attire and has shown designs that interpreted ethnic image in contemporary perspective from his very first collection. He has positioned himself as a designer with creative expression of ethnic image through broad use of various patterns. This paper analyze the use of pattern in Dries Van Noten's designs by season and item, and reflects on the characteristics of pattern use and influence on fashion image. Total of 887 clothing items were collected from Noten's collections on the Internet. Through analysis of frequency and percentage and cross tab of expression techniques, types, patterns of each motif, and classifications of print combinations, it was shown that Noten has applied six aesthetic rules in the use of pattern design. Pattern played the most significant role in his design. It was possible to achieve the balance of ethnic image and modern image with the mix of flower and abstract motives. Overall pattern was mostly used for practical purpose: border patterns and spaced patterns played a vital role in rendering uniqueness. Noten exhibited unity and variation in combining prints. He expressed the beauty of Oriental style by inserting solid color blocks in between patterns and decorations along trim lines.

Genetic Epidemiology of Renin-Angiotensin System in Korean Population

  • Kang, Byung-Yong;Bae, Joon-Seol;Kim, Ki-Tae;Oh, Ju-Hyung;Lee, Kang-Oh;Ryu, Jae-Chun;Kim, Jae-Hyoun;Oh, Sang-Duk;Yoon, Moon-Young;Lee, Chung-Choo
    • Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.12-21
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    • 2002
  • Genetic polymorphisms of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) have been associated with hypertension in various ethnic groups, but no relation between these polymorphisms and hypertension has yet been systematically evaluated. To assess the relationship between allelic variation of RAS genes and hypertension, we performed the case-control studies using genetic markers in Korean normotensives and hypertensives. The allele and genotype frequencies of RAS genes in Korean population were not significantly different between normotensives and hypertensives. To investigate the distribution of allele frequencies among various populations, the data obtained in this study were compared to those in other ethnic groups studied previously. Except for T174M polymorphism of angiotensinogen (AGT) gene, allele frequencies of RAS genes were different among racial groups. The reason for these differences may be due to the difference in various genetic or environmental background or due to the effects by various sample size studied. In addition, it can be emphasized that carefully designed studies are required to minimize the ethnic heterogeneity of the case and control populations.

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The Study on Globalization of Traditional Costume - Connection With Modernity and Post-Modernity - (전통 복식의 세계화에 대한 연구 - 근대성, 탈근대성과 관련하여 -)

  • 임영자;유순례
    • Journal of the Korea Fashion and Costume Design Association
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.117-127
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    • 2001
  • In the 1980's discuss in the postmodernism and at the 1990's that is globalization. Globalization is the compression of time and space. That is the products of modernism and postmodernism. Global trends are the multiculturalism, localism, tribuism, etc. These trends have a important effect modern fashion. 20th fashion have a modernity -variation, functionalism and popularity, postmodernity-uncertainty, multiculturalism, post structuralism, etc. If Korean fashion have the globality, open to the world other country and culture, deep study of that, and view point of intercultureity. This Study Suggest to achieve globalize of Korean costume. 1. Plon up base on the scholastic study of giobalization. 2. Promote global project of Korean collection. 3. Collect of ethnic, culture, information of fashion America, Europe, etc. and make high up our a sense of disorimination. 4. Manifold studing abroad 5. Strergthening of globalization and ethnic curriculum on Educational course

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High Occurrence of Non-Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma in Oman

  • Venniyoor, Ajit;Essam, Abdul Monem;Ramadhan, Fatma;Keswani, Heeranand;Mehdi, Itrat;Bahrani, Bassim Al
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.2801-2804
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    • 2016
  • It is conventionally accepted that renal cell carcinoma (RCC) occurs in older patients and the clear cell type is the most common histology. However, ethnic variations exist and this study was carried out to determine the epidemiological pattern of RCC in Oman. Ninety RCC patients who presented to a tertiary care center in the Sultanate of Oman from 2010 to 2014 were studied. The main findings were that the median age of presentation was low, more patients presented with localized stage, and there was a higher incidence of non-clear (especially papillary) histology. Data from other Gulf countries and possible reasons for the different profile are discussed.

Lack of Association of BRCA1 and BRCA2 Variants with Breast Cancer in an Ethnic Population of Saudi Arabia, an Emerging High-Risk Area

  • Hasan, Tarique Noorul;Shafi, Gowhar;Syed, Naveed Ahmed;Alsaif, Mohammed Abdullah;Alsaif, Abdulaziz Abdullah;Alshatwi, Ali Abdullah
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.10
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    • pp.5671-5674
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    • 2013
  • Incidence of breast cancer shows geographical variation, even within areas of ethnic homogeneity. Saudi Arabia has witnessed an increase in occurrence of breast cancer in its unexplored ethnic populations over the past few years. We aimed at determining whether any association exists between single nucleotide polymorphisms in breast cancer associated gene 1 (BRCA1) and breast cancer associated gene 2 (BRCA2) and the risk of breast cancer. TaqMan based Real Time Polymerase chain reaction genotyping assays were used to determine the frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms in BRCA1 (rs799917) and BRCA2 (rs144848) in a group of 100 breast cancer patients and unaffected age matched controls of Saudi Arabian origin. The present data revealed that neither BRCA1 nor the BRCA2 studied variant show any significant association with the disease. This study failed to find any role of the concerned variants in breast cancer either as risk or as prognostic factors. The small number of patients registered was one of the limitations of this study. In summary, comparison of mutation profile with other ethnic populations and regions reflected both differences and similarities indicating co-exposure to a unique set of risk factors. The differences could be due to exposure to particular environmental carcinogens; different lifestyle, reproductive pattern; dietary or cultural practices of Saudi Arabian women that need further investigations.

The Maori, Behavior, Modern Diets and Colorectal Cancers

  • Caldararo, Niccolo
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.1711-1712
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    • 2012
  • Variation in diet and the rates of colorectal cancers have confounded researchers in recent years. Comparisons of populations in different geographic locations and of different ethnic origins have shown considerable differences in disease frequency, location and relation to diet. This paper revisits an earlier comparison of Maori rates of disease and diet based on data from 20 years ago with surprising changes in disease rates today.