• Title, Summary, Keyword: estrogen related receptor alpha

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Prediction and Analysis of Ligands against Estrogen Related Receptor Alpha

  • Chitrala, Kumaraswamy Naidu;Yeguvapalli, Suneetha
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.2371-2375
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    • 2013
  • Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women around the world. Among the various hormonal types of breast cancer, those that are estrogen receptor (ER) positive account for the majority. Among the estrogen related receptors, estrogen related receptor ${\alpha}$ is known to have a potential role in breast cancer and is one of the therapeutic target. Hence, prediction of novel ligands interact with estrogen related receptor alpha is therapeutically important. The present study, aims at prediction and analysis of ligands from the KEGG COMPOUND database (containing 10,739 entries) able to interact against estrogen receptor alpha using a similarity search and molecular docking approach.

Gene Expression Pattern during Early Embryogenesis and Transcriptional Activities of Estrogen Receptor-Related Receptor(ERR) in Sea Urchin, Strongylocentrotus nudus (둥근성게(Strongylocentrotus nudus) Estrogen Receptor-Related Receptor(ERR)의 초기 발생시 유전자 발현 패턴과 전사 활성)

  • Maeng, Se-Jung;Kim, Mi-Soon;Sohn, Young-Chang
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.249-256
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    • 2009
  • The estrogen receptor-related receptors (ERRs) are a group of nuclear receptor superfamily of transcription factors. ERRs and estrogen receptors (ERs) have overlapping affinities for coactivators and DNA binding sites, but differ markedly in ligand binding and activation. The three mammalian ERR genes have been implicated in diverse physiological processes ranging from placental development to maintenance of bone density, whereas the molecular diversity, function, and regulation of ERRs in non-mammalian species are not well understood. In the present study, to investigate the involvement of ERR in transcription and embryogenesis in marine invertebrates, a cDNA encoding ERR (SnERR) was cloned from the gonad in Strongylocentrotus nudus, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The amino acid sequence of SnERR showed high homology with that of S. purpuratus (91%). A phylogenetic tree clearly showed that SnERR is a member of the ERR family and clustered in echinodermata group as supported by a high bootstrap value. We examined gene expression of SnERR during embryonic development of S. nudus using real-time PCR. During the embryonic development, the mRNA of ERR was significantly high levels in early development stages (4~64 cell) and larval stages. The SnERR slightly activated transcription through the classical estrogen response elements (EREs) in the presence of genistein. In addition, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor $\gamma$ coactivator (PGC)-$1\alpha$ knwon as a coactivator of ERR enhanced the snERR-mediated transactivation, suggesting that the PGC-$1\alpha$ is a coactivator of SnERR.

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Estrogen Receptor α Roles in Breast Cancer Chemoresistance

  • Xu, Chao-Yang;Jiang, Zhi-Nong;Zhou, Ying;Li, Jia-Jia;Huang, Li-Ming
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.7
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    • pp.4049-4052
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    • 2013
  • Resistance to chemotherapy treatment, which may lead to limited efficacy of systemic therapy in breast cancer patients, is multifactorial. Among the mechanisms of resistance to chemotherapy treatment, there are those closely related to estrogen receptor ${\alpha}$, P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance-related protein, glutathione S-transferase pi and topoisomerase-II. $ER{\alpha}$ is ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates gene expression and plays a critical role in endocrine signaling. In previous preclinical and clinical studies, positive $ER{\alpha}$ expression in breast cancer cells was correlated with decreased sensitivity to chemotherapy. This article reviews current knowledge on the predictive value of $ER{\alpha}$ with regard to response to chemotherapy. Better understanding of its role may facilitate patient selection of therapeutic regimens and lead to optimal clinical outcomes.

Testicular Expression of Steroidogenic Enzyme Genes Is Related to a Transient Increase in Serum 19-nortestosterone during Neonatal Development in Pigs

  • Choi, Nag-Jin;Hyun, Jin Hee;Choi, Jae Min;Lee, Eun Ju;Cho, Kyung Hyun;Kim, Yunje;Chang, Jongsoo;Chung, Il Byung;Chung, Chung Soo;Choi, Inho
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.12
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    • pp.1832-1842
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    • 2007
  • Cytochrome P450 aromatase is responsible for the biosynthesis of estrogen. It is also responsible for the endogenous production of 19-nortestosterone (nandrolone), an anabolic androgen unique to pigs. Plasma concentrations of 19-nortestosterone are highest between two and four weeks after birth in male pigs. In the present study, the physiology of 19-nortestosterone was investigated by measuring the mRNA levels of steroidogenic enzymes, estrogen receptors and androgen receptor in the tissues of growing pigs. The expression of aromatase, 17${\alpha}$-hydroxylase and 3${\beta}$-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in the testes of male piglets increased between birth and two weeks of age, and then decreased progressively. Similar developmental expressional patterns were observed for 17${\alpha}$-hydroxylase and 3${\beta}$-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in the ovaries of female piglets, but without significant aromatase expression. The major form of aromatase expressed in the testes of piglets was identified as type I. Expression of estrogen receptor-${\alpha}$ and -${\beta}$and androgen receptor genes was also detected in both testes and ovaries. A transient elevation of androgen receptor mRNA in male piglets at two weeks of age was also observed in testes. Significant expression of the androgen receptor gene, but not of estrogen receptor-${\alpha}$ and -${\beta}$ genes, was also demonstrated in adipose tissue and muscle. We conclude that the observed increase in the testicular expression of aromatase in male pigs could account for the production of large amounts of 19-nortestosterone at between two and four weeks of age in males. Androgen receptor and 19-nortestosterone appeared to be important for testicular development and might contribute to sexual dimorphism in body composition and muscle development in juvenile pigs.

The Relationship Between the Expression of Estrogen Receptor ${\beta}$ and Recurrence in Breast Cancer (에스트로겐 수용체 ${\beta}$ 발현과 유방암 재발과의 관련성)

  • Kang, Su-Hwan;Choi, Jung-Eun;Lee, Soo-Jung
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.153-164
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    • 2011
  • Background: It has been reported that estrogen receptor beta ($ER{\beta}$) mRNA expression was down-regulated during carcinogenesis and was inversely related to estrogen receptor alpha ($ER{\alpha}$) expression in breast cancer. The association of $ER{\beta}$ mRNA expression to tamoxifen resistance has also been reported. In this study, the expression of $ER{\alpha}$ and $ER{\beta}$ via immunohistochemistry (IHC) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was prompted, and an attempt was made to find out the relationship between $ER{\beta}$ expression and recurrence in the hormonal therapy group, and between $ER{\beta}$ expression and known prognostic factors. Methods: Tumor specimens were obtained at surgery from 67 female breast cancer patients during the period of September 1995 to December 2000. All the specimens were frozen in liquid nitrogen and kept at $-70^{\circ}C$ until they were used. The medical records were analyzed retrospectively. The expressions of ER were analyzed using IHC and RT-PCR methods. Results: The median follow-up was at 93.0 months (range: 14-157 months). The percentage of $ER{\alpha}+/ER{\beta}+$, $ER{\alpha}+/ER{\beta}-$, $ER{\alpha}-/ER{\beta}+$, and $ER{\alpha}-/ER{\beta}$ group were 35.9% 9.4%, 47.2%, and 7.5%, respectively, in 53 patients with hormonal therapy. $ER{\beta}$ was positive in 42 (82.3%) of 51 ER-positive patients. In the hormonal therapy group, the recurrence rates of each group was 15.8%, 0%, 40.0%, and 0%, respectively. In this group, the $ER{\beta}$ expression tended to recur, but there was no clinical significance (p=0.084). Conclusion: The $ER{\beta}$ expression may be a predictive marker of a poor response to endocrine therapy in breast cancer patients, although this needs to be confirmed in additional studies.

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Molecular Cloning and Characterization of the Estrogen Receptor from the Slender Bitterling (Acheilognathus yamatsutae)

  • Kim, Jong-Geuk;Kim, Ha-Ryong;Park, Yong-Joo;Chung, Kyu-Hyuck;Oh, Seung-Min
    • Environmental health and toxicology
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    • v.26
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    • pp.5.1-5.11
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    • 2011
  • Objectives: In order to identify the possibility of slender bitterling (SB) (Acheilognathus yamatsutae) being used as a test species for estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EEDCs), we carried out the cloning and sequence characterization of the estrogen receptor (ER). Methods: The ER from a slender bitterling was obtained by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), 5'- and 3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (5'-RACE and 3'-RACE) and T-vector cloning. The expression of ER mRNA was also analyzed in six tissues (brain, liver, kidney, gill, gonad, and intestines) by real-time PCR. Results: We obtained an ER from the slender bitterling. The SB ER cDNA was 2189 base pairs (bp) in length and contained a 1707 bp open reading frame that encoded 568 amino acid residues. The SB ER amino acid sequence clustered in a monophyletic group with the $ER{\alpha}$ of other fish, and was more closely related to zebrafish $ER{\alpha}$(88% identity) than to the $ER{\alpha}$ of other fish. The SB ER cDNA was divided into A/B, C, D, E and F domains. The SB ER has conserved important sequences for ER functions, such as the DNA binding domain (D domain), which are consistent with those of other teleosts. Conclusions: The ER of the slender bitterling could provide basic information in toxicological studies of EEDCs in the slender bitterling.

Differential expression of glycoconjugates, estrogen receptor-α, c-fos and c-jun in the vagina of normal and ovariectomized rat (흰쥐 발정주기와 난소절제에 따른 질상피의 glycoconjugates, estrogen receptor-α, c-fos 및 c-jun 분포변화)

  • 최병태;길영기;김강련;김순옥;최영현;이준혁
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.317-324
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    • 2002
  • We investigated the compositional changes of glycoconjugates (GCs) and expression of estrogen receptor (ER)-$\alpha$, c-fos and c-jun in the vagina of normal and ovariectomized rats by histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. The mucinous transformation of the superficial layer that occurred from late diestrus to proestrus was accompanied with extensive enrichment of GCs. According to the cyclic changes of the vagina, distinct reactivity patterns such as SBA affinity in the diestrus and Con A affinity in the diestrus and estrus phase was observed. However, weak staining for GCs was detected in the atrophied vaginal epithelium of ovariectomized rats. ER-$\alpha$ immunoreaction was mainly demonstrated in the basal layer of epithelium and estrus cycle-related variation in the number of ER-$\alpha$ immunoreaction were not pronounced. But the stromal cells showing ER-$\alpha$ immunoreaction were abundantly observed from diestrus to estrus phase. The most numerous c-fos immunoreactive cells were observed in the basal and intermediate layer of epithelium and stromal fells from the proestrus to estrus phase and c-jun in the basal layer of epithelium during estrus phase. The c-jun immunoreaction of stromal cells expressed only in the estrus phase. In the ovariectomized rats, a few of ER-$\alpha$, c-fos and c-jun immunoreactive cells were observed in the vaginal epithelium and no immunoreaction were found in the stromal cells. ER-$\alpha$ and c-fos immunoreaction fully expressed in the proestrus coincident with the cell proliferation, mutinous transformation and cornification of vaginal epithelium. These data indicate that vagina epithelium and stromal reals express multiple protein such as ER-$\alpha$, c-fos and c-iun by estrogen that may function in process of cells proliferation and differentiation of vagina epithelium.

Estrogen-related receptor γ is a novel catabolic regulator of osteoarthritis pathogenesis

  • Son, Young-Ok;Chun, Jang-Soo
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.51 no.4
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    • pp.165-166
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    • 2018
  • Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and is a leading cause of disability with a large socioeconomic cost. OA is a whole-joint disease characterized by cartilage destruction, synovial inflammation, osteophyte formation, and subchondral bone sclerosis. To date, however, no effective disease-modifying therapies for OA have been developed. The estrogen-related receptors (ERRs), a family of orphan nuclear receptor transcription factors, are composed of $ERR{\alpha}$, $ERR{\beta}$, and $ERR{\gamma}$, which play diverse biological functions such as cellular energy metabolism. However, the role of ERRs in OA pathogenesis has not been studied yet. Among the ERR family members, $ERR{\gamma}$ is markedly upregulated in human and various models of mouse OA cartilage. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of $ERR{\gamma}$ in the mouse knee joint tissue caused OA pathogenesis. Additionally, cartilage-specific $ERR{\gamma}$ transgenic (Tg) mice exhibited enhanced experimental OA. Consistently, $ERR{\gamma}$ in articular chondrocytes directly caused expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 3 and MMP13, which play a crucial role in cartilage destruction. In contrast, genetic ablation of Esrrg or shRNA-mediated Esrrg silencing in the joint tissues abrogated experimental OA in mice. These results collectively indicated that $ERR{\gamma}$ is a novel catabolic regulator of OA pathogenesis and can be used as a therapeutic target for OA.

Repression of $PPAR{\gamma}$ Activity on Adipogenesis by $17{\beta}$-estradiol in Differentiated 3T3-L1 Cell

  • Yoon, Mi-Chung;Jeong, Sun-Hyo
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.179-185
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    • 2009
  • In our previous report, we showed that $PPAR{\gamma}$ does not influence adipogenesis in females with functioning ovaries, indicating that $PPAR{\gamma}$ activity on adipogenesis is associated with sex-related factors. Among the sex-related factors, estrogen has been recognized as a major factor in inhibiting adiposgenesis in females. Thus, we hypothensized that $17{\beta}$-estradiol (E) inhibits 3T3-L1 cell adipogenesis by preventing $PPAR{\gamma}$ activity. E decreased triglyceirde accumulation in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells compared with control group. E also decreased the expression of $PPAR{\gamma}$ mRNA as well as $PPAR{\gamma}$ dependent adipocyte-specific genes, such as adipocyte fatty acid binding protein and tumor necrosis factor $\alpha$. In addition, E not only decreased luciferase reporter activity by $PPAR{\gamma}$, but also transfection of estrogen receptor $\alpha$ ($ER{\alpha}$) or $ER{\beta}$ led to decreases in $PPAR{\gamma}$ reporter gene activation. Moreover, E-activated ERs significantly decreased the luciferase reporter gene activation induced by $PPAR{\gamma}$ transfection, suggesting that estrogen-activated ERs inhibit $PPAR{\gamma}$-dependent transactivation. Accordingly, our results demonstrate that E inhibits the action of $PPAR{\gamma}$ on adipogenesis through E activated ER, providing evidence that lack of estrogen may potentiate $PPAR{\gamma}$ action on adipogenesis.

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Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulation by Larrea nitida on MCF-7 Cell Proliferation and Immature Rat Uterus

  • Ahn, Hye-Na;Jeong, Si-Yeon;Bae, Gyu-Un;Chang, Minsun;Zhang, Dongwei;Liu, Xiyuan;Pei, Yihua;Chin, Young-Won;Lee, Joongku;Oh, Sei-Ryang;Song, Yun Seon
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.347-354
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    • 2014
  • Larrea nitida is a plant that belongs to the Zygophyllaceae family and is widely used in South America to treat inflammatory diseases, tumors and menstrual pain. However, its pharmacological activity remains unclear. In this study we evaluated the property of selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) of Larrea nitida extracts (LNE) as a phytoestrogen that can mimic, modulate or disrupt the actions of endogenous estrogens, depending on the tissue and relative amount of other SERMs. To investigate the property of SERM of LNE, we performed MCF-7 cell proliferation assays, estrogen response element (ERE)-luciferase reporter gene assay, human estrogen receptor (hER) binding assays and in vivo uterotrophic assay. To gain insight into the active principles, we performed a bioassay-guided analysis of LNE employing solvents of various polarities and using classical column chromatography, which yielded 16 fractions (LNs). LNE showed high binding affinities for $hER{\alpha}$ and $hER{\beta}$ with $IC_{50}$ values of $1.20{\times}10^{-7}$ g/ml and $1.00{\times}10^{-7}$ g/ml, respectively. LNE induced $17{\beta}$-estradiol (E2)-induced MCF-7 cell proliferation, however, it reduced the proliferation in the presence of E2. Furthermore, LNE had an atrophic effect in the uterus of immature rats through reducing the expression level of progesterone receptor (PR) proteins. LN08 and LN10 had more potent affinities for binding on $hER{\alpha}$ and ${\beta}$ than other fractions. Our results indicate that LNE had higher binding affinities for $hER{\beta}$ than $hER{\alpha}$, and showed SERM properties in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and the rat uterus. LNE may be useful for the treatment of estrogen-related conditions, such as female cancers and menopause.