• Title, Summary, Keyword: estrogen receptor

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Estrogen Modulation of Human Breast Cancer Cell Growth

  • Lee, Hyung-Ok;Sheen, Yhun-Yhong
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.566-571
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    • 1997
  • To gain further insight into how estrogens modulate cell function, the effects of estrogen on cell proliferation were studied inhuman breast cancer cells. We examined the effects of estrogen on the proliferation of three human breast cancer cell lines that differed in their estrogen receptor contents. Ten nM estradiol markedly stimulated the proliferation of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells that contained high levels of estrogen receptor $1.15{\pm}0.03 pmole/mg protein)$(over that of control. In T47D cells that contained low levels of estrogen receptor $0.23{\pm}0.05 pmole/mg protein)$, Ten nM estrogen slightly stimulated the proliferation over that of control. MDA-MB-231 cells, that contained no detectable levels of estrogen receptors, had their growth unaffected by estrogen. These results showed their sensitivity to growth stimulation by estrogen correlated well with their estrogen receptor content. Also we examined the effect of estrogen on cellular progesterone receptor level as well as plasminogen activator activity in MCF-7 cells. Ten nM estradiol showed maximal stimulation of progesterone receptor level as well as plasminogen activator activity in MCF-7 cells. It is not clear whether these stimulations of progesterone receptor and plasminogen activator activity by estrogen are related to the estrogen stimulation of cell proliferation of MCF-7 cells. Studies with estrogen in human breast cancer cells in culture indicate that sensitivity to growth stimulation by estrogen correlates well with estrogen receptor contents.

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Effects of $17{\beta}$-Estradiol and Estrogen Receptor Antagonists on the Proliferation of Gastric Cancer Cell Lines

  • Kim, Myung-Jin;Cho, Sung-Il;Lee, Kun-Ok;Han, Hyung-Joon;Song, Tae-Jin;Park, Seong-Heum
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.172-178
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: The aims of this study were as follow: 1) to de scribe the expression status of estrogen receptor-${\alpha}$ and -${\beta}$ mRNAs in five gastric carcinoma cell lines; 2) to evaluate in vitro the effects of $17{\beta}$-estradiol and estrogen receptor antagonists on the proliferation of the cell lines. Materials and Methods: Detection of estrogen receptor-${\alpha}$ and estrogen receptor-${\beta}$ mRNA in five human gastric cancer cell lines (AGS, KATO III, MKN28, MKN45 and MKN74) was made by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction system. To evaluate the effect of $17{\beta}$-estradiol and estrogen receptor antagonists on the proliferation of gastric cancer cell line, the cell lines which expressed both es trogen receptors were chosen and treated with $17{\beta}$-estradiol and estrogen receptor antagonists (methyl-piperidino-pyrazole and pyrazolo [1,5-a] pyrimidine). Cell proliferation was assessed with the methylthiazol tetrazolium test. Results: Estrogen receptor-${\alpha}$ and estrogen receptor-${\beta}$ mRNAs were expressed in three (KATO III, MKN28 and MKN45) and all of the five gastric cancer cell lines, respectively. At higher concentrations, $17{\beta}$-estradiol inhibited cell growth of MKN28, MKN45 and KATO III cell lines. Neither estrogen receptor-${\alpha}$ nor estrogen receptor-${\beta}$ antagonist blocked the anti-proliferative effect of $17{\beta}$-estradiol. Conclusions: Our results indicate that estrogen receptor-${\beta}$ mRNAs are preferentially expressed in gastric cancers and also imply that hormone therapy rather than estrogen receptor blockers may be a useful strategy for the treatment of estrogen receptor-${\beta}$ positive gastric cancer. Its therapeutic significance in gastric cancer are, however, limited until more evidence of the roles of estrogen receptors in the gastric cancer are accumulated.

Antiestrogen Interaction with Estrogen Receptors and Additional Antiestrogen Binding sites in Human Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cells

  • Ahn, Mee-Ryung;Sheen, Yhun-Yhong
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.579-585
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    • 1997
  • To gain further insight into the mechanism of action of antiestrogens, we examined the interaction of antiestrogen with the estrogen receptor system and with estrogen- noncompetable antiestrogen binding sites. In addition to binding directly to the estrogen receptor, antiestrogens can be found associated with binding sites that are distinct from the estrogen receptor. In contrast to the restriction of estrogen receptors to estrogen target cells, such as those of uterus and mammary glands, antiestrogen binding sites are present in equal amounts in estrogen receptor-positive and -negative human breast cancer cell lines, such as MCF-7, T47D, and MDA-MB-231 that differ markedly in their sensitivity to antiestrogens. In order to gain greater insight into the role of these antiestrogen binding sites in the action of antiestrogens, we have examined the biopotency of different antiestrogens for the antiestrogen binding sites and that is CI628 > tamoxifen > trans-hydroxy tamoxifen > CI628M > H1285 > LY117018. This order of affinities does not parallel the affinity of these compounds for the estrogen receptor nor the potency of these compounds as antiestrogens. Indeed, compounds with high affinity for the estrogen receptor and greatest antiestrogenic potency have low affinities for these antiestrogen binding sites. Antiestrogenic potency correlates best with estrogen receptor affinity and not with affinity for antiestrogen binding sites. In summary, our findings suggested that interaction with the estrogen receptor is most likely the mechanism through which antiestrogens evoke their growth inhibitory effects.

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Ginsenoside-Rb1 Acts as a Weak Estrogen Receptor Agonist Independent of Ligand Binding.

  • Park, Wan-Kyu;Jungyoon Cho;Lee, Young-Joo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
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    • pp.114-114
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    • 2003
  • Ginseng is a medicinal herb widely used in Asian countries, and its pharmacological effects has been demonstrated in various systems such as cardiovascular, central nervous, and endocrine systems. Its effects are mainly attributed to the ginsenosides. We hypothesize that a component of Panax ginseng, ginsenoside-Rbl, acts by binding to estrogen receptor. We have investigated the estrogenic activity of ginsenoside-Rbl in a transient transfection system using estrogen receptors ${\alpha}$ or ${\beta}$ with estrogen -responsive luciferase plasmids in COS monkey kidney cells. Ginsenoside-Rbl activated both estrogen receptors ${\alpha}$ and ${\beta}$ in a dose-dependent manner (0.5 -100 M ). Activation was inhibited by the specific estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780, indicating that the estrogenic effect of ginsenoside-Rbl is estrogen receptor dependent. Next, we evaluated the ability of ginsenoside-Rbl to induce estrogen-responsive progesterone receptor gene by semi-quantitative RT-PCR assays. MCF-7 cells treated with l7${\beta}$-estradiol or ginsenoside- Rb1 exhibited an increased expression of progesterone receptor mRNA. However, ginsenoside-Rbl failed to displace the specific binding of [3H]17${\beta}$-estradiol to estrogen receptor in MCF-7 cells as examined by whole cell ligand binding assays, suggesting that there is no direct interaction of ginsenoside-Rbl with estrogen receptor. Our results indicate that estrogen-like activity of ginsenoside-Rbl is independent of direct estrogen receptor association.

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The Determinations of Estrogen and Progesterone Receptor in Breast Cancer Cell by Radioimmunoabbay Method (방사선면역법(放射線免疫法)에 의(依)한 유방암세포내(乳房癌細胞內)의 Estrogen과 Progesterone 수용체(受容體)의 측정(測定))

  • Kim, Chi-Yeul
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.53-57
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    • 1981
  • The estrogen and progesterone receptors which are bound to the cytoplasmic protein of cancer cells were measured in 20 patients with the early breast cancer by means of radioimmunoassay using charcoal. 1. The Patients with estrogen receptor positive were 13 (65%) of 20 cases and with progestrone receptor positive were 7 cases (35%) in the early breast cancer. 2. Coexistence of estrogen and progesterone receptor positive was noted in 7 cases (35%). The cases of estrogen receptor positive and progesterone receptor negative were 6 cases (33.3%), while there were no cases of estrogen receptor negative with progestrone receptor positive. 3. Coincidence of estrogen and progesterone negative was notied in 7 cases(35%). Conclusively, it is considered that the measurement of estrogen and progesterone receptors has relevance as predictive value, in the response to hormonal manipulations and chemotherapy for breast cancer patients.

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Loss of estrogen responsiveness under hypoxia occurs through hypoxia inducible factor-l induced proteasome-dependent down regulation of estrogen receptor

  • Cho, Jung-Yoon;Kim, Duk-Kyung;Lee, Young-Joo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
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    • pp.70-70
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    • 2003
  • Estrogen receptor is a ligand-activated transcription factor. Its action depends on the receptor, its ligand, and its coactivator proteins. As a consequence, the concentration of the receptor is a major component that governs the magnitude of the estrogen response. Despite the extensive knowledge on mechanism of estrogen receptor action, regulation of estrogen receptor itself is not very well understood. Estrogen receptor is known to be downregulated under hypoxia leading to inhibition of estrogen receptor mediated transcription activation. We have studied mechanism of loss of estrogen responsiveness under hypoxia. We found that Hif-l${\alpha}$, a major transcription factor regulating hypoxic response, inhibited transcription of estrogen response element driven luciferase gene by expression of HIF-l${\alpha}$/vp16 construct designed to contain transcription activity under normoxia. This loss of estrogen responsiveness appears to be the result of ER${\alpha}$ downregulation. ER${\alpha}$was downregulated at the levels of ligand-biding and protein within l2-24h, and the response was blocked by the proteasome inhibitor MG132, protein synthesis inhibitor cyclohexamide, and tyrosine kinase inhibitor Genistein. These results demonstrate that Hif-l${\alpha}$ downregulates ER${\alpha}$ by proteasome dependent pathway.

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Role of G Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor in Cancer Progression

  • Jung, Joohee
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.209-214
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    • 2019
  • Cancer is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. In cancer progression, sex hormones and their receptors are thought to be major factors. Many studies have reported the effects of estrogen and estrogen receptors (ERs) in cancer development and progression. Among them, G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), a G protein-coupled receptor, has been identified as an estrogen membrane receptor unrelated to nuclear ER. The mechanism of GPER, including its biological action, function, and role, has been studied in various cancer types. In this review, we discuss the relation between GPER and estrogen or estrogen agonists/antagonists and cancer progression.

ESR1 and PGR Gene Promoter Methylation and Correlations with Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors in Ductal and Lobular Breast Cancer

  • Medina-Jaime, Alma Delia;Reyes-Vargas, Francianella;Martinez-Gaytan, Victoria;Zambrano-Galvan, Graciela;Portillo-DelCampo, Eduardo;Burciaga-Nava, Jorge Alberto;Reyes-Romero, Miguel;Sifuentes-Alvarez, Antonio
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.7
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    • pp.3041-3044
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    • 2014
  • The aim of this work was to analyze methylation of the promoter sites of the ESR1 and PGR genes and to determine correlations with immunohistochemical expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors in ductal and lobular breast cancers. An observational, descriptive, molecular study was conducted on 20 ductal and 20 lobular breast cancer samples with immunohistochemical determination of estrogen and progesterone receptor expression. The methylation analysis of ESR1 and PGR promoter sites was carried-out by methylation-specific PCR. For correlation analysis, Kendall's tau coefficient was determined. Positive correlations were found between estrogen and progesterone receptors, estrogen receptor and unmethylated progesterone receptor, progesterone receptor, and unmethylated progesterone receptor. Negative correlations were found between estrogen receptor and methylated progesterone receptor, progesterone receptor and methylated progesterone receptor, methylated and unmethylated estrogen receptor, and methylated and unmethylated progesterone receptor. The results suggest that methylation of promoter sites of ESR1 and PGR is a relatively uncommon event in ductal and lobular breast cancer, and also suggest that the determination of epigenetic states of ESR1 and PGR could represent an alternative or complement to the histopathological expression analysis.

Antiestrogen, Trans-Tamoxifen Modulation of Human Breast Cancer Cell Growth

  • Lee, Hyung-Ok;Sheen, Yhun-Yhong
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.572-578
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    • 1997
  • To gain further insight into how antiestrogens modulate cell function, the effects of antiestrogen on cell proliferation were studied in human breast cancer cells. We examined the effects of trans-tamoxifen on the proliferation of three human breast cancer cell lines that differed in their estrogen receptor contents. Trans-tamoxifen $(1{\mu}M)$ markedly inhibited the estrogen stimulated proliferation of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells that contained high levels of estrogen receptor $(1.15{\pm}0.03 pmole/mg protein)$ over that of control. In T47D cells that contained low levels of estrogen receptor $(0.23{\pm}0.05 pmole/mg protein)$, trans-tamoxifen $(1{\mu}M)$ showed minimal inhibition of estrogen stimulated cell proliferation over that of control. MDA-MB-231 cells, that contained no detectable levels of estrogen receptors, had their growth unaffected by trans-tamoxifen treatment. These results showed their sensitivity to growth inhibition by antiestrogen conrrelated well with their estrogen receptor content. Also we examined the effect of antiestrogen on cellular progestrone receptor level as well as plasminogen activator activity in MCF-7 cells. Trans-tamoxifen $(1{\mu}M)$ showed maximal inhibition of estrogen stimulated progestrone receptor level as well as plasminogen activator activity in MCF-7 cells that were stimulated by estrogen. It is not clear whether these inhibitions of progestrone receptor and plasminogen activator activity by estrogen are related to the antiestrogen inhibition of cell proliferation of MCF-7 cells. From the results of this study, it is clearly demonstrated that trans-tamoxifen is an antiestrogen in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Our data suggest that the biological effectiveness of trans-tamoxifen appear to result from its affinity of interaction with the estrogen receptor.

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Effect of 3-Methylcholanthrene on Rat Uterus: Uterine Growth and Mechanism of Action of 3-Methylcholanthrene

  • Sheen, Yhun-Y.;Kim, Sun-S.;Yun, Hea-C.
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.276-282
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    • 1993
  • This study has been undertaken to examine the effect of 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC) on rat uterine growth and to understand the mechanism of action of 3MC in rat uterus. After diethylstilbesterol(DES) or tamoxifen(TAM) or 3MC or DES plus TAM or DES plus 3MC was administered into immature female rats, uterine weight over corn oil-treated uteri. 3MC treatment had no effect on uterine weight but, DES stimulated uterine weight was inhibited by 3MC concomitant tratment. While TAM alone treatment showed slight increase in uterine wieght, inhibited uterine growth simulated by DES when it was adiministrated with DES condirect binding assay with $[^3H]$ estradiol and the relative binding affinities of 3MC and TAM were estimated by competetion assy. Estradiol tumed out to have high affinity for rat uterine estrogen receptor (kd = 0.4 nM). The relative binding affinities of TAM and 3MC were 1% and 4.7% that of DES for rat uterine estrogen receptor, respectively. 3MC was shown to have similar affinity for eat uterine estrogen receptor to that of TAM. Effects of DES 3MC and TAM administration in vivo on rat uterine estrogen recptor level were examined. It was confirmed that the estrogen, DES and antiestrogen, TAM decreased estrogen receptor levels from rat ulterus and also 3MC decreased rat uterine estrogen receptor level when rats were treated with DES, TAM and 3MC in vivo. Data indicates that 3MC acts as an antiestrogen mediated through estrogen receptor system.

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