• Title, Summary, Keyword: estimation

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Estimation of Genetic Parameters for Economic Traits and Profit by Milk Production of Holstein Dairy Cattle in Korea (국내 Holstein종 젖소의 경제형질과 착유량에 따른 소득의 유전모수 추정)

  • Noh, Jae-Kwang;Choi, Yun-Ho;Cho, Kwang-Hyun;Choi, Tae-Jeong;Na, Seung-Hwan;Cho, Ju-Hyun;Kim, Jin-Hyung;Shin, Ji-Sub;Do, Chang-Hee
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.54 no.4
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    • pp.275-282
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    • 2012
  • The data including milk yields, fat and protein percent for 628,395 heads collected by National Agricultural Cooperative Federation, 15 type traits and final score for 62,262 heads collected by Korea Animal Improvement Association, which were born in 1998 to 2004, and net profits calculated from milk price and raising expenses of individuals were used to estimate genetic parameters. The highest positive genetic correlation, 0.81, was shown between body depth (BD) and loin strength (SR). Genetic correlations between body depth (BD) and udder depth (UD), front teat placement (TP) and front teat length (TL) were -0.23, which were lowest among the linear type traits. Furthermore, medium level of negative genetic correlations were shown the milk yield with milk contents rate traits. Mostly low level of positive genetic correlations were shown between the milk traits and linear score traits except milk yield and stature. Most of the genetic correlations of between the linear score traits and net profit were low level of positive or negative genetic correlations. Among the genetic correlations, body depth (BD), angularity (DF) and rear attachment width (UW), and final score (FS) with net profit were high as 0.17, 0.17, 0.18 and 0.18, respectively. Finally all of the genetic correlations between net profit and milk traits were positive and higher than the linear traits with positive genetic correlations. The results of this study suggest that net profit has been related with the linear traits, such as body depth (BD), angularity (DF) and rear attachment width (UW) traits, and furthermore, milk traits including yield and contents rates influence positively and greatly on net profit.

Estimation of Rice and Soybean Growth Stage Using a Microwave Scatterometer (마이크로파 산란계를 이용한 벼, 콩 생육단계 추정)

  • Kim, Yi-Hyun;Hong, Suk-Young;Lee, Hoon-Yol;Lee, Jae-Eun;Lee, Kyung-Do
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.503-510
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    • 2012
  • Microwave radar can penetrate cloud cover regardless of weather conditions and can be used day and night. Especially a A ground-based polarimetric scatterometer operating at multiple frequencies can continuously monitor the crop conditions. We analyzed scattering characteristics of rice and soybean using pauli decomposition method. Surface scattering (${\alpha}$) is the dominant component over the entire stages for all bands and pauli decomposition value was the highest for L-band. Double bounce scattering (${\beta}$) and volume scattering (${\gamma}$) were approximately equal for C-band and volume scattering was higher than double bounce scattering for X-band in rice field. In soybean, double bounce scattering becomes higher than volume scattering during the R2 stage (DOY 224) and there was a significant difference between the two components after the R4 stage (DOY 242) for L-band. The maximum growth stage of soybean can also be detected using L-band double bounce scattering. The peak of double bounce effect coincides with the peak of growth biophysical variables on DOY 271. We found that pauli decomposition can provide insight on the relative magnitude of different scattering mechanisms during the rice and soybean growth cycle.

Development of Traffic Volume Estimation System in Main and Branch Roads to Estimate Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Road Transportation Category (도로수송부문 온실가스 배출량 산정을 위한 간선 및 지선도로상의 교통량 추정시스템 개발)

  • Kim, Ki-Dong;Lee, Tae-Jung;Jung, Won-Seok;Kim, Dong-Sool
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.233-248
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    • 2012
  • The national emission from energy sector accounted for 84.7% of all domestic emissions in 2007. Of the energy-use emissions, the emission from mobile source as one of key categories accounted for 19.4% and further the road transport emission occupied the most dominant portion in the category. The road transport emissions can be estimated on the basis of either the fuel consumed (Tier 1) or the distance travelled by the vehicle types and road types (higher Tiers). The latter approach must be suitable for simultaneously estimating $CO_2$, $CH_4$, and $N_2O$ emissions in local administrative districts. The objective of this study was to estimate 31 municipal GHG emissions from road transportation in Gyeonggi Province, Korea. In 2008, the municipalities were consisted of 2,014 towns expressed as Dong and Ri, the smallest administrative district unit. Since mobile sources are moving across other city and province borders, the emission estimated by fuel sold is in fact impossible to ensure consistency between neighbouring cities and provinces. On the other hand, the emission estimated by distance travelled is also impossible to acquire key activity data such as traffic volume, vehicle type and model, and road type in small towns. To solve the problem, we applied a hierarchical cluster analysis to separate town-by-town road patterns (clusters) based on a priori activity information including traffic volume, population, area, and branch road length obtained from small 151 towns. After identifying 10 road patterns, a rule building expert system was developed by visual basic application (VBA) to assort various unknown road patterns into one of 10 known patterns. The expert system was self-verified with original reference information and then objects in each homogeneous pattern were used to regress traffic volume based on the variables of population, area, and branch road length. The program was then applied to assign all the unknown towns into a known pattern and to automatically estimate traffic volumes by regression equations for each town. Further VKT (vehicle kilometer travelled) for each vehicle type in each town was calculated to be mapped by GIS (geological information system) and road transport emission on the corresponding road section was estimated by multiplying emission factors for each vehicle type. Finally all emissions from local branch roads in Gyeonggi Province could be estimated by summing up emissions from 1,902 towns where road information was registered. As a result of the study, the GHG average emission rate by the branch road transport was 6,101 kilotons of $CO_2$ equivalent per year (kt-$CO_2$ Eq/yr) and the total emissions from both main and branch roads was 24,152 kt-$CO_2$ Eq/yr in Gyeonggi Province. The ratio of branch roads emission to the total was 0.28 in 2008.

Estimation of Soil Moisture Content from Backscattering Coefficients Using a Radar Scatterometer (레이더 산란계 후방산란계수를 이용한 토양수분함량 추정)

  • Kim, Yi-Hyun;Hong, Suk-Young;Lee, Jae-Eun
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.127-134
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    • 2012
  • Microwave remote sensing can help monitor the land surface water cycle, crop growth and soil moisture. A ground-based polarimetric scatterometer has an advantage for continuous crop using multi-polarization and multi-frequencies and various incident angles have been used extensively in a frequency range expanding from L-band to Ka-band. In this study, we analyzed the relationships between L-, C- and X-band signatures and soil moisture content over the whole soybean growth period. Polarimetric backscatter data at L-, C- and X-bands were acquired every 10 minutes. L-band backscattering coefficients were higher than those observed using C- or X-band over the period. Backscattering coefficients for all frequencies and polarizations increased until Day Of Year (DOY) 271 and then decreased until harvesting stage (DOY 294). Time serious of soil moisture content was not a corresponding with backscattering over the whole growth stage, although it increased relatively until early August (R2, DOY 224). We conducted the relationship between the backscattering coefficients of each band and soil moisture content. Backscattering coefficients for all frequencies were not correlated with soil moisture content when considered over the entire stage ($r{\leq}0.50$). However, we found that L-band HH polarization was correlated with soil moisture content (r=0.90) when Leaf Area Index (LAI)<2. Retrieval equations were developed for estimating soil moisture content using L-band HH polarization. Relation between L-HH and soil moisture shows exponential pattern and highly related with soil moisture content ($R^2=0.92$). Results from this study show that backscattering coefficients of radar scatterometer appear effective to estimate soil moisture content.

The Estimation of Gross Primary Productivity over North Korea Using MODIS FPAR and WRF Meteorological Data (MODIS 광합성유효복사흡수율과 WRF 기상자료를 이용한 북한지역의 총일차생산성 추정)

  • Do, Na-Young;Kang, Sin-Kyu;Myeong, Soo-Jeong;Chun, Tae-Hun;Lee, Ji-Hye;Lee, Chong-Bum
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.215-226
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    • 2012
  • NASA MODIS GPP provides a useful tool to monitor global terrestrial vegetation productivity. Two major problems of NASA GPP in regional applications are coarse spatial resolution ($1.25^{\circ}{\times}1^{\circ}$) of DAO meteorological data and cloud contamination of MODIS FPAR product. In this study, we improved the NASA GPP by using enhanced input data of high spatial resolution (3 km${\times}$3 km) WRF meteorological data and cloud-corrected FPAR over the North Korea. The improved GPP was utilized to investigate characteristics of GPP interannual variation and spatial patterns from 2000 to 2008. The GPP varied from 645 to 863 $gC\;m^{-2}\;y^{-1}$ in 2000 and 2008, respectively. Mixed forest showed the highest GPP (1,076 $gC\;m^{-2}\;y^{-1}$). Compared to NASA GPP (790 $gC\;m^{-2}\;y^{-1}$);FPAR enhancement increased GPP (861) but utilization of WRF data decreased GPP (710). Enhancements of both FPAR and meteorological input resulted in GPP increase (809) and the improvement was the greatest for mixed forest regions (+10.2%). The improved GPP showed better spatial heterogeneity reflecting local topography due to high resolution WRF data. It is remarkable that the improved and NASA GPPs showed distinctly different interannual variations with each other. Our study indicates improvement of NASA GPP by enhancing input variables is necessary to monitor region-scale terrestrial vegetation productivity.

Barium Compounds through Monte Carlo Simulations Compare the Performance of Medical Radiation Shielding Analysis (몬테카를로 시뮬레이션을 통한 바륨화합물의 의료방사선 차폐능 비교 분석)

  • Kim, Seonchil;Kim, Kyotae;Park, Jikoon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.7 no.6
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    • pp.403-408
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    • 2013
  • This study made a tentative estimation of the shielding rate of barium compound by thickness through monte carlo simulation to apply medical radiation shielding products that can replace existing lead. Barium sulfate($BaSO_4$) was used for the shielding material, and thickness of the shielding material specimen was simulated from 0.1 mm to 5 mm by applying $15{\times}15cm^2$ of specimen area, $4.5g/cm^3$ of density of barium sulfate, and $11.34g/cm^3$ density of lead. Entered source was simulated with 10kVp Step in consecutive X-ray energy spectrum(40 kVp ~ 120 kVp). Absorption probability in 40 kVp ~ 60 kVp showed same shielding rate with lead in 3 mm ~ 5 mm of thickness, but it was identified that under 2 mm, the shielding rate was a bit lower than the existing lead shielding material. Also, the shielding rate in 70 kVp ~ 120 kVp energy band showed similar performance as the existing lead shielding material, but it was tentatively estimated as fairly low shielding rate below 0.5 mm. This study estimated the shielding rate of barium compound as the thickness function of x-ray energy band for medical radiation through monte carlo simulation, and made comparative analysis with existing lead. Also, this study intended to verify application validity of the x-ray shielding material for medical radiation of pure barium sulfate. As a result, it was estimated that the shielding effect was 95% higher than the existing lead 1.5 mm in at least 2 mm thickness of barium compound in medical radiation energy band 70 kVp ~ 120 kVp, and this result is considered valid to be provided as a base data in weight lightening production of radiation shielding product for medical radiation.

Estimation of Family Variation and Genetic Parameter for Growth Traits of Pacific Abalone, Haliotis discus hannai on the 3th Generation of Selection (선발 3세대 북방전복의 성장형질에 대한 가계변이 및 유전모수 추정)

  • Park, Jong-Won;Park, Choul-Ji;Lee, Jeong-Ho;Noh, Jae-Koo;Kim, Hyun-Chul;Hwang, In-Joon;Kim, Sung-Yeon
    • The Korean Journal of Malacology
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.325-334
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this paper is to compare and analyze family variations for growth-related traits of Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai. Genetic parameters and breeding values were estimated using all measurement data like shell length, shell width, and total weight as 18-month-old growth traits of 5,334 individuals of selected third generation's Pacific abalone produced in 2011. Family variations of 865 individuals of the upper 10 families with the largest number were inspected. Overall mean in phenotypic traits of 18-month-old Pacific abalone which was investigated in this study showed 54.5 mm of shell length, 36.8 mm of shell width and 21.3 g of total weight respectively. And, variation coefficient of total weight was 51.0%, so variability of data was shown to be higher than 21.1% of shell length and 20.7% of shell width. The family effects showed significant difference by each family (p < 0.05), and heritability of shell length, shell width, and total weight was medium with 0.370, 0.382, and 0.367 respectively. So it is considered that family selection is more advantageous than individual selection. On the basis of breeding values of estimated shell length and total weight, to investigate distribution and ranking by each individual about the upper 10 families with the largest number of individuals, the values were used by being changed into standardized breeding values. Based on shell length, it was investigated that the individual number of the upper 5.4% is 152 and the number of the lower 5.4% is 8. In case of total weight, it was inspected that the individual number of the upper 5.4% is 164 and the number of the lower 5.4% is 1. Like these, phenotypic and genetic diverse variations between families could be checked. By estimating genetic parameters and breeding values of a population for production of the next generation, if they are used properly in selection and mating, it is considered that more breeding effects can be expected.

Vulnerability Assessment of Cultivation Facility by Abnormal Weather of Climate Change (이상기후에 의한 재배시설의 취약성 평가)

  • Yoon, Seong-Tak;Lee, Yong-Ho;Hong, Sun-Hee;Kim, Myung-Hyun;Kang, Kee-Kyung;Na, Young-Eun;Oh, Young-Ju
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.264-272
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    • 2013
  • Climate changes have caused not only changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme climate events, but also temperature and precipitation. The damages on agricultural production system will be increased by heavy rainfall and snow. In this study we assessed vulnerability of crop cultivation facility and animal husbandry facility by heavy rain in 232 agricultural districts. The climate data of 2000 years were used for vulnerability analysis on present status and the data derived from A1B scenario were used for the assessment in the years of 2020, 2050 and 2100, respectively. Vulnerability of local districts was evaluated by three indices such as climate exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity, and each index was determined from selected alternative variables. Collected data were normalized and then multiplied by weight value that was elicited in delphi investigation. Jeonla-do and Gangwon-do showed higher climate exposures than the other provinces. The higher sensitivity to abnormal weather was observed from the regions that have large-scale cultivation facility complex compared to the other regions and vulnerability to abnormal weather also was higher at these provinces. In the projected estimation based on the SRES A1B, the vulnerability of controlled agricultural facility in Korea totally increased, especially was dramatic between 2000's and 2020 year.

Evaluation of Clinical Availability for Shoulder Forced Traction Method to Minimize the Beam Hardening Artifact in Cervical-spine Computed Tomography (CT) (경추부 전산화단층촬영에서 선속 경화 인공물을 최소화하기 위한 견부 강제 견인법에 대한 임상적 유용성 평가)

  • Kim, Moonjeung;Cho, Wonjin;Kang, Suyeon;Lee, Wonseok;Park, Jinwoo;Yu, Yunsik;Im, Inchul;Lee, Jaeseung;Kim, Hyeonjin;Kwak, Byungjoon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.37-44
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    • 2013
  • In study suggested clinical availability to shoulder forced traction method in term of quality of image, the patient's convenience and stability, according to whether to use of shoulder forced traction bend using computed tomography(CT) that X-ray calibration and various mathematic calibration algorithm application can be applied by AEC. To achieve this, 79 patients is complaining of cervical pain oriented that shoulder forced traction bend use the before and after acquires lateral projection scout image and transverse image. transverse image of a fixed size in concern field of pixel and figure the average HU value compare that quantitative analysis. Artifact and pixel and resolution to qualitative clinical estimation image analysis. the patient feel inconvenience degree that self-diagnosis survey that estimate. As a result, lateral projection scout image if you used shoulder forced traction bend for the depicted has been an increase in the number of a cervical vertebrae. transverse image concern field shoulder forced traction bend use the before and after for pixel and the average HU-value changes was judged to be almost irrelevant. Artifact and resolution and contrast, in qualitative analysis of the results relating the observer to the unusual result. So, the patients of 82.27% complained discomfort that use of shoulder forced traction bend in self-diagnosis survey. No merit of medical image by using of bend from result was analyzed quality of image to quantitative and qualitative method judged. Nowadays, CT is supplied possible revision of quality of radiation by reduction of slice and automatic exposure controller, etc and application of preconditioning filter process due to various mathematic revision algorithm. So, image noise by beam hardening artifact should not be a problem. shoulder forced traction bend of use no longer judged clinically availability because have not influence of image quality and give discomfort, have extra dangerousness.

Estimation on the Consumption Patterns of Potentially Hazardous Foods with High Consumer Risk Perception (식중독 위험성 인식이 높은 잠재적 위해식품 섭취실태조사)

  • Park, Hee Jin;Min, Kyung Jin;Park, Na Yoon;Cho, Joon Il;Lee, Soon Ho;Hwang, In Gyun;Heo, Jin Jae;Yoon, Ki Sun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.59-69
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    • 2013
  • This study investigated the frequency, amount and consumption patterns of 50 potentially hazardous foods (PHF) along with consumers' risk perceptions towards PHF in Korea. A quantitative survey was performed from May through August by trained interviewers, surveying 1,000 adults aged over 18 who were randomly selected from six major provinces in Korea. Consumers perceived seafood, including shellfish, mussel, sashimi and sushi, as the top foods with the highest risk, followed by raw sliced beef. The food with the highest frequency intake per month was leafy vegetables, which is used to wrap other foods, followed by blanched vegetables, fried chicken, etc. The group of middle aged individuals with economic stability had the highest frequency intake of sashimi and sushi. Respondents living in small regions consume greater PHF portions at once. Food safety education with regard to the risk of PHF is essential for consumers, with high frequent intake of PHF.